DNA site-specific...
Follow
Find
364 views | +1 today
DNA site-specific recombination - Recombinase, Integrase, Transposase
I'll try to cover the news about these awesome enzymes!
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

A Targetron System for Gene Targeting in Thermophil... [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

BACKGROUND:

Targetrons are gene targeting vectors derived from mobile group II introns. They consist of an autocatalytic intron RNA (a "ribozyme") and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase, which use their combined activities to achieve highly efficient site-specific DNA integration with readily programmable DNA target specificity.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

Here, we used a mobile group II intron from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus to construct a thermotargetron for gene targeting in thermophiles. After determining its DNA targeting rules by intron mobility assays in Escherichia coli at elevated temperatures, we used this thermotargetron in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophile employed in biofuels production, to disrupt six different chromosomal genes (cipA, hfat, hyd, ldh, pta, and pyrF). High integration efficiencies (67-100% without selection) were achieved, enabling detection of disruptants by colony PCR screening of a small number of transformants. Because the thermotargetron functions at high temperatures that promote DNA melting, it can recognize DNA target sequences almost entirely by base pairing of the intron RNA with less contribution from the intron-encoded protein than for mesophilic targetrons. This feature increases the number of potential targetron-insertion sites, while only moderately decreasing DNA target specificity. Phenotypic analysis showed that thermotargetron disruption of the genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh; Clo1313_1160) and phosphotransacetylase (pta; Clo1313_1185) increased ethanol production in C. thermocellum by decreasing carbon flux toward lactate and acetate.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:

Thermotargetron provides a new, rapid method for gene targeting and genetic engineering of C. thermocellum, an industrially important microbe, and should be readily adaptable for gene targeting in other thermophiles.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Improved tools for the Brainbow toolbox

In the transgenic multicolor labeling strategy called ‘Brainbow’, Cre-loxP recombination is used to create a stochastic choice of expression among fluorescent proteins, resulting in the indelible marking of mouse neurons with multiple distinct colors. This method has been adapted to non-neuronal cells in mice and to neurons in fish and flies, but its full potential has yet to be realized in the mouse brain. Here we present several lines of mice that overcome limitations of the initial lines, and we report an adaptation of the method for use in adeno-associated viral vectors. We also provide technical advice about how best to image Brainbow-expressing tissue.

   
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Fast identification of reliable hosts for targeted cell line development from a limited-genome screening using combined φC31 integrase and CRE-Lox technologies

The use of targeted integration (TI) in cell line development (CLD) usually introduces one copy of a recombinant gene into a predetermined transcriptionally active locus. This reduces the heterogeneity typically associated with traditional random integration (RI) CLD with regards to varied productivity and instability, resulting from diverse chromosomal influences, varied copy numbers, and repeat-induced rearrangement. As such, TI CLD offers the hope of a predictable and consistent CLD process for establishing stable clones. However, given the low copy number, cell lines established from a TI CLD process tend to exhibit low productivity. Here, we describe our non-viral based approach for quickly establishing and identifying TI hosts from a limited-genome screening. Importantly, the TI hosts identified are consistent and reliable in supporting the production of diverse antibodies regardless of antibody subclass (IgG1 vs. IgG4) or prior traditional CLD performance (relatively easy vs. difficult to express antibodies). Moreover, a ~2-fold increase in titer can be achieved by employing a CRE recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) strategy with an exchange vector carrying 2 units of the antibody gene. Two RMCE hosts that were established were able to produce up to ~1.7 and 2 g/L of antibodies in non-optimized fed-batch shake flask production cultures with chemically defined media. Potentially, this strategy may be applied to the production of bi-specific antibodies with a fast turnaround time. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013.

