Schornack et al. (2013) [in advance version, changes will occur]
Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are encoded by plantpathogenic bacteria and induce expression of plant host genes. TAL effectors bind DNA on the basis of a unique code that specifies binding of amino acid residues in repeat units to particular DNA bases in a one-to-one correspondence. This code can be used to predict binding sites of natural TAL effectors and to design novel synthetic DNA-binding domains for targeted genome manipulation. Natural mechanisms of resistance in plants against TAL effector–containing pathogens have given insights into new strategies for disease control.