Dyslexia Research
Dyslexia research, brain science, and critique
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Dyslexia Sex Differences: Female Brains Are Wired Differently

Dyslexia Sex Differences: Female Brains Are Wired Differently | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it
Previous neural models of dyslexia have focused heavily on male neuroanatomy, but a new study of the reading disability finds that the brains of dyslexic women are wired differently.
Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's insight:

Brain studies show gender-related differences in dyslexia for men and women (this is not a surprise if you test children!). 

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How Dyslexic Brains Read

How Dyslexic Brains Read | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

The cortical signatures of dyslexia brains - remediation compensates rather than 'corrects'.

Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's insight:

Recent research from NY supports the theory that dyslexic brains are different and even when they are able to read, they processing reading in different ways. This research matches our observation that well compensated readers often use visual strategies more than phonetic (memorizing words, word shape, and then filling-in by context). 


Many adult dyslexic readers require saying words in order to comprehend, however, so are not completely visual readers.


This research also points out the significance of attention pathways in dyslexia too.


"A key question in the dyslexia literature is the extent to which intervention efforts “cure” the underlying deficit or invoke alternative, compensatory processing strategies capable of overcoming innate deficiencies [23][91][94]. Our findings suggest the latter with respect to the iFC between the left fusiform gyrus (L.FFG) and regions in the right hemisphere outside the known reading network."


Also...


" Reduced intrinsic functional connectivity within the dorsal attention network is associated with a history of dyslexia, calling for further focus on the role of attention in dyslexia and on targeted interventions, whereas the left fusiform gyrus in the ventral visual pathway appears to be a hub for compensatory mechanisms in dyslexia remediation. Intrinsic functional connectivity approaches appear to provide a firm basis for investigating the cortical correlates of dyslexia, for monitoring dynamic changes associated with behavioral remediation in individuals with dyslexia, and eventually for evaluating the effectiveness of dyslexia remediation."

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Sheri Smith's comment, May 9, 2013 4:59 PM
I'm so glad you posted this as it is exactly what we have found with my dyslexic daughter and her autistic cousin. They appear to be mirror images of each other: she has trouble reading words but her comprehension is amazing if something is read to her (he can read anything but has trouble understanding it); she uses her fingers for math facts (he can do large calculations in his head); she is very intuitive to other's feelings (he has trouble reading other people's emotions); she has great abstract thinking ( he does not); she has trouble with time sequence (he keeps track of times and dates like there's a working calendar in his head). The funny thing is they complement each other so much that they just love each other. It's like one fills in the gaps for the other. It's a good thing!
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Working Memory Challenges in Dyslexia - Not Dependent on Phonology

Working Memory Challenges in Dyslexia - Not Dependent on Phonology | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

Dyslexia is more than phonology. This research study provides more evidence that working memory challenges seen in people with dyslexia are not dependent on phonological issues. The study was performed in compensated and non-compensated adults with dyslexia. Study subjects were chosen from university-attending dyslexic students.

It's important that the research and scientific community identify what challenges persist and what challenges have been overcome when planning programs, classrooms, and workplaces for people with dyslexia. 

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Neurobiology of Learning Disorders

Latest research into learning disorders as presented by us at the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists in San Francisco. Students with Ld comprise over half of the clinic visits to outpatient child psychiatry clinics, although many are unrecognized. This presentation summarizes the prevalence of LDs, co-existence of depression and anxiety, and some of the latest brain research which show the complexity of dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and ADD / ADHD. Unresolved issues in the neurobiology of LD are also discussed. Individual factors such as the effects of high IQ on ADHD and dyslexia are also mentioned.

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Visual Overload and Visual Crowding - Dyslexia

Visual Overload and Visual Crowding - Dyslexia | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

Visual crowding is a common challenge with dyslexia - certain fonts, crowded pages, and test booklets can be difficult to read. Studies in dyslexics have shown that visual crowding significant contributes to dyslexic readers' slowness in word reading

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Michael Walter's comment, January 26, 2013 11:34 AM
I've had issues with this in many situations. It has been especially evident in reading very active lines of music. The notes all seem to crowd together. This is great information to know!
Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's comment, May 20, 2013 2:48 PM
Thanks for posting Michael. Yes we've spoken to professional musicians who play by ear and don't read music.
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Training the Brain to Hear (Phonological Awareness) in Childhood Dyslexia

Training the Brain to Hear (Phonological Awareness) in Childhood Dyslexia | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

Now a classic study showing how auditory training helps the brain to hear similar sounds like rhyming words.

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DyslexicIT's curator insight, April 9, 2013 3:25 AM

Interesting I agree with  the idea of auditory training and I have worked on these skills with my students and this has increased their ability to address there difficulties through use of audio.

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Dyslexia and Memory

Dyslexia and Memory | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it
A recent study from Norway shows what people with dyslexia have known a long time...that working memory is affected in dyslexia.
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Carolyn D Cowen's curator insight, September 30, 2013 7:48 PM

Thanks, Steve, for sharing this. ;-)

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Understanding Research: Video Games and Reading

Understanding Research: Video Games and Reading | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

“Action video games enhance many aspects of visual attention, mainly improving the extraction of information from the environment,” said Andrea Facoetti, Ph.D., of the University of Padua and the Scientific Institute Medea of Bosisio Parini in Italy.