 
 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Characterization of IntA, a bidirectional site-specific recombinase required for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42

Site-specific recombination occurs at short specific sequences, mediated by the cognate recombinases. IntA is a recombinase from Rhizobium etli CFN42, belonging to the tyrosine-recombinase family. It allows cointegration of plasmids p42a and the symbiotic plasmid via site-specific recombination between attachment regions (attA and attD) located in each replicon. Cointegration is needed for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid.To characterize this system, two plasmids, harboring the corresponding attachment sites and intA were constructed. Introduction of these plasmids into R. etli revealed IntA-dependent recombination events occurring at high frequency. Interestingly, IntA promotes not only integration, but also excision events, albeit at a lower frequency. Thus, R. etli IntA appears to be a bidirectional recombinase.IntA was purified and used to set up electrophoretic mobility shift assays with linear fragments containing attA and attD. IntA-dependent retarded complexes were observed only with fragments containing either attA or attD. Specific retarded complexes as well as normal in vivo recombination abilities were seen even in derivatives harboring only a minimal attachment region (comprising the 5-bp central region flanked by 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats). DNase I footprinting assays with IntA revealed specific protection of these zones. Mutations that disrupt the integrity of the 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats abolish both specific binding and recombination ability, while mutations in the 5-bp central region severely reduce both binding and recombination. These results show that IntA is a bidirectional recombinase that binds to att regions, without requiring neighboring sequences as enhancers of recombination.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

piggyBac transposase tools for genome engineering

The transposon piggyBac is being used increasingly for genetic studies. Here, we describe modified versions of piggyBac transposase that have potentially wide-ranging applications, such as reversible transgenesis and modified targeting of insertions. piggyBac is distinguished by its ability to excise precisely, restoring the donor site to its pretransposon state. This characteristic makes piggyBac useful for reversible transgenesis, a potentially valuable feature when generating induced pluripotent stem cells without permanent alterations to genomic sequence. To avoid further genome modification following piggyBac excision by reintegration, we generated an excision competent/integration defective (Exc+Int-) transposase. Our findings also suggest the position of a target DNA-transposase interaction. Another goal of genome engineering is to develop reagents that can guide transgenes to preferred genomic regions. Others have shown that piggyBac transposase can be active when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. An Exc+Int- transposase, the intrinsic targeting of which is defective, might also be a useful intermediate in generating a transposase whose integration activity could be rescued and redirected by fusion to a site-specific DNA-binding domain. We show that fusion to two designed zinc finger proteins rescued the Int- phenotype. Successful guided transgene integration into genomic DNA would have broad applications to gene therapy and molecular genetics. Thus, an Exc+Int- transposase is a potentially useful reagent for genome engineering and provides insight into the mechanism of transposase-target DNA interaction.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Clinical application of Sleeping Beauty and artificial antigen presenting cells to genetically modify T cells from peripheral and umbilical cord blood.

The potency of clinical-grade T cells can be improved by combining gene therapy with immunotherapy to engineer a biologic product with the potential for superior (i) recognition of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), (ii) persistence after infusion, (iii) potential for migration to tumor sites, and (iv) ability to recycle effector functions within the tumor microenvironment. Most approaches to genetic manipulation of T cells engineered for human application have used retrovirus and lentivirus for the stable expression of CAR(1-3). This approach, although compliant with current good manufacturing practice (GMP), can be expensive as it relies on the manufacture and release of clinical-grade recombinant virus from a limited number of production facilities. The electro-transfer of nonviral plasmids is an appealing alternative to transduction since DNA species can be produced to clinical grade at approximately 1/10(th) the cost of recombinant GMP-grade virus. To improve the efficiency of integration we adapted Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon and transposase for human application(4-8). Our SB system uses two DNA plasmids that consist of a transposon coding for a gene of interest (e.g. 2(nd) generation CD19-specific CAR transgene, designated CD19RCD28) and a transposase (e.g. SB11) which inserts the transgene into TA dinucleotide repeats(9-11). To generate clinically-sufficient numbers of genetically modified T cells we use K562-derived artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) (clone #4) modified to express a TAA (e.g. CD19) as well as the T cell costimulatory molecules CD86, CD137L, a membrane-bound version of interleukin (IL)-15 (peptide fused to modified IgG4 Fc region) and CD64 (Fc-γ receptor 1) for the loading of monoclonal antibodies (mAb)(12). In this report, we demonstrate the procedures that can be undertaken in compliance with cGMP to generate CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells suitable for human application. This was achieved by the synchronous electro-transfer of two DNA plasmids, a SB transposon (CD19RCD28) and a SB transposase (SB11) followed by retrieval of stable integrants by the every-7-day additions (stimulation cycle) of γ-irradiated aAPC (clone #4) in the presence of soluble recombinant human IL-2 and IL-21(13). Typically 4 cycles (28 days of continuous culture) are undertaken to generate clinically-appealing numbers of T cells that stably express the CAR. This methodology to manufacturing clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells can be applied to T cells derived from peripheral blood (PB) or umbilical cord blood (UCB). Furthermore, this approach can be harnessed to generate T cells to diverse tumor types by pairing the specificity of the introduced CAR with expression of the TAA, recognized by the CAR, on the aAPC.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Attachment site selection and identity in bxb1 serine integrase-mediated site-specific recombination

