DMC Lab publications
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A rational approach to memory search termination

A rational approach to memory search termination | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

An important component of many, if not all, real-world retrieval tasks is the decision to terminate memory search. Despite its importance, systematic evaluations of the potential rules for terminating search are scarce. Recent work has focused on two variables: the total time spent in memory search before search is terminated and the exit latency (the time between the last retrieved item and the time of search termination). These variables have been shown to limit the number of plausible rules for terminating memory search. Here, we introduce an alternative stopping rule based on a rational moment-to-moment cost–benefit analysis and derive a closed-form expression of the exit latency function using this rational approach. We show the model’s ability to capture critical latency data and make testable predictions about the influence of changing the relative costs and benefits of memory search. Results from an experiment are presented that support the model’s predictions. We conclude that the decision to terminate memory search is based on moment-to-moment changes in subjective utility of retrieved memories.

DMC Lab's insight:

Davelaar, E. J., Harbison, J. I., Yu, E. C., Hussey, E. K., & Dougherty, M. R. (2013). A rational approach to memory search termination. Cognitive Systems Research, 24, 96-103.

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A Novelty-Induced Change in Episodic (NICE) Context Account of Primacy Effects in Free Recall

Formal cognitive models of episodic memory assume that during encoding list items become associated with a changing context representation. However, this representation is recency-biased and thus can not account for primacy effects under conditions that prevent rehearsal. In this paper, it is hypothesized that one source underlying primacy effects is the detection of novelty. In three experiments, it is shown how novelty at the perceptual and semantic level can explain the full serial position function of first recall probabilities, including primacy effects. It is proposed that an item becomes distinctive due to increase in the change within a distributed episodic context representation, induced by novelty detection. The theory makes three assumptions. First, items become associated with a distributed context representation. Second, the context representation changes with item presentation. Third, the rate of contextual change is related to the perceptual and conceptual difference computed between the presented item and the previous item (or items in the buffer). This theory captures primacy effects in first recall probabilities without recourse to a rehearsal process and provides a mechanistic account of distinctiveness.

 

DMC Lab's insight:

Davelaar, E. J. (2013). A novelty-induced change in episodic (NICE) context approach to primacy effects in free recall. Psychology, 4, 695-703.

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When the Ignored Gets Bound: Sequential Effects in the Flanker Task

When the Ignored Gets Bound: Sequential Effects in the Flanker Task | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Recent research on attentional control processes in the Eriksen flanker task has focused on the so-called congruency sequence effect a.k.a. the Gratton effect, which is the observation of a smaller flanker interference effect after incongruent than after congruent trials. There is growing support for the view that in this paradigm, the congruency sequence effect is due to repetition of the target or response across trials. Here, results from two experiments are presented that separate the contributions of target, flanker, and response repetition. The results suggest that neither response repetition alone nor conflict is necessary to produce the effect. Instead, the data reveal that only flanker repetition is sufficient to produce congruency sequence effects. In other words, information that is associated with a response irrespective whether it is relevant for the current trial is bound to response representations. An account is presented in which the fleeting event files are the activated part of the task set in which flankers, targets, and response representations are associatively linked and updated through conflict-modulated reinforcement learning.

 

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:44 PM
Davelaar, E. J. (2013). When the ignored gets bounds: sequential dependencies in the Eriksen flanker task. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:552. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00552.
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Temporal Dynamics of Hypothesis Generation: The Influences of Data Serial Order, Data Consistency, and Elicitation Timing

Temporal Dynamics of Hypothesis Generation: The Influences of Data Serial Order, Data Consistency, and Elicitation Timing | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

The pre-decisional process of hypothesis generation is a ubiquitous cognitive faculty that we continually employ in an effort to understand our environment and thereby support appropriate judgments and decisions. Although we are beginning to understand the fundamental processes underlying hypothesis generation, little is known about how various temporal dynamics, inherent in real world generation tasks, influence the retrieval of hypotheses from long-term memory. This paper presents two experiments investigating three data acquisition dynamics in a simulated medical diagnosis task. The results indicate that the mere serial order of data, data consistency (with previously generated hypotheses), and mode of responding influence the hypothesis generation process. An extension of the HyGene computational model endowed with dynamic data acquisition processes is forwarded and explored to provide an account of the present data.

