Digital Literacy in the Library
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The Definition Of Digital Literacy

The Definition Of Digital Literacy | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Terry Heick writes: "When we think of digital literacy, we usually think of research–finding, evaluating, and properly crediting digital sources. The “research” connotation makes sense, as it is the sheer volume of sources and media forms on the “internet” that stand out.

But we are living in a world where the internet is disappearing, replaced by sheer connectivity. Are you “on the internet” when you tweet? Skim through a social reader like Flipboard? Send a text? Mark up a pdf and sync it with the cloud so you can access it later? Are the cloud and the “internet” the same thing?"


Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Reflecting on the definition is important in our fluid online world. My students are all over the spectrum of being digitally literate!

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Mlik Sahib's curator insight, May 13, 2014 10:40 PM

"Cornell University offers a definition that works, but seems a bit limited, and dated as well: “Digital literacy is the ability to find, evaluate, utilize, share, and create content using information technologies and the Internet.”

This isn’t wrong so much as it focuses too much on technology and “the internet.” Literacy can’t be about the forms unless we’re talking about form literacy. Digital tools exist for access–finding information. Then finding better information. Socializing thinking. Connecting and contributing to digital communities you care about.

It is also a matter of “literacy” to understand concepts like digital footprints and identity. This reflects the overlap between digital literacy and digital citizenship, much in the same way there is overlap between traditional literacy and citizenship.

To settle on a definition then, here’s one that reflects the depth and breadth of the concept without getting overly wordy or complex:

“Digital literacy is the ability to interpret and design nuanced communication across fluid digital forms.”

Sample Student's curator insight, May 15, 2014 6:47 PM

This makes sense! When my daughter searches for prom dresses, she searches on Facebook. Social networking and reputation have become increasingly important in the connected world. There is also evidence of a growing movement in youth social networks that a Google is not necessarily as reliable as their own extended networks.

 

Is this more broadly applicable? Interesting that yesterday I received a survey request from an online travel agent. The questions were more related to reputation and social networks than internet-provided information.

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A Texting Truth Often Forgotten in Politics: Your Phone Remembers Everything

A Texting Truth Often Forgotten in Politics: Your Phone Remembers Everything | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Alan Feuer writes: "Douglas Rushkoff, a media theorist and the author most recently of “Present Shock,” said that, unlike in earlier eras when communications vanished, a fundamental aspect of the digital-media age was that every word a person typed on a cellphone or computer was permanently stored somewhere in a retrievable file.

 

“Everything we do is being remembered,” Mr. Rushkoff said. “Everything we do may as well be etched on the side of the Parthenon.”

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I will be loosely paraphrasing attorney Jim Thomas from now on: "You can dance like no one is watching, but you better not text (or Snapchat, Instagram, etc.) unless you want the principal to see it."

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Moving Students From Digital Citizenship To Digital Leadership

Moving Students From Digital Citizenship To Digital Leadership | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Terry Heick writes: "... Sylvia Duckworth recently got together with Jennifer Casa-Todd (you can also check out her blog) to illustrate an interesting twist on this idea–moving from mere “citizenship” to inspired leadership in digital spaces, using two definitions from George Couros (who has better hair than Terry Heick, so we get it).

 

  • Digital Citizenship: Using the internet and social media in a responsible and ethical way
  • Digital Leadership: Using the internet and social media to improve the lives, well-being, and circumstances of others.   

The idea behind the shift? A kind of empathy–moving beyond see one’s self, and moving towards seeing one’s self in the physical and digital company of others. As digital technology and social media become more deeply embedded in our lives, and more nuanced in their function, this is a shift whose time has come. The question becomes, then, what’s the next evolution of this idea?"


Via Rod Murray
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I spend time teaching 6th graders about digital citizenship. This switch in perspective would work for 7th and 8th graders!

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Rod Murray's curator insight, December 14, 2015 10:05 AM

Food for the growth mindset thought!

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The ‘Ice Bucket Challenge’ Helped Scientists Discover a New Gene Tied to A.L.S.

The ‘Ice Bucket Challenge’ Helped Scientists Discover a New Gene Tied to A.L.S. | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
A social media campaign disparaged by some as “slacktivism” raised $115 million and encouraged research.
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

A good follow-up to this and this article about the Ice Bucket Challenge and slacktivism. I think it's recent enough that students will remember the challenge, yet there's enough perspective to debate the value of such social media campaigns. 