Phage-encoded serine integrases mediate directionally regulated site-specific recombination between short attP and attB DNA sites without host factor requirements. These features make them attractive for genome engineering and synthetic genetics, although the basis for DNA site selection is poorly understood. Here we show that attP selection is determined through multiple proofreading steps that reject non-attP substrates, and that discrimination of attP and attB involves two critical site features: the outermost 5-6 base pairs of attP that are required for Int binding and recombination but antagonize attB function, and the "discriminators" at positions -15/+15 that determine attB identity but also antagonize attP function. Thus, although the attachment sites differ in length and sequence, only two base changes are needed to convert attP to attL, and just two more from attL to attB. The opposing effect of site identifiers ensures that site schizophrenia with dual identities does not occur.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Phylogeny and Organization of Recombinase in Trio (RIT) Elements

Recombinase in Trio (RIT) Elements are composed of three adjacent tyrosine based site-specific recombinases that commonly occur in bacterial genomes. In this study, we examine RIT elements found in the genomes of strains from 63 different genera across 7 phyla of Eubacteria and examine the specific organization of these elements, their phylogenetic and environmental distribution, and their potential for mobility. We have found that each recombinase in this RIT arrangement is associated with a distinct sub-family of the tyrosine recombinases, and that the order and orientation of these sub-families is consistently maintained. We have determined that the distribution of these elements suggests that they are an ancient feature of bacterial genomes, but identical copies found within individual strains indicates that they are capable of intragenomic mobility. The occurrence of identical elements on both the main chromosome and one or more plasmids within individual strains, coupled with the finding that in some cases related genera are carrying highly similar RIT elements indicates that horizontal transfer has in some cases proceeded through a plasmid intermediate.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for cellular reprogramming and targeted gene insertion in induced pluripotent stem cells.

Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for cellular reprogramming and targeted gene insertion in induced pluripotent stem cells. | DNA site-specific recombination - Recombinase, Integrase, Transposase | Scoop.it

The discovery of direct cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology opened up new avenues for the application of non-viral, transposon-based gene delivery systems. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is highly advanced for versatile genetic manipulations in mammalian cells. We established iPS cell reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human foreskin fibroblasts by transposition of OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) and OSKML (OSKM + Lin28) expression cassettes mobilized by the SB100X hyperactive transposase. The efficiency of iPS cell derivation with SB transposon system was in the range of that obtained with retroviral vectors. Co-expression of the miRNA302/367 cluster together with OSKM significantly improved reprogramming efficiency and accelerated the temporal kinetics of reprogramming. The iPS cells displayed a stable karyotype, and hallmarks of pluripotency including expression of stem cell markers and the ability to differentiate into embryoid bodies in vitro. We demonstrate Cre recombinase-mediated exchange allowing simultaneous removal of the reprogramming cassette and targeted knock-in of an expression cassette of interest into the transposon-tagged locus in mouse iPS cells. This strategy would allow correction of a genetic defect by site-specific insertion of a therapeutic gene construct into 'safe harbor' sites in the genomes of autologous, patient-derived iPS cells.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Site-specific T-DNA integration in Arabidopsis thaliana mediated by the combined action of CRE recombinase and ϕC31 integrase.