“Dyslexic children learned to orient and focus their attention more efficiently to extract the relevant information of a written word more rapidly.”

Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's insight:

Andrea Facoetti and his research team have new findings that training young children with action-based video games improves visual search skills that helps them acquire reading.

Research such as this is welcome because it maps out the different components necessary for efficient reading, but the scientists are careful to clarify that their findings do not mean to imply that visual training is sufficient to account for early reading skills.


"Our findings are consistent with a multifactorial hypothesis of dyslexia which suggests that no only auditory-phonological deficits  but als visual spatial attention are causally implicated in dyslexia."


Read Psych Central's article here:http://psychcentral.com/news/2013/03/01/some-video-games-can-help-dyslexics-read-better/52090.html

Find Full research article here:http://decone.psy.unipd.it/De.Co.Ne_LAB_Unipd/A._Facoetti.html

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Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's curator insight, March 3, 2013 1:13 PM

Andrea Facoetti and his research team have new findings that training young children with action-based video games improves visual search skills that helps them acquire reading.

Research such as this is welcome because it maps out the different components necessary for efficient reading, but the scientists are careful to clarify that their findings do not mean to imply that visual training is sufficient to account for early reading skills.


"Prereading syllabic blending and nonalphabetic cross-modal mapping in kindergarten predicted future reading skills in grade 1 and 2 even if chronological age and nonverbal IQ were controlled for. These results agree with the typically observed speech-sound processing and nonalphabetic cross-modal mapping disorers shown in prereaders who will develop dyslexia...


Our findings are consistent with a multifactorial hypothesis of dyslexia which suggests that no only auditory-phonological deficits  but als visual spatial attention are causally implicated in dyslexia."

Read Psych Central's article here: http://psychcentral.com/news/2013/03/01/some-video-games-can-help-dyslexics-read-better/52090.html

Find Full research article here: http://decone.psy.unipd.it/De.Co.Ne_LAB_Unipd/A._Facoetti.html


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Better Spatial Learning Among Dyslexics

Better Spatial Learning Among Dyslexics | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

Visual Scientist Matthew Schneps of the Smithsonian finds 'dyslexic advantage' reading visual scenes.

Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's insight:

Dr. Matthew Schneps, director of the Lab for Visual Learning at the Smithsonian has found a heightened ability to read visual scenes among severe life-long dyslexics vs. typical readers.


Excerpt: "These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school."


Understanding common strength patterns among dyslexics will optimize education and utilize more of dyslexics' strengths in careers and the workplace.  Kudos Dr. Schneps!  Dr. Schneps will be attending our Spring conference on dyslexia and talent.

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Drs Fernette and Brock Eide at DyslexicAdvantage.com's curator insight, February 15, 2013 3:56 PM

Dr. Matthew Schneps, director of the Lab for Visual Learning at the Smithsonian has found a heightened ability to read visual scenes among severe life-long dyslexics vs. typical readers.


Excerpt: "These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school."


Understanding common strength patterns among dyslexics will optimize education and utilize more of dyslexics' strengths in careers and the workplace.  Kudos Dr. Schneps!  Dr. Schneps will be attending our Spring conference on dyslexia and talent.


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Dyslexia and Autism are Opposites - Implications for Creativity, Late-Blooming / Precocity, and Savant Abilities

Dyslexia and Autism are Opposites - Implications for Creativity, Late-Blooming / Precocity, and Savant Abilities | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

Excerpt: "Structural studies from Michael Casanova and colleagues showed that the brains of dyslexic and autistic subjects had opposite findings. Microcolumns are repeating groups of neurons that share a common dendritic bundle. The microcolumnar hypothesis is the idea that the microcolumn is the basic unit in the cortex, not individual neurons.


"Dyslexia and autism are on opposite tails of the normal distribution of the width of minicolumns...Autistic individuals have increased number of smaller minicolumns and dyslexic children have decreased number of larger minicolumns..." When the depth of gyral depths were measured of dyslexics compared to controls, "mean gyral white matter depth was 3.05 mm (SD ± 0.30 mm) in dyslexic subjects and 1.63 mm (SD ± 0.15 mm) in the controls." Researchers speculated that longer connectivity in the brains of dyslexics could account for "a greater capacity for abstract, 'visionary' thinking", but also slower development (late blooming?) including a slower development of reading. Its information like this that should reinforce the idea that dyslexic children should have a differentiated educational program (fewer inappropriate demands at early ages) - and recognition of high creative potential and capacity for abstraction...."


Read more. 

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ALDA's curator insight, January 24, 2013 11:56 PM

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Background Noise Problems in Dyslexia

Background Noise Problems in Dyslexia | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

As a group, children and adults with dyslexia are more likely to report background noise problems, or listening in groups or rooms that have competing sounds, noises, and voices. 

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The Increased Work of Dyslexia

The Increased Work of Dyslexia | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it

It is harder for you to read - In this study, dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers were matched for reading performance - dyslexic readers showed much more brain activation for the task than their non-dyslexic partners.

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Big Picture Thinking - Part of the Dyslexic Advantage?

Big Picture Thinking - Part of the Dyslexic Advantage? | Dyslexia Research | Scoop.it
What is 'big picture' thinking? Business consultant Andrew Sobel described it as:

1. Having a simple framework
2. Using analogies and metaphors
3. Developing multiple perspectives
4. Looking for patterns and commonalities

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