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Big questions on information literacy - Ewan McIntosh | Design Thinking, Education & Learning

Big questions on information literacy - Ewan McIntosh | Design Thinking, Education & Learning | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
What needs to change when our students can publish to a worldwide audience? How does a teacher's role change when we can bring primary sources into the classroom? How do we define literacy in a world where we must not only know how to read and write but to edit and create and publish? Some answers.. Teachers need t

Via Karen Bonanno
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

This is 10 years old, but still a useful framework for information literacy. 

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Tool literacy as a new process —  NeverEndingSearch

Tool literacy as a new process —  NeverEndingSearch | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Joyce Valenza writes: "We need to learn how to leverage the tools on our new desks.  We need to make conscious choices about the way we manage information and communication workflow in a way that is entirely anti-worksheet.   For any of the tools we use, we need to master notions of their affordances and constraints."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I had a teacher ask if I could teach her students app smashing. I explained that the project we just did with her class, using Google Slides, Google Cultural Institute, Nimbus Screenshot, and Google Hangout was exactly that. Joyce's article gives a much better explanation of how, and more importantly, why we need to a better job of thinking about the tools we use and teach.

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The dirty little secret that data journalists aren’t telling you

The dirty little secret that data journalists aren’t telling you | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Christopher Ingraham writes: "The difference between my map and Pew's -- again, they both use the exact same data set -- underscores a bit of a dirty little secret in data journalism: Visualizing data is as much an art as a science. And seemingly tiny design decisions -- where to set a color threshold, how many thresholds to set, etc. -- can radically alter how numbers are displayed and perceived by readers."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I'm doing presentations about infographics this month with 6th, 7th and 8th graders. The graphics in this article will be helpful in demonstrating how important it is to think about how the data in an infographic is displayed. For middle school, the phrase will be "Lies, darned lies, and statistics!" 

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Best Way To Learn Any Subject: Curation - Content Curation Official Guide - Medium
Why is content curation so relevant for learning?
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Robin Good has great insight into why focused curation matters. Reading this right after Dan Russell's post about syntopical reading made me think about how I curate. In an ideal experience of curating for learning  Robin states: "...each student becomes not just a learner, but, as it should be, he becomes also a reviewer, an investigator, an explorer and a contributor to the ideas and understanding surrounding that subject."

 

Let's make sure we're teaching students curation as a literacy skill. It's not just bookmarking or Pinning or Scooping links, but engaging with them, directing their own learning, and maybe even adding something that helps others learn.

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TWCLibrary's curator insight, March 10, 5:03 PM

Robin Good has great insight into why focused curation matters. Reading this right after Dan Russell's post about syntopical reading made me think about how I curate. In an ideal experience of curating for learning  Robin states: "...each student becomes not just a learner, but, as it should be, he becomes also a reviewer, an investigator, an explorer and a contributor to the ideas and understanding surrounding that subject."

 

Let's make sure we're teaching students curation as a literacy skill. It's not just bookmarking or Pinning or Scooping links, but engaging with them, directing their own learning, and maybe even adding something that helps others learn.

Stephania Savva's curator insight, March 11, 12:36 AM

Robin Good has great insight into why focused curation matters. Reading this right after Dan Russell's post about syntopical reading made me think about how I curate. In an ideal experience of curating for learning  Robin states: "...each student becomes not just a learner, but, as it should be, he becomes also a reviewer, an investigator, an explorer and a contributor to the ideas and understanding surrounding that subject."

 

Let's make sure we're teaching students curation as a literacy skill. It's not just bookmarking or Pinning or Scooping links, but engaging with them, directing their own learning, and maybe even adding something that helps others learn.

Leslie Haas's curator insight, March 13, 12:47 AM

Robin Good has great insight into why focused curation matters. Reading this right after Dan Russell's post about syntopical reading made me think about how I curate. In an ideal experience of curating for learning  Robin states: "...each student becomes not just a learner, but, as it should be, he becomes also a reviewer, an investigator, an explorer and a contributor to the ideas and understanding surrounding that subject."

 

Let's make sure we're teaching students curation as a literacy skill. It's not just bookmarking or Pinning or Scooping links, but engaging with them, directing their own learning, and maybe even adding something that helps others learn.

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App Makers Reach Out to the Teenager on Mobile

App Makers Reach Out to the Teenager on Mobile | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
One app’s effort to understand its teenage audience illuminates the habits of a generation that is constantly connected and often anxious.
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Some interesting insights from the teens interviewed in the article. I'm not sure that teens today are more "sensitve to the needs of others," but I would say they are acutely sensitive about being judged on their own posts on social media.


I