Random T-DNA integration into the plant host genome can be problematic for a variety of reasons, including potentially variable transgene expression as a result of different integration positions and multiple T-DNA copies, the risk of mutating the host genome and the difficulty of stacking well defined traits. Therefore, recombination systems have been proposed to integrate the T-DNA at a pre-selected site in the host genome. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the ϕC31 integrase (INT) for efficient targeted T-DNA integration. Moreover, we show that the iterative site-specific integration system (ISSI), which combines the activities of the CRE recombinase and ϕC31 integrase, allows to target genes to a pre-selected site with concomitant removal of the resident selectable marker. To begin, plants expressing both the CRE and INT recombinase and containing the target attP-site were constructed. These plants were supertransformed with a T-DNA vector harboring the loxP site, the attB-sites, a selectable marker and an expression cassette encoding a reporter protein. Three out of 35 obtained transformants (=9%) showed transgenerational site-specific integration (SSI) of this T-DNA and removal of the resident selectable marker, as demonstrated by PCR, Southern blot, and segregation analysis. In conclusion, our results show the applicability of the ISSI system for precise and targeted Agrobacterium-mediated integration, allowing the serial integration of transgenic DNA sequences in plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

A resurrected mammalian hAT transposable element and a closely related insect element are highly active in human cell culture.

Chromosome structure and function are influenced by transposable elements, which are mobile DNA segments that can move from place to place. hAT elements are a superfamily of DNA cut and paste elements that move by excision and integration. We have characterized two hAT elements, TcBuster and Space Invaders (SPIN), that are members of a recently described subfamily of hAT elements called Buster elements. We show that TcBuster, from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, is highly active in human cells. SPIN elements are currently inactive elements that were recently highly active in multiple vertebrate genomes, and the high level of sequence similarity across widely diverged species and patchy phylogenetic distribution suggest that they may have moved between genomes by horizontal transfer. We have generated an intact version of this element, SPIN(ON), which is highly active in human cells. In vitro analysis of TcBuster and SPIN(ON) shows that no proteins other than transposase are essential for recombination, a property that may contribute to the ability of SPIN to successfully invade multiple organisms. We also analyze the target site preferences of de novo insertions in the human genome of TcBuster and SPIN(ON) and compare them with the preferences of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac, showing that each superfamily has a distinctive pattern of insertion. The high-frequency transposition of both TcBuster and SPIN(ON) suggests that these transposon systems offer powerful tools for genome engineering. Finally, we describe a Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay for TcBuster that will provide a means for isolation of hyperactive and other interesting classes of transposase mutants.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Vika/vox, a novel efficient and specific C... [Nucleic Acids Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Targeted genome engineering has become an important research area for diverse disciplines, with site-specific recombinases (SSRs) being among the most popular genome engineering tools. Their ability to trigger excision, integration, inversion and translocation has made SSRs an invaluable tool to manipulate DNA in vitro and in vivo. However, sophisticated strategies that combine different SSR systems are ever increasing. Hence, the demand for additional precise and efficient recombinases is dictated by the increasing complexity of the genetic studies. Here, we describe a novel site-specific recombination system designated Vika/vox. Vika originates from a degenerate bacteriophage of Vibrio coralliilyticus and shares low sequence similarity to other tyrosine recombinases, but functionally carries out a similar type of reaction. We demonstrate that Vika is highly specific in catalyzing vox recombination without recombining target sites from other SSR systems. We also compare the recombination activity of Vika/vox with other SSR systems, providing a guideline for deciding on the most suitable enzyme for a particular application and demonstrate that Vika expression does not cause cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. Our results show that Vika/vox is a novel powerful and safe instrument in the 'genetic toolbox' that can be used alone or in combination with other SSRs in heterologous hosts.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

A new site-specific recombinase-mediated system for targeted multiple genomic deletions

A newly designed site-specific recombination system is presented which allows multiple targeted markerless deletions. The most frequently used tool for removing selection markers or to introduce genes by recombination-mediated cassette exchange is the Cre/loxP system. Many mutant loxP sites have been created for this purpose. However, this study presents a chimeric mutant loxP site denoted mroxP-site. The mroxP site consists of one Cre (loxP/2) and one MrpA (mrpS/2) binding site separated by a palindromic 6-bp spacer sequence. Two mroxP-sites can be recombined by Cre recombinase in head-to-tail as well as in head-to-head orientation. In the head-to-head orientation and the loxP half-sites inside, Cre removes the loxP half-sites during site-specific recombination, creating a new site, mrmrP. The new site is essentially a mrpS site with a palindromic spacer and cannot be used by Cre for recombination anymore. It does, however, present a substrate for the recombinase MrpA. This new system has been successfully applied introducing multiple targeted gene deletions into the Escherichia coli genome. Similar to Cre/loxP and FLP/FRT, this system may be adapted for genetic engineering of other pro- and eukaryotes.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Strategies for designing transgenic DNA constructs