 

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:35 PM
Lange, N. D., Thomas, R. P., & Davelaar, E. J. (2012). Temporal dynamics of hypothesis generation: The influences of data serial order, data consistency, and elicitation timing. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:215. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00215.
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Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind

Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

This article outlines a methodology for probing working memory (WM) content in high-level cognitive tasks (e.g., decision making, problem solving, and memory retrieval) by capitalizing on attentional and oculomotor biases evidenced in top-down capture paradigms. This method would be of great use, as it could measure the information resident in WM at any point in a task and, hence, track information use over time as tasks dynamically evolve. Above and beyond providing a measure of information occupancy in WM, such a method would benefit from sensitivity to the specific activation levels of individual items in WM. This article additionally forwards a novel fusion of standard free recall and visual search paradigms in an effort to assess the sensitivity of eye movements in top-down capture, on which this new measurement technique relies, to item-specific memory activation (ISMA). The results demonstrate eye movement sensitivity to ISMA in some, but not all, cases.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:35 PM
Lange, N. D., Thomas, R. P., Buttacio, D. R., & Davelaar, E. J. (2012). Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74, 1562-1567.
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A habituation account of change detection in same/different judgments

A habituation account of change detection in same/different judgments | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

We investigated the basis of change detection in a short-term priming task. In two experiments, participants were asked to indicate whether or not a target word was the same as a previously presented cue. Data from an experiment measuring magnetoencephalography failed to find different patterns for “same” and “different” responses, consistent with the claim that both arise from a common neural source, with response magnitude defining the difference between immediate novelty versus familiarity. In a behavioral experiment, we tested and confirmed the predictions of a habituation account of these judgments by comparing conditions in which the target, the cue, or neither was primed by its presentation in the previous trial. As predicted, cue-primed trials had faster response times, and target-primed trials had slower response times relative to the neither-primed baseline. These results were obtained irrespective of response repetition and stimulus–response contingencies. The behavioral and brain activity data support the view that detection of change drives performance in these tasks and that the underlying mechanism is neuronal habituation.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:28 PM
Davelaar, E. J., Xing, T., Weidemann, C. T., & Huber, D. E (2011). A habituation account of change detection in same/different judgments. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 608-626.
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Frontiers | Cognitive science - future challenges of an interdisciplinary field | Frontiers in Cognitive Science

Frontiers | Cognitive science - future challenges of an interdisciplinary field | Frontiers in Cognitive Science | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Editorial piece

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:21 PM
Davelaar, E. J. (2010). Cognitive Science - future challenges of an interdisciplinary field. Frontiers in Psychology, 1:7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00007.
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On the lawfulness of the decision to terminate memory search

On the lawfulness of the decision to terminate memory search | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Nearly every memory retrieval episode ends with a decision to terminate memory search. Yet, no research has investigated whether these search termination decisions are systematic, let alone whether they are made consistent with a particular rule. In the present paper, we used a modified free-recall paradigm to examine the decision to terminate search. Data from two experiments revealed that the total time engaged in retrieval was a monotonically increasing function of the total number of items retrieved, whereas the time from final retrieval to search termination (exit latency) was a monotonically decreasing function of the total number of items retrieved. These findings were compared to the predictions of previously proposed stopping rules, using the Search of Associative Memory framework. Of the four rules examined, only one predicts the obtained data pattern.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:18 PM
Harbison, J. I., Dougherty, M. R., Davelaar, E. J., & Fayyad, B. (2009). On the lawfulness of the decision to terminate memory search. Cognition, 111, 397-402.
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An interference account of cue-independent forgetting in the no-think paradigm

