Researchers from Rice University's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics have deciphered the operating principles of a genetic circuit that allows cancer to metastasize.
“Cancer cells behave in complex ways, and this work shows how such complexity can arise from the operation of a relatively simple decision-making circuit,” said study co-author Eshel Ben-Jacob, a senior investigator at Rice’sCenter for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) and adjunct professor of biochemistry and cell biology at Rice. “By stripping away the complexity and starting with first principles, we get a glimpse of the ‘logic of cancer’ — the driver of the disease’s decision to spread.”
In the PNAS study, Ben-Jacob and CTBP colleagues José Onuchic, Herbert Levine, Mingyang Lu and Mohit Kumar Jolly describe a new theoretical framework that allowed them to model the behavior of microRNAs in decision-making circuits. To test the framework, they modeled the behavior of a decision-making genetic circuit that cells use to regulate the forward and backward transitions between two different cell states, the epithelial and mesenchymal. Known respectively as the E-M transition (EMT) and the M-E transition (MET), these changes in cell state are vital for embryonic development, tissue engineering and wound healing. During the EMT, some cells also form a third state, a hybrid that is endowed with a special mix of both epithelial and mesenchymal abilities, including group migration.
The EMT transition is also a hallmark of cancer metastasis. Cancer cells co-opt the process to allow tumor cells to break away, migrate to other parts of the body and establish a new tumor. To find ways to shut down metastasis, cancer researchers have conducted dozens of studies about the genetic circuitry that activates the EMT.
One clear finding from previous studies is that a two-component genetic switch is the key to both the EMT and MET. The switch contains two specialized pairs of proteins. One pair is SNAIL and microRNA34 (SNAIL/miR34), and the other is ZEB and microRNA200 (ZEB/miR200). Each pair is “mutually inhibitory,” meaning that the presence of one of the partners inhibits the production of the other.
In the mesenchymal cell state — the state that corresponds to cancer metastasis — both SNAIL and ZEB must be present in high levels. In the epithelial state, the microRNA partners dominate, and neither ZEB nor SNAIL is available in high levels.
“Usually, if you have two genes that are mutually limiting, you have only two possibilities,” Ben-Jacob said. “In the first case, gene A is highly expressed and inhibits gene B. In the other, gene B is highly expressed and it inhibits A. This is true in the case of ZEB and miR200. One of these is ‘on’ and the other is ‘off,’ so it’s clear that this is the decision element in the switch.”
SNAIL and miR34 interact more weakly. As a result, both can be present at the same time, with the amount of each varying based upon inputs from a number of other proteins, including several other cancer genes.
“One of the most important things the model showed us was how SNAIL and miR34 act as an integrator,” Ben-Jacob said. “This part of the circuit is acted on by multiple cues, and it integrates those signals and feeds information into the decision element. It does this based upon the level of SNAIL, which activates ZEB and inhibits miR200.”
Maybe I was in the 6th grade when I first read a story about marriage broken because of snoring. The story was a bit upsetting for me in that age, because I couldn't understood how snoring ruins a marriage. However, as of today, I still find it difficult to understand the break up consequences of snoring in a relationship.
Sleeping with a habitual snorer is quite disturbing if he/she keeps you waking up during sleep. As habitual snoring often interrupts the quality and quality of sleep, you'll find yourself in a very difficult position to deal with frequent snoring.
However, sleeping in separate bedrooms or break up couldn't be a solution to this problem. So, there must be some alternative ways to deal a habitual snorer -- but what are those?
If you're desparate to learn about those alternative ways, we're recommending you to read this article.
Improve your own psychic Abilities: This article offers 10 great steps to develop your own psychic abilities in the practical, real world.
Just looking at the title and description, you could easily understand that this post is about how to develop the psychic abilities form your inside. I believe you would enjoy reading this post if you've interest in developing psychic abilities.
I need to infrom this post is a guest contribution, as well. Writer Jason Tomon -- who is from Mexico City -- has contributed this post for my blog Medical-Reference.net.
I have accepted and published this post in my blog because this particular post doesn't offer any coaching, but it rather focuses on improving your own phychic abilites. This post would mostly help persons who are continuing their psychic training or currently in begineer level.
If you're interested to know how to stop snoring, read on to find out the root cause of your snoring and the remedies that would best suit your needs.
It took nearly three days to finish writing this article. I have studied nearly 30 journal papers for providing my audience with a complete guide to help stop snoring.
I believe this is a complete and must read article for all snorers. You may not find an alternative to this one, as I have included all the available remedies -- natural, alternative, and medical -- in this article.
Please have a look at the original article. I believe after reading the content, you'll understand why I have claimed it as an unique one.
Buy Ajoene – A Potential Compound from Garlic by Imtiaz Ibne Alam (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and reviews.
This eBook is dedicated for those who want to study or learn about ajoene. This potential compound of garlic took my interest in writing this eBook when I first found that there was not a single source that includes descriptive information about ajoene. Still, most of the literatures about this ingredient are in journal papers and patents. For this reason, I decided to write an ebook that is easier to read, but provides the complete information about the ingredient. This book explains what is ajoene, the history of ajoene’s discovery, how it derives from garlic, how it works in the body, different therapeutic properties and references of the studies that are performed to evaluate its medicinal properties.
I hope the information contained in this book will be helpful and handy for you.
Many people does not understand why their feet is exposed to harmful pathogens like toenail fungus. Actually, there are many reasons for this exposure. You need to know that lack of proper concern or improper foot care is one of the main reasons for their exposure.
Have you ever thought why there is a need of proper foot care?
I bet you never thought about that. Actually, proper foot care is needed just to keep your feet out of reach of risky pathogens. Reading this far of this post, a question may arise in your mind that how to properly take care feet. If you want to explore the steps to proper foot care, read this article carefully to know the steps.
Managing chronic pain can be a confusing proposition for patient and physician alike. So many medications are now available to treat chronic pain that it can be a bewildering prospect to sort through which are helpful and which are not. Some patients believe that jumping right to opioid medications is the best way to treat pain, and some would not ever take opioids ......
A team in Bristol have created an implant that encourages cells damaged by the disease to grow again. It does this through a system of tubes and catheters that pump proteins into patients’ brain once a month, potentially stopping the disease from progressing by encouraging the damaged cells to grow again.
The port located behind a patient’s ear releases a protein called glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Six patients at Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, have trialled the system, and doctors are now looking for another 36 to help them continue their research.
Dr Kieran Breen, director of research and innovation at Parkinson's UK, said: “For years, the potential of GDNF as a treatment for Parkinson's has remained one of the great unanswered research questions.
”This new study will take us one step closer to finally answering this question once and for all.
Snoring is often an indicator for serious health issues and may even lead a snorer to severe respiratory tract, lung, heart, kidney, and brain diseases. However, these are not all; snoring can also make a big impact in your relationship with your partner.
Nearly two weeks ago, I wrote this particular content for publishing in Yahoo! Voices; after 10 days of long review process, yesterday, the YCN editor approved and published the content.
Well, the title may sound like a generic one, but this is an evidence-based article on natural remedies to cope with snoring. In this article, I included only the safe and effective natural remedies that were proven by scientific studies.
If you, your partner, or family member snore badly and loudly while asleep but want to get rid of this habit, this article may help you to find effective natural remedies that are with fewer or no side effects.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. A number of potential symptoms arise before an asthma attack.
An easy-to-read article on mild asthma symptoms for readers who dislike reading complex or academic parts. However, I believe this article is especially centered for persons who never experienced asthma symptoms and suspecting that he (or she) might develop asthma condition.
Natural remedies have been used in treating mental conditions -- like anxiety and stress -- since the ancient times; some of these ingredients have proven effectiveness nearly similar compared to present day psychiatric drugs.
If you suffer from allergies, you know that you have a wide array of medications to choose from in order to prevent your allergies from starting and to cure any symptoms that you may have. Medications are available over the counter and in prescription form, and you can also choose from shots, oral medications and inhalers.........
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