Generation and characterization of transgenic mice are important elements of biomedical research. In recent years, transgenic technology has become more versatile and sophisticated, mainly because of the incorporation of recombinase-mediated conditional expression and targeted insertion, site-specific endonuclease-mediated genome editing, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, various inducible gene expression systems, and fluorescent protein marking and tracking techniques. Site-specific recombinases (such as PhiC31) and engineered endonucleases (such as ZFN and Talen) have significantly enhanced our ability to target transgenes into specific genomic loci, but currently a great majority of transgenic mouse lines are continuingly being created using the conventional random insertion method. A major challenge for using this conventional method is that the genomic environment at the integration site has a substantial influence on the expression of the transgene. Although our understanding of such chromosomal position effects and our means to combat them are still primitive, adhering to some general guidelines can significantly increase the odds of successful transgene expression. This chapter first discusses the major problems associated with transgene expression, and then describes some of the principles for using plasmid and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for generating transgenic constructs. Finally, the strategies for conducting each of the major types of transgenic research are discussed, including gene overexpression, promoter characterization, cell-lineage tracing, mutant complementation, expression of double or multiple transgenes, siRNA knockdown, and conditional and inducible systems.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Fluorescent protein-based detection of φC31 integrase activity in mammalian cells

The enzyme φC31 integrase from Streptomyces phage has been documented as functional in mammalian cells and, therefore, has the potential to be a powerful gene manipulation tool. However, the activity of this enzyme is cell-type dependent. The more active mutant forms of φC31 integrase are required. Therefore, a rapid and effective method should be developed to detect the intracellular activity of φC31 integrase. We devised in this study an integrase-inversion cassette that contains the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and the reverse complementary DsRed gene, which are flanked by attB and reverse complementary attP. This cassette can be inverted by φC31 integrase, thereby altering the fluorescent protein expression. Thus, φC31 integrase activity can be qualitatively or quantitatively evaluated based on the detected fluorescence. Furthermore, this cassette-based method was applied to several cell types, demonstrating that it is an efficient and reliable tool for measuring φC31 integrase activity in mammalian cells.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

A Highly Efficient Site-Specific Integration Strategy Using Combination of Homologous Recombination and the ΦC31 Integrase

The introduction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) at target sites could greatly enhance homologous recombination, and engineered nucleases, such as zinc finger and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, have been successfully developed for making such breaks. In this study, we present a highly efficient site-specific integration strategy based on homologous recombination and ΦC31 integrase. An attB sequence was introduced at the homologous arm of an insertion targeting vector. DSBs at the target locus and donor were then simultaneously generated by the ΦC31 integrase when co-transfected with the donor vector, consequently stimulating homologous recombination. The results demonstrated that our strategy is feasible and the efficiency at the BF4 target site, which we previously identified in the bovine genome, was as high as 93%. The frequency at another site (BF10) was almost two-fold greater in comparison to the vector without homologous arms. This technology requires no sophisticated nuclease design efforts, and the off-target effect is reduced by ΦC31 integrase compared to the use of engineered nucleases, thereby offering a simple and safe way to effectively express a donor gene at a desired locus. This development has great potential value, especially in transgenesis or gene therapy applications.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Real-time single-molecule tethered particle motion analysis reveals mechanistic similarities and contrasts of Flp site-specific recombinase with Cre and λ Int