Memory suppression is investigated with the no-think paradigm, which produces forgetting following repeated practice of not thinking about a memory [Anderson MC, Green C (2001) Nature 410:366–369]. Because the forgotten item is not retrieved even when tested with an independent, semantically related cue, it has been assumed that this forgetting is due to an inhibition process. However, this conclusion is based on a single stage to recall, whereas global memory models, which produce forgetting through a process of interference, include both a sampling and a recovery stage to recall. By assuming that interference exists during recovery, these models can explain cue-independent forgetting. We tested several predictions of this interference explanation of cue-independent forgetting by modifying the think/no-think paradigm. We added a condition where participants quickly pressed enter rather than not thinking. We also manipulated initial memory strength and tested recognition memory. Most importantly, learning to quickly press enter produced as much cue-independent forgetting as no-think instructions. Demonstrating the adequacy of two-stage recall, a simple computational model (SAM-RI) simultaneously captured the original cue, independent cue, and recognition results.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:18 PM
Tomlinson, T. D., Huber, D. E., Rieth, C. R., & Davelaar, E. J. (2009). Interference as the source of forgetting in the no-think paradigm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 15588-15593.
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A computational study of conflict-monitoring at two levels of processing: Reaction time distributional analyses and hemodynamic responses

A computational study of conflict-monitoring at two levels of processing: Reaction time distributional analyses and hemodynamic responses | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

The conflict-monitoring hypothesis of cognitive control proposes that response-conflict is higher in incongruent conditions compared to congruent or neutral conditions and that increases in conflict lead to increased control on subsequent trials. A neurocomputational model is used to address data on reaction time distributions and hemodynamic responses in a flanker task with neutral (N), congruent (CO), stimulus-incongruent (SI), and response-incongruent (RI) trials, allowing investigation of stimulus- and response-conflict. A computational study is presented in which the conflict-signal is (a) computed at every level of processing (response, stimulus) and is (b) used to modulate the input in the same trial. Results show that the models capture (1) the profile of distributional plots seen in the behavioral literature and (2) the patterns of hemodynamic responses seen in the neuroimaging literature. Based on the simulations it is suggested that the prefrontal cortex processes response-conflict and that the parietal cortex processes stimulus-conflict.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:10 PM
Davelaar, E. J. (2008). A computational study of conflict-monitoring at two levels of processing: reaction time distributional analyses and hemodynamic responses. Brain Research, 1202, 109-119.
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Sequential Retrieval and Inhibition of Parallel (Re)Activated Representations: A Neurocomputational Comparison of Competitive Queuing and Resampling Models

Sequential behavior is observed in various domains of cognitive psychology, including free recall paradigms. In this article, within a neurocomputational framework, resampling (RS) mechanisms are compared with competitive queuing (CQ) mechanisms. While both types of implementations select the most active representation, the subsequent inhibition is at the level of selection for RS models and at the level of (re)activation for CQ models. It is shown that despite the overwhelming success of CQ models in serial recall (with regard to types of sequencing error) RS models outperform CQ models with regard to inter-response times in a free recall task. Additional analyses show that decay of response suppression reduces the difference between the models. The RS model is sensitive to the size of the search set and accounts for memory selection performance in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia or Huntington’s disease. Finally, a non-mnemonic clustering behavior is observed, which is related to the dynamical process of the selection mechanism.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:05 PM
Davelaar, E. J. (2007). Sequential retrieval and inhibition of parallel (re)activated representations: a neurocomputational comparison of competitive queuing and resampling models. Adaptive Behavior, 15, 51-71.
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The demise of short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigations of recency effects

In the single-store model of memory, the enhanced recall for the last items in a free-recall task (i.e., the recency effect) is understood to reflect a general property of memory rather than a separate short-term store. This interpretation is supported by the finding of a long-term recency effect under conditions that eliminate the contribution from the short-term store. In this article, evidence is reviewed showing that recency effects in the short and long terms have different properties, and it is suggested that 2 memory components are needed to account for the recency effects: an episodic contextual system with changing context and an activation-based short-term memory buffer that drives the encoding of item-context associations. A neurocomputational model based on these 2 components is shown to account for previously observed dissociations and to make novel predictions, which are confirmed in a set of experiments.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 7:59 PM
Davelaar, E. J., Goshen-Gottstein, Y., Ashkenazi, A., Haarmann, H. J., & Usher, M. (2005). The demise of short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigations of recency effects. Psychological Review, 112, 3-42.
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Individual differences in semantic short-term memory capacity and reading comprehension

