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IBM Unveils Watson Research Projects with Cleveland Clinic

IBM Unveils Watson Research Projects with Cleveland Clinic | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
IBM Research and Cleveland Clinic announced WatsonPaths and Watson EMR Assistant – new tools to help physicians make more informed and accurate decisions faster and to cull new insights from electronic medical records.
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And now I need to scramble to add these to my chapter for the forthcoming Machine Medical Ethics book.  :-)

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Using Cognitive Dissonance to Manipulate Social Preferences

Abstract: We explore the role of cognitive dissonance in dictator and public goods games. Specifically, we motivate cognitive dissonance between one's perception of “fair treatment” and self-interested behaviour by having participants answer a question about fairness. Utilizing two manipulations (reminding participants about their answer to the fairness question and publicly reporting aggregate answers to the question), we find that there is greater cognitive dissonance and behavioural change when there is a social component (i.e., reporting of aggregate answers). When a participant's answer to the fairness question is private, there is less dissonance and hence no behavioural change.


Via Alessandro Cerboni
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Group Minds and the Case of Wikipedia

Group-level cognitive states are widely observed in human social systems, but their discussion is often ruled out a priori in quantitative approaches. In this paper, we show how reference to the irreducible mental states and psychological dynamics of a group is necessary to make sense of large scale social phenomena. We introduce the problem of mental boundaries by reference to a classic problem in the evolution of cooperation. We then provide an explicit quantitative example drawn from ongoing work on cooperation and conflict among Wikipedia editors. We show the limitations of methodological individualism, and the substantial benefits that come from being able to refer to collective intentions and attributions of cognitive states of the form "what the group believes" and "what the group values".

 

Group Minds and the Case of Wikipedia
Simon DeDeo

http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.2210


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The Ethics of Autonomous Cars

The Ethics of Autonomous Cars | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
Sometimes good judgment can compel us to act illegally. Should a self-driving vehicle get to make that same decision?

Via Wildcat2030
Mark Waser's insight:

I missed this when it came out last fall . . . .

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Adilson Camacho's curator insight, June 29, 9:39 PM

Percepção e mobilidade... 

Larry Happiday's curator insight, July 1, 4:00 AM

Who would you hold responsible when a driver-less car is violates driving ethics: the ca itself, owner or manufacturer?

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Get Organized: Dan Ariely on Finding Motivation With Apps

Get Organized: Dan Ariely on Finding Motivation With Apps | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
In this exclusive interview, behavioral economist Dan Ariely explains why smartphone apps could be the perfect solution to staying motivated, and why most app developers simply aren't getting it right.
Mark Waser's insight:

The first part is the least interesting . . . .

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Decision Making: The Neuroethological Turn: Neuron

Decision Making: The Neuroethological Turn: Neuron | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it

Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision making in health and disease.

Mark Waser's insight:

An excellent review paper . . . .

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Guided Self-Organization in a Dynamic Embodied System Based on Attractor Selection Mechanism

Guided self-organization can be regarded as a paradigm proposed to understand how to guide a self-organizing system towards desirable behaviors, while maintaining its non-deterministic dynamics with emergent features. It is, however, not a trivial problem to guide the self-organizing behavior of physically embodied systems like robots, as the behavioral dynamics are results of interactions among their controller, mechanical dynamics of the body, and the environment. This paper presents a guided self-organization approach for dynamic robots based on a coupling between the system mechanical dynamics with an internal control structure known as the attractor selection mechanism. The mechanism enables the robot to gracefully shift between random and deterministic behaviors, represented by a number of attractors, depending on internally generated stochastic perturbation and sensory input. The robot used in this paper is a simulated curved beam hopping robot: a system with a variety of mechanical dynamics which depends on its actuation frequencies. Despite the simplicity of the approach, it will be shown how the approach regulates the probability of the robot to reach a goal through the interplay among the sensory input, the level of inherent stochastic perturbation, i.e., noise, and the mechanical dynamics.

