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Using planarian flatworms to understand organ regeneration

Using planarian flatworms to understand organ regeneration | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

In a new study published in the October 16 issue of Developmental Cell, corresponding author Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Phillip Newmark and colleagues report the identification of genes that control growth and regeneration of the intestine in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

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DNA & RNA Research
The latest news and information about DNA- and RNA-related research
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DNA Day: Celebrating the Impact of Our Genomics Research on Society and Looking Toward the Future

DNA Day: Celebrating the Impact of Our Genomics Research on Society and Looking Toward the Future | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

What will be the impact of genomics on our science and society in another 38 years from now, the 100th year anniversary of Crick and Watson’s discovery? Read the winning entries of our 2015 DNA Day essay contest that asked researchers to describe their predictions for the impact of genomics in 2053.

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Landmark international research effort reveals how deadly ovarian cancer outsmarts chemotherapy

Landmark international research effort reveals how deadly ovarian cancer outsmarts chemotherapy | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

The largest complete DNA analysis of ovarian cancer in the world, published overnight in Nature, has revealed unprecedented new insight into the genetic twists and turns a deadly form of the disease takes to outsmart chemotherapy, potentially changing treatment approaches for women around the world.

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Engineered bacteria detect cancer and diabetes in urine

Engineered bacteria detect cancer and diabetes in urine | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Two types of microbes can flag millimeter-sized tumors or high levels of glucose

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ClinGen setting standards for when genes and their variants matter in disease

ClinGen setting standards for when genes and their variants matter in disease | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

As a growing number of medical centers and laboratories are sequencing patients' DNA, they continue to uncover millions of DNA differences in genes and the regions between the genes. But doctors have struggled to know which of these inherited differences - variants - really matter. For the vast majority of the more than 80 million variants discovered to date, researchers know little about their roles in health and disease. Clinicians and researchers hope to use information about genomic variants to evaluate individual disease risk, make better diagnoses, develop more appropriate disease surveillance strategies, and provide better, tailored treatments for patients.

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Unravelling the mystery of the most common genetic cause of motor neuron disease

Unravelling the mystery of the most common genetic cause of motor neuron disease | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Researchers from the Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN) have shed light on how mutations in a high risk gene specifically affect motor neurons.

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Self-replicating nanostructures made from DNA

Self-replicating nanostructures made from DNA | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Is it possible to engineer self-replicating nanomaterials? It could be if we borrow nature's building blocks. DNA is a self-replicating molecule where its component parts, nucleotides, have specific chemical interactions that allow for the design of self-assembled structures. In biological systems, DNA replicates with the aid of proteins. However, Junghoon Kim, Junwye Lee, Shogo Hamada, Satoshi Murata, and Sung Ha Park of Sungkyunkwan University and Tohoku University have designed a controllable self-replicating system that does not require proteins. Their work appears in Nature Nanotechnology.

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Nearly Indestructible Virus Yields Tool to Battle Diseases

Nearly Indestructible Virus Yields Tool to Battle Diseases | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

By unlocking the secrets of a bizarre virus that survives in nearly boiling acid, scientists at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have found a blueprint for battling human disease using DNA clad in near-indestructible armor.

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Tumor surroundings are shown to affect progression of different cancer subtypes

Tumor surroundings are shown to affect progression of different cancer subtypes | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Treatments may need to be tailored not just to specific cancer types but also to factors distinguishing the environments in which they develop

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Silence is golden

Silence is golden | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

An LMU team has uncovered a new role for the protein Atrx, which is involved in various aspects of gene expression. The new work shows that the protein is also involved in silencing endogenous retroviral genomes integrated in cellular DNA.

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Expanding the code of life with new ‘letters’

Expanding the code of life with new ‘letters’ | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

The DNA encoding all life on Earth is made of four building blocks called nucleotides, commonly known as “letters,” that line up in pairs and twist into a double helix. Now, two groups of scientists are reporting for the first time that two new nucleotides can do the same thing — raising the possibility that entirely new proteins could be created for medical uses. Their two studies appear in ACS’Journal of the American Chemical Society.

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Pitt Team IDs Two New and Very Large Classes of RNAs Linked to an Important Cancer Biomarker

Pitt Team IDs Two New and Very Large Classes of RNAs Linked to an Important Cancer Biomarker | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have identified two new classes of RNAs that are closely associated with a protein known to be a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer and could play a role in progression of prostate cancer. Their findings were published in the June issue of the scientific journal RNA.