Flp, a tyrosine site-specific recombinase coded for by the selfish two micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays a central role in the maintenance of plasmid copy number. The Flp recombination system can be manipulated to bring about a variety of targeted DNA rearrangements in its native host and under non-native biological contexts. We have performed an exhaustive analysis of the Flp recombination pathway from start to finish by using single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM). The recombination reaction is characterized by its early commitment and high efficiency, with only minor detraction from 'non-productive' and 'wayward' complexes. The recombination synapse is stabilized by strand cleavage, presumably by promoting the establishment of functional interfaces between adjacent Flp monomers. Formation of the Holliday junction intermediate poses a rate-limiting barrier to the overall reaction. Isomerization of the junction to the conformation favoring its resolution in the recombinant mode is not a slow step. Consistent with the completion of nearly every initiated reaction, the chemical steps of strand cleavage and exchange are not reversible during a recombination event. Our findings demonstrate similarities and differences between Flp and the mechanistically related recombinases λ Int and Cre. The commitment and directionality of Flp recombination revealed by TPM is consistent with the physiological role of Flp in amplifying plasmid DNA.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Directed DNA Shuffling of Retrovirus and Retrotransposon Integrase Protein Domains

Chimeric proteins are used to study protein domain functions and to recombine protein domains for novel or optimal functions. We used a library of chimeric integrase proteins to study DNA integration specificity. The library was constructed using a directed shuffling method that we adapted from fusion PCR. This method easily and accurately shuffles multiple DNA gene sequences simultaneously at specific base-pair positions, such as protein domain boundaries. It produced all 27 properly-ordered combinations of the amino-terminal, catalytic core, and carboxyl-terminal domains of the integrase gene from human immunodeficiency virus, prototype foamy virus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty3. Retrotransposons can display dramatic position-specific integration specificity compared to retroviruses. The yeast retrotransposon Ty3 integrase interacts with RNA polymerase III transcription factors to target integration at the transcription initiation site. In vitro assays of the native and chimeric proteins showed that human immunodeficiency virus integrase was active with heterologous substrates, whereas prototype foamy virus and Ty3 integrases were not. This observation was consistent with a lower substrate specificity for human immunodeficiency virus integrase than for other retrovirus integrases. All eight chimeras containing the Ty3 integrase carboxyl-terminal domain, a candidate targeting domain, failed to target strand transfer in the presence of the targeting protein, suggesting that multiple domains of the Ty3 integrase cooperate in this function.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

A site-specific recombinase-based method to produce antibiotic selectable marker free transgenic cattle

Antibiotic selectable marker genes have been widely used to generate transgenic animals. Once transgenic animals have been obtained, the selectable marker is no longer necessary but raises public concerns regarding biological safety. The aim of this study was to prepare competent antibiotic selectable marker free transgenic cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). PhiC31 intergrase was used to insert a transgene cassette into a "safe harbor" in the bovine genome. Then, Cre recombinase was employed to excise the selectable marker under the monitoring of a fluorescent double reporter. By visually tracking the phenotypic switch from red to green fluorescence, antibiotic selectable marker free cells were easily detected and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. For safety, we used phiC31 mRNA and cell-permeant Cre protein in this study. When used as donor nuclei for SCNT, these safe harbor integrated marker-free transgenic cells supported a similar developmental competence of SCNT embryos compared with that of non-transgenic cells. After embryo transfer, antibiotic selectable marker free transgenic cattle were generated and anti-bacterial recombinant human β-defensin-3 in milk was detected during their lactation period. Thus, this approach offers a rapid and safe alternative to produce antibiotic selectable marker free transgenic farm animals, thereby making it a valuable tool to promote the healthy development and welfare of transgenic farm animals.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Roles of two large serine recombinases in mobilizing the methicillin-resistance cassette SCCmec

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged via acquisition of a mobile element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Integration and excision of SCCmec is mediated by an unusual site-specific recombination system. Most variants of SCCmec encode two recombinases, CcrA and CcrB, that belong to the large serine family. Since CcrA and CcrB are always found together, we sought to address their specific roles. We show here that CcrA and CcrB can carry out both excisive and integrative recombination in E. coli in the absence of any host-specific or SCCmec-encoded cofactors. CcrA and CcrB are promiscuous in their substrate choice: they act on many non-canonical pairs of recombination sites in addition to the canonical ones, which may explain tandem insertions into the SCCmec attachment site. Moreover, CcrB is always required, but CcrA is only required if one of the four half sites is present. Recombinational activity correlates with DNA-binding: CcrA recognizes only that half site, which overlaps a conserved coding frame on the host chromosome. Therefore, we propose that CcrA serves as a specificity factor that emerged through modular evolution to enable recognition of a bacterial recombination site that is not an inverted repeat.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Facile construction of a random protein domain insertion library using an engineered transposon