Individual differences in semantic short-term memory capacity and reading comprehension | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

We report three correlation studies, which investigate the hypothesis that individual differences in the capacity of a semantic short-term memory (STM) component in working memory (WM) predict performance on complex language tasks. To measure the capacity of semantic STM, we devised a storage-only measure, the conceptual span, which makes use of a category-cued recall procedure. In the first two studies, where the conceptual span was administered with randomized words (not blocked by categories), we found that conceptual span predicted single-sentence and text comprehension, semantic anomaly detection and verbal problem solving, explaining unique variance beyond non-word and word span. In some cases, the conceptual span explained unique variance beyond the reading span. Conceptual span correlated better with verbal problem solving than reading span, suggesting that a storage-only measure can outperform a storage-plus-processing measure. In Study 3, the conceptual span was administered with semantically clustered lists. The clustered span correlated with the comprehension measures as well as the non-clustered span, indicating that the critical process is memory maintenance and not semantic clustering. Moreover, we found an interaction between subjects’ performance on the conceptual span and the effect of the distance between critical words in anomaly detection, supporting the proposal that semantic STM maintains unintegrated word meanings.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 7:56 PM
Haarmann, H. J., Davelaar, E. J., & Usher, M. (2003). Individual differences in semantic short-term memory capacity and reading comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 320-345.
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Data acquisition dynamics and hypothesis generation

Data acquisition dynamics and hypothesis generation | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

When formulating explanations for the events we witness in the world, temporal dynamics govern the hypotheses we generate. In our view, temporal dynamics influence beliefs over three stages: data acquisition, hypothesis generation, and hypothesis maintenance and updating. This paper presents experimental and computational evidence for the influence of temporal dynamics on hypothesis generation through dynamic working memory processes during data acquisition in a medical diagnosis task. We show that increasing the presentation rate of a sequence of symptoms leads to a primacy effect, which is predicted by the dynamic competition in working memory that dictates the weights allocated to individual data in the generation process. Individual differences observed in hypothesis generation are explained by differences in working memory capacity. Finally, in a simulation experiment we show that activation dynamics at data acquisition also accounts for results from a related task previously held to support capacity-unlimited diagnostic reasoning.

DMC Lab's insight:

Lange, N. D., Davelaar, E. J., & Thomas, R. P. (2013). Data acquisition dynamics and hypothesis generation. Cognitive Systems Research, 24, 9-17.

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Short-term memory as a working memory control process

Short-term memory as a working memory control process | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Commentary article, arguing that short-term memory is not a physical system, as a box-like structure, but is instead a process. This process is used whenever the task demands it. Thus one can never say that there is an empty space in short-term memory. In addition, it puts short-term memory squarely in the domain of working memory and executive control processes. To wit, short-term memory is a dynamic memory process.

 

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:44 PM
Davelaar, E. J. (2013). Short-term memory as a working memory control process. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:13, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00013.
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Working memory dynamics bias the generation of beliefs: The influence of data presentation rate on hypothesis generation

Working memory dynamics bias the generation of beliefs: The influence of data presentation rate on hypothesis generation | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Although temporal dynamics are inherent aspects of diagnostic tasks, few studies have investigated how various aspects of time course influence hypothesis generation. An experiment is reported that demonstrates that working memory dynamics operating during serial data acquisition bias hypothesis generation. The presentation rate (and order) of a sequence of serially presented symptoms was manipulated to be either fast (180 ms per symptom) or slow (1,500 ms per symptom) in a simulated medical diagnosis task. When the presentation rate was slow, participants chose the disease hypothesis consistent with the symptoms appearing later in the sequence. When the presentation rate was fast, however, participants chose the disease hypothesis consistent with the symptoms appearing earlier in the sequence, therefore representing a novel primacy effect. We predicted and account for this effect through competitive working memory dynamics governing information acquisition and the contribution of maintained information to the retrieval of hypotheses from long-term memory.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:44 PM
Lange, N. D., Thomas, R. P., Buttaccio, D. R., Illingworth, D. A., & Davelaar, E. J. (2013). Working memory dynamics bias the generation of beliefs: the influence of data presentation rate on hypothesis generation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 171-176.
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Differential contributions of set-shifting and monitoring to dual-task interference