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‘Pain sensing’ gene discovery could help in development of new methods of pain relief

‘Pain sensing’ gene discovery could help in development of new methods of pain relief | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

A gene essential to the production of pain-sensing neurons in humans has been identified by an international team of researchers co-led by the University of Cambridge. The discovery, reported today in the journal Nature Genetics, could have implications for the development of new methods of pain relief.

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DNA mutations get harder to hide

DNA mutations get harder to hide | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Rice bioengineers develop a powerful approach to find rare DNA mutations called single-nucleotide variations. The researchers' work could speed the development of personalized medicine.

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World first as viral immunotherapy for skin cancer shows patient benefit in Phase III trial

World first as viral immunotherapy for skin cancer shows patient benefit in Phase III trial | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

A genetically engineered herpes virus can halt the progression of skin cancer by killing cancer cells and sparking the immune system into action against tumours, a landmark clinical trial has shown.

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Researchers find “lost” memories

Researchers find “lost” memories | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Scientists use optogenetics to reactivate memories that could not otherwise be retrieved.

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To Make Lobster Fisheries More Sustainable, Scientists Attempt to Decode Crustacean DNA

To Make Lobster Fisheries More Sustainable, Scientists Attempt to Decode Crustacean DNA | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

As the battle escalates to combat illegal fishing, Smithsonian scientists offer up a possible genetic tool

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Stress triggers key molecule to halt transcription of cell’s genetic code

Stress triggers key molecule to halt transcription of cell’s genetic code | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

If DNA is the cookbook of life, then RNA is the scratch paper where the cell writes down its favorite recipes. These recipes could make the pigments of your skin, the vehicles that carry oxygen through your veins, or the signaling molecules that keep cancer in check. Sometimes, when the cell’s transcription machinery copies these recipes, it stutters or stalls, either because it gets off task or it comes across a problem with the cookbook. Then, the cell has to decide whether to keep going or give up on the recipe.

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Ancient DNA May Provide Clues into How Past Environments Affected Ancient Populations

Ancient DNA May Provide Clues into How Past Environments Affected Ancient Populations | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

A new study by anthropologists from The University of Texas at Austin shows for the first time that epigenetic marks on DNA can be detected in a large number of ancient human remains, which may lead to further understanding about the effects of famine and disease in the ancient world.

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Technique decodes gene sequence and activity in single cells

Technique decodes gene sequence and activity in single cells | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

A new method simultaneously reveals a single cell’s DNA sequence and which of its genes are turned on. The technique, described 27 April in Nature Methods, may help researchers create a more accurate and detailed picture of how mutations in autism candidates perturb cell function.

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How DNA is helping us fight back against pest invasions

How DNA is helping us fight back against pest invasions | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Genetic techniques are helping scientists work out how to stop invasive species before they rack up huge environmental and financial costs.

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Looking Under the Hood of Aggressive Leukemia

Looking Under the Hood of Aggressive Leukemia | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

A new study shows how different gene mutations make leukemia more aggressive and yields clues about possible treatments.

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From worker to queen at the drop of a gene

From worker to queen at the drop of a gene | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Biologists from the University of Leicester have discovered that one of nature’s most important pollinators - the buff-tailed bumblebee – either ascends to the status of queen or remains a lowly worker bee based on which genes are ‘turned on’ during its lifespan.

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A scientific breakthrough helps explain how DNA is organized in our cells

A scientific breakthrough helps explain how DNA is organized in our cells | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

A team of researchers at the IRCM led by François Robert, PhD, uncovered a critical role for two proteins in chromatin structure. Their breakthrough, recently published in the scientific journal Molecular Cell, helps explain how DNA is organized in our cells. This discovery could lead to a better understanding of what causes certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma.

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DNA Double Helix Does Double Duty in Assembling Arrays of Nanoparticles

DNA Double Helix Does Double Duty in Assembling Arrays of Nanoparticles | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Synthetic pieces of biological molecule form framework and glue for making nanoparticle clusters and arrays.

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Nuclear Pores: The Cell’s DNA Repair Shop

Nuclear Pores: The Cell’s DNA Repair Shop | DNA & RNA Research | Scoop.it

Few areas of molecular biology are as well studied as DNA replication and repair, but like many subjects, the more we learn, the more questions arise. Previous studies demonstrated that some types of catastrophic double-stranded breaks (DSBs) move to the nuclear periphery, but Xiaofeng Su and Catherine Freudenreich of Tufts University and Vincent Dion and Susan Gasser of the Friedrich Miescher Institute wondered how the cell deals with more common obstacles to DNA replication, such as secondary structures or proteins that block the replication fork. And where exactly does DNA repair happen in these cases?

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