 

Guided Self-Organization in a Dynamic Embodied System Based on Attractor Selection Mechanism
Surya G. Nurzaman , Xiaoxiang Yu, Yongjae Kim and Fumiya Iida

Entropy 2014, 16(5), 2592-2610

http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/16/5/2592


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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 14, 8:18 AM

This ties in with the concept of changing the software that runs on society's particular hardware.  Government is the control mechanism in a given society and it must obey the natural laws of the society in order to get the responses and effects that its members wish to have on the society.  This is similar to an airplane, in that the only way to get an airplane safely, reliably and consistently off the ground is to obey the natural laws of physics in the world that the airplane is also apart of.

 

It should be noted here that only benevolence, care, honesty, cost effectiveness and genuine action for the sake of the general public, however those are done, are the only ways for a government and its members to stay in power.  Underhanded techniques or the imposition of brute force will not work, especially in the context of an American society.  Such is how things work in our world.  And it's unfortunate that so many people who actually are holding political power in our society are so apparently clueless and unwilling to accept these principles in their daily courses of action.

 

Think about it.

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Sphere Engineering - Machine Learning Solutions - The Singularity is not coming

Sphere Engineering - Machine Learning Solutions - The Singularity is not coming | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
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Not to mention the fact that "not being able to predict what comes next" is a really *BAD* idea . . . .

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Schedule

Schedule | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
Saturday morning 09.15: Registration, refreshments, and networking 09.40: Welcome from conference chair (David Wood) and session moderator (Dean Bubley) 09.45: Rohit Talwar, Global Futurist and Fou...
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Everyone will find a video that is valuable to them.

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6 Symposium: Speculations on Anonymous Materials - Reza Negarestani - YouTube

Symposium: Speculations on Anonymous Materials Participants: Maurizio Ferraris, Markus Gabriel, Iain Hamilton Grant, Robin Mackay, Reza Negarestani The Specu...
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I'd love to put him in a room with Luciano Floridi.

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Complex Thinking for a Complex World – About Reductionism, Disjunction and Systemism, by Edgar Morin

This article is based on the keynote address presented to the European Meetings on Cybernetics and Systems Research (EMCSR) in 2012, on the occasion of Edgar Morin receiving the Bertalanffy Prize in Complexity Thinking, awarded by the Bertalanffy Centre for the Study of Systems Science (BCSSS).
The following theses will be elaborated on: (a) The whole is at the same time more and less than its parts; (b) We must abandon the term "object" for systems because all the objects are systems and parts of systems; (c) System and organization are the two faces of the same reality; (d) Eco-systems illustrate self-organization.

 

Complex Thinking for a Complex World – About Reductionism, Disjunction and Systemism
Edgar Morin

Systema: connecting matter, life, culture and technology Vol 2, No 1 (2014)

http://www.systema-journal.org/article/view/257


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Eli Levine's curator insight, April 13, 10:21 PM

There is a kind of meditation in Buddhist practice known as analytical meditation.  It's purpose is to inform us about an object, all of its properties and all of the associations, connections and contexts that it can have in the individual and collective sense. 

 

We're not going to be perfect coming up with all of the connections all of the time.  However, I think it's a good starting basis for the purposes of analyzing complex systems and all of the layered, interconnected parts.  We are one, and one is all.

 

The universe is us as well as around us.


And that's a scientific fact, it seems.

 

Think about it.

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, April 14, 2:37 PM

objects versus systems?

luiy's curator insight, May 1, 9:20 PM

In this light is interesting to consider the nature of life. Living systems represent a complex type of organization. The organization of a living system is more complex than the  organization of the molecules of which it is composed. However, this organization is  achieved using only molecules from the physical universe – living systems are not made from something like ‘living matter’, but from ordinary physical and chemical substances.


“Life” is a property created through complex self-organisation. Life is characterized by processes of self-reproduction and self-repair, processes that involve knowledge and  memory. The central feature of a living system is the self-organizational capacity to produce
and reproduce itself. However, as von Foerster noted, calling this self-organisation is paradoxical, because the organizational processes of life require a continuous input of energy. We need energy even when we sleep – energy to drive our heartbeat, our digestion, our breathing. We use energy in all moments of life. However, we also need to compensate for the dissipation of energy in line with the second law of thermodynamics, and this means we must take in energy from the environment. We do this by ingesting material  that contains energy, and to this we need knowledge of the environment, and in particular knowledge of the organization of the environment. So self-organisation requires an interplay between the knowledge of how to organize the self and the knowledge of how the environment is organized.