It is commonly argued that complex behaviour is regulated by a number of “executive functions”, which work to coordinate the operation of disparate cognitive systems in the service of an overall goal. However, the identity, roles, and interactions of specific putative executive functions remain contentious, even within widely accepted tests of executive function. The authors present two experiments that use dual-task interference to provide further support for multiple distinct executive functions and to establish the differential contributions of those functions in two relatively complex executive tasks—random generation and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Results are interpreted in terms of process models of the complex executive tasks.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:35 PM
Cooper, R. P., Wutke, K., & Davelaar E. J. (2012). Differential contributions of set-shifting and monitoring to dual-task interference. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 587-612.
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Processes Versus Representations: Cognitive Control as Emergent, Yet Componential

Processes Versus Representations: Cognitive Control as Emergent, Yet Componential | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

In this commentary, I focus on the difference between processes and representations and how this distinction relates to the question of what is controlled. Despite some views that task switching is a prototypical control process, the analysis concludes that task switching depends on the task goal representation and that control processes are there to prevent goal representations from disintegrating. Over time, these processes become obsolete, leaving behind a representation that automatically controls task performance. The distinction between processes and representations relates to practice effects and automaticity and sheds light on what is meant by the phrase “automatic control.”

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:28 PM
Davelaar, E. J. (2011). Processes versus representations: cognitive control as emergent, yet componential. Topics in Cognitive Science, 3, 247-252.
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Variability and standardized test profiles in typically developing children and children with Williams Syndrome

Variability and standardized test profiles in typically developing children and children with Williams Syndrome | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Williams Syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder, which due to its specific cognitive profile, has been of interest to multidisciplinary research in order to study the pathways between cognition, brain, and genes. Previous studies investigating individual performance on cognitive tasks have reported large variability within the WS cognitive profile, which has encouraged the investigation of WS subgroups. The current study compared the variability in performance scores on five verbal and non-verbal standardized tests in 33 children with WS and in 33 typically developing (TD) children of a similar chronological age (CA). In contrast to previous studies, the current study did not find significant differences in variability in performance on British Picture Vocabulary scale, Test Reception of Grammar and Digit span Forward between WS and TD groups when CA was controlled for. However, there was significantly less variability in younger WS participants for performance scores on Pattern Construction compared to the TD group. In light of these results, methodological issues and the importance of taking CA into account in analyses will be discussed.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:28 PM
Van Herwegen, J., Rundblad, G., Davelaar, E. J., & Annaz, D. (2011). Variability and standardized test profiles in typically developing children and children with Williams Syndrome. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 883-894.
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Reply to Bäuml and Hanslmayr: Adding or subtracting memories? The neural correlates of learned interference vs. memory inhibition

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:21 PM
Huber, D. E., Tomlinson, T. D., Rieth, C. R., & Davelaar, E. J. (2010). Reply to Bäuml and Hanslmayr: Adding or subtracting memories? The neural correlates of learned interference vs. memory inhibition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, E4.
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Sequential dependencies in the Eriksen flanker task: A direct comparison of two competing accounts

Sequential dependencies in the Eriksen flanker task: A direct comparison of two competing accounts | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

In the conflict/control loop theory proposed by Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, and Cohen (2001), conflict monitored in a trial leads to an increase in cognitive control on the subsequent trial. The critical data pattern supporting this assertion is the so-called Gratton effect—the decrease in flanker interference following incongruent trials—which was initially observed in the Eriksen flanker task. Recently, however, the validity of the idea that this pattern supports a general conflict/control mechanism has been questioned on the grounds that the Gratton effect is only observed with stimulus repetition. We present an experiment testing whether the Gratton effect reflects a stimulus-independent increase in cognitive control or stimulus-specific repetition priming. Although our results support the latter hypothesis, the priming effect is modulated by the congruency of the previous trial. We discuss a new mechanism through which monitored conflict is used to exert executive control by modulating stimulus-response associations.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:18 PM
Davelaar, E. J., & Stevens, J. (2009). Sequential dependencies in the Eriksen flanker task: a direct comparison of two competing theories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 121-126.
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Evidence for attentional processing in spatial localization