Insertional fusion between multiple protein domains represents a novel means of creating integrated functionalities. Currently, there is no robust guideline for selection of insertion sites ensuring the desired functional outcome of insertional fusion. Therefore, construction and testing of random domain insertion libraries, in which a host protein domain is randomly inserted into a guest protein domain, significantly benefit extensive exploration of sequence spaces for insertion sites. Short peptide residues are usually introduced between protein domains to alleviate structural conflicts, and the interdomain linker residues may affect the functional outcome of protein insertion complexes. Unfortunately, optimal control of interdomain linker residues is not always available in conventional methods used to construct random domain insertion libraries. Moreover, most conventional methods employ blunt-end rather than sticky-end ligation between host and guest DNA fragments, thus lowering library construction efficiency. Here, we report the facile construction of random domain insertion libraries using an engineered transposon. We show that random domain insertion with optimal control of interdomain linker residues was possible with our engineered transposon-based method. In addition, our method employs sticky-end rather than blunt-end ligation between host and guest DNA fragments, thus allowing for facile construction of relatively large sized libraries.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Genome engineering in actinomycetes using site-specific recombinases

The rational modification of the actinomycetes genomes has a variety of applications in research, medicine, and biotechnology. The use of site-specific recombinases allows generation of multiple mutations, large DNA deletions, integrations, and inversions and may lead to significant progress in all of these fields. Despite their huge potential, site-specific recombinase-based technologies have primarily been used for simple marker removal from a chromosome. In this review, we summarise the site-specific recombination approaches for genome engineering in various actinomycetes.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

Cloning, Expression, and in vitro Functional Activity Assay of phiC31 Integrase cDNA in Escherichia coli

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of present study was cloning and expression of phiC31 integrase cDNA in a bacterial expression vector. Thus, an intra molecular assay vector was applied to show in vitro activity of recombinant protein.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this experimental study, phiC31 cDNA was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into E.coli Bl21 (DE3). Recombinant phiC31 integrase was purified form the bacterial cell lysates and its activity was verified by an in vitro functional assessment.

RESULTS:

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified phiC31 integrase confirmed the size of protein (70 kDa). Finally, the functionality of purified phiC31 integrase was verified.

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study indicated that the purified integrase has a great potential application for in vitro site-specific integration.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

On the transposon origins of mammalian SC... [Mob Genet Elements. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

SCAND3 and KRBA2 are two mammalian proteins originally described as "cellular-integrases" due to sharing of a similar DDE-type integrase domain whose origin and relationship with other recombinases remain unclear. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses of 341 integrase/transposase sequences to reveal that the integrase domain of SCAND3 and KRBA2 derives from the same clade of GINGER2, a superfamily of cut-and-paste transposons widely distributed in insects and other protostomes, but seemingly absent or extinct in vertebrates. Finally, we integrate the results of phylogenetic analyses to the taxonomic distribution of SCAND3 and KRBA2 and their transposon relatives to discuss some of the processes that promoted the emergence of these two chimeric genes during mammalian evolution.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Xavier Duportet
Scoop.it!

HUH site-specific recombinases for targeted modification of the human genome

Xavier Duportet's insight:

Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) have been crucial in the development of mammalian transgenesis. For gene therapy purposes, this approach remains challenging, because, for example, SSR delivery is largely unresolved and SSR DNA substrates must pre-exist in target cells. In this review, we discuss the potential of His-hydrophobic-His (HUH) recombinases to overcome some of the limitations of conventional SSRs. Members of the HUH protein family cleave single-stranded (ss)DNA, but can mediate site-specific integration with the aid of the host replication machinery. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep remains the only known example to support site-specific integration in human cells, and AAV is an excellent gene delivery vector that can be targeted to specific cells and organelles. Bacterial protein TrwC catalyzes integration into human sequences and can be delivered to human cells covalently linked to DNA, offering attractive new features for targeted genome modification.

more...
No comment yet.