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DARPA-Funded Atlas Robot to Go Tetherless in the Next Six Months | TIME

DARPA-Funded Atlas Robot to Go Tetherless in the Next Six Months | TIME | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
Everyone's favorite terrifying humanoid is about to lose the cables and tubes that feed it a steady diet of power, fluids and data.

Via Jim Gunderson
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Jim Gunderson's curator insight, April 8, 10:31 AM

The robot is awesome, but was severely limited by the tether - now we may see some progress, of course the $1,000,000 price tag may be a deterrent to dominating the robotics marketplace!  Check out this article, then visit http://bit.ly/17gRvC7 for a more cost effective solution!

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10 Most Brilliant Social Psychology Experiments

10 Most Brilliant Social Psychology Experiments | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it

Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments.

“I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures. Why do good people sometimes act evil? Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo. Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author ofThe Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown.

Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology studies. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day.


Via Alessandro Cerboni
Mark Waser's insight:

Be sure to read the 10 More article as well . . . .

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The Trouble with Introspection

The Trouble with Introspection | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
The folk history of psychology has it that the early efforts of folk such as Wundt and Titchener failed because they relied on introspection. Simply looking into your own mind and reporting what yo...
Mark Waser's insight:

Qualia are ineffable because they are influenced by every aspect of our unified mind — yet we try to explain them with our memory and mental model which are necessarily but a small (contained) part of that experiencing mind. Jackson’s Mary cannot possibly know because in order to do so her mental model would have to contain the entirety of her mind — which already contains her mental model and much, much more. I’ve written in more detail about this in Safe/Moral Autopoiesis & Consciousness – Int. J. Mach. Conscious. 5:1, pp. 59-74 (abstract at http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1793843013400052, PDF at http://becominggaia.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/waser-ijmc.pdf).

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Complex systems made simple

Complex systems made simple | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
Network scientists at Northeastern have designed an algorithm capable of identifying the subset of components that reveal a complex system's overall nature.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, July 10, 2:02 PM

Way cool. And useful. 

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Grand Challenges for Evolutionary Robotics

Evolutionary Robotics is a field that “aims to apply evolutionary computation techniques to evolve the overall design or controllers, or both, for real and simulated autonomous robots” (Vargas et al., 2014). This approach is “useful both for investigating the design space of robotic applications and for testing scientific hypotheses of biological mechanisms and processes” (Floreano et al., 2008). However, as noted in Bongard (2013) “the use of metaheuristics (i.e., evolution) sets this subfield of robotics apart from the mainstream of robotics research,” which “aims to continuously generate better behavior for a given robot, while the long-term goal of Evolutionary Robotics is to create general, robot-generating algorithms.”

 

Front. Robot. AI, 30 June 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2014.00004

Grand challenges for evolutionary robotics
Agoston E. Eiben


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Suicidal crickets, zombie roaches and other parasite tales

Suicidal crickets, zombie roaches and other parasite tales | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
We humans set a premium on our own free will and independence ... and yet there's a shadowy influence we might not be considering. As science writer Ed Yong explains in this fascinating, hilarious and disturbing talk, parasites have perfected the art of manipulation to an incredible degree. So are they influencing us? It's more than likely.
Mark Waser's insight:

Ends with exactly the parasite you'd expect (no, not the one that causes red dots)

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Free to Choose?

Free to Choose? | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
How Americans have become tyrannized by the culture’s overinvestment in choice.
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Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it

One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

 

Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation
Christoph Salge , Cornelius Glackin and Daniel Polani

Entropy 2014, 16(5), 2789-2819; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e16052789


Via Complexity Digest
Mark Waser's insight:

Intrinsic motivation, FTW -- with any easy segue into ethics as empowerment for others.