Evidence for attentional processing in spatial localization | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

Using a dual-task methodology, this study examined the involvement of selective attention in spatial localization. Thirty participants located a single, briefly presented, peripheral target stimulus, appearing in one of 50 positions on either side of a central fixation point, with or without the requirement to identify a simultaneously presented central distractor stimulus. Results revealed a robust interference effect in localization performance at short target durations that depended on the number of the to-be-identified distractor items. This outcome provides convergent support for the role of the attentional system in spatial localization.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:10 PM
Adam, J. J., Davelaar, E. J., Van der Gouw, A., & Willems, P. (2008). Evidence for attentional processing in spatial localization. Psychological Research, 72, 433-442.
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Short-term memory after all: comment on Sederberg, Howard and Kahana (2008)

P. B. Sederberg, M. W. Howard, and M. J. Kahana have proposed an updated version of the temporal-context model (TCM-A). In doing so, they accepted the challenge of developing a single-store model to account for the dissociations between short- and long-term recency effects that were reviewed by E. J. Davelaar, Y. Goshen-Gottstein, A. Ashkenazi, H. J. Haarmann, and M. Usher (2005). In this commentary, the authors argue that the success of TCM-A in addressing the dissociations is dependent not only on an episodic encoding matrix but--critically--also on its implicit use of a short-term memory store--albeit exponential rather than buffer-like. The authors also highlight some difficulties of TCM-A in accounting for these dissociations, and they argue that TCM-A fails to account for critical data--the presentation-rate effect--that dissociates exponential and buffer-like models.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:05 PM
Usher, M., Davelaar, E. J., Haarmann, H. J., & Goshen-Gottstein, Y. (2008). Short-term memory after all: comment on Sederberg, Howard and Kahana (2008). Psychological Review, 115, 1108-1118.
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Semantic similarity dissociates short- from long-term recency effects: Testing a neurocomputational model of list memory

Semantic similarity dissociates short- from long-term recency effects: Testing a neurocomputational model of list memory | DMC Lab publications | Scoop.it

The finding that recency effects can occur not only in immediate free recall (i.e., short-term recency) but also in the continuous-distractor task (i.e., long-term recency) has led many theorists to reject the distinction between short- and long-term memory stores. Recently, we have argued that long-term recency effects do not undermine the concept of a short-term store, and we have presented a neurocomputational model that accounts for both short- and long-term recency and for a series of dissociations between these two effects. Here, we present a new dissociation between short- and long-term recency based on semantic similarity, which is predicted by our model. This dissociation is due to the mutual support between associated items in the short-term store, which takes place in immediate free recall and delayed free recall but not in continuous-distractor free recall.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 8:05 PM
Davelaar, E. J., Haarmann, H. J., Goshen-Gottstein, Y., & Usher, M. (2006). Semantic similarity dissociates short- from long-term recency: testing a neurocomputational model of list memory. Memory & Cognition, 34, 323-334.
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Age-related declines in context maintenance and semantic short-term memory

This study reports age-related declines in context maintenance (Braver et al., 2001) and semantic short-term memory (STM) and evidence for a relation between the two. A group of younger and older adults completed a context maintenance task (AX-CPT), a semantically oriented STM task (conceptual span), a phonologically oriented STM task (digit span), and a meaning integration task (semantic anomaly judgement). In the AX-CPT task, a target response is required to the probe letter “X” but only when it is preceded by the letter “A” (the context). Either three (short interference) or six distractor letters (long interference) were presented between the cue and the probe. Results indicated an age-related deficit in context maintenance. Age-related declines were also observed for conceptual span and semantic anomaly judgement but not for digit span. Context maintenance was correlated with conceptual span and semantic anomaly judgement but not with digit span. These correlations were largely mediated by age differences, which also explained variance that was unique to (and not shared among) context maintenance, conceptual span, and semantic anomaly judgement.

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DMC Lab's comment, April 7, 2013 7:57 PM
Haarmann, H. J., Ashling, G. E., Davelaar, E. J., & Usher, M. (2005). Age-related declines in context maintenance and semantic short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 34-53.