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How to Ask for a Favor: A Case Study on the Success of Altruistic Requests

Requests are at the core of many social media systems such as question & answer sites and online philanthropy communities. While the success of such requests is critical to the success of the community, the factors that lead community members to satisfy a request are largely unknown. Success of a request depends on factors like who is asking, how they are asking, when are they asking, and most critically what is being requested, ranging from small favors to substantial monetary donations. We present a case study of altruistic requests in an online community where all requests ask for the very same contribution and do not offer anything tangible in return, allowing us to disentangle what is requested from textual and social factors. Drawing from social psychology literature, we extract high-level social features from text that operationalize social relations between recipient and donor and demonstrate that these extracted relations are predictive of success. More specifically, we find that clearly communicating need through the narrative is essential and that that linguistic indications of gratitude, evidentiality, and generalized reciprocity, as well as high status of the asker further increase the likelihood of success. Building on this understanding, we develop a model that can predict the success of unseen requests, significantly improving over several baselines. We link these findings to research in psychology on helping behavior, providing a basis for further analysis of success in social media systems.

 

How to Ask for a Favor: A Case Study on the Success of Altruistic Requests
Tim Althoff, Cristian Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Dan Jurafsky

http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.3282


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june holley's curator insight, May 19, 10:07 AM

Important information about micro processes that make networks work well!

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A Rough Guide to Spotting Bad Science

A Rough Guide to Spotting Bad Science | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
A brief detour from chemistry, branching out into science in general today. This graphic looks at the different factors that can contribute towards 'bad' science - it was inspired by the research I...
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A Few Useful Things to Know about Machine Learning

Pedro DomingosDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Washington
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A good overview/non-technical summary -- "Machine learning algorithms can figure out how to perform important tasks by generalizing from examples. This is often feasible and cost-effective where manual programming is not. As more data becomes available, more ambitious problems can be tackled. As a result, machine learning is widely used in computer science and other fields. However,developing successful machine learning applications requiresa substantial amount of “black art” that is hard to find in textbooks. This article summarizes twelve key lessons that machine learning researchers and practitioners have learned. These include pitfalls to avoid, important issues to focus on, and answers to common questions."
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Hierarchical Block Structures and High-Resolution Model Selection in Large Networks

Hierarchical Block Structures and High-Resolution Model Selection in Large Networks | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it

Social, technological, and biological networks are known to organize into modules or “communities.” Characterizing and identifying modules is highly nontrivial and still an outstanding problem in networks research. A new approach uses both the concept of modular hierarchy for network construction and the methods of statistical inference to address this problem, succeeding where the existing approaches see difficulties.

 

Hierarchical Block Structures and High-Resolution Model Selection in Large Networks
Tiago P. Peixoto
Phys. Rev. X 4, 011047 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.4.011047


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Can robots have social intelligence?

Can robots have social intelligence? | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
Visiting Eric Horvitz at Microsoft Research headquarters in Redmond, Wash., is a full-service experience.
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"Understanding shared context" is what makes "being human" possible.

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How politics makes us stupid

How politics makes us stupid | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it

Tere’s a simple theory underlying much of American politics. It sits hopefully at the base of almost every speech, every op-ed, every article, and every panel discussion. It courses through the Constitution and is a constant in President Obama’s most stirring addresses. It’s what we might call the More Information Hypothesis: the belief that many of our most bitter political battles are mere misunderstandings. The cause of these misunderstandings? Too little information — be it about climate change, or taxes, or Iraq, or the budget deficit. If only the citizenry were more informed, the thinking goes, then there wouldn’t be all this fighting.It’s a seductive model. It suggests our fellow countrymen aren’t wrong so much as they’re misguided, or ignorant, or — most appealingly — misled by scoundrels from the other party. It holds that our debates are tractable and that the answers to our toughest problems aren’t very controversial at all. The theory is particularly prevalent in Washington, where partisans devote enormous amounts of energy to persuading each other that there’s really a right answer to the difficult questions in American politics — and that they have it.


Via Alessandro Cerboni
Mark Waser's insight:

I hate the terms "stupid" or "irrational" when they are describing human traits that have evolved because they are better in the long term than any of the known alternatives that criticize them *cough*REDUCTIONISM*cough.

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What you’re seeing right now is a composite of images past and present, researchers find

What you’re seeing right now is a composite of images past and present, researchers find | Digital Wisdom | Scoop.it
How our brains smooth out all the information our eyes take in — and sometimes mess up in the process.
Mark Waser's insight:

Our consciousness/self really does live in a virtual reality created by our subconscious.  Scientific study report in Nature Neuroscience (http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nn.3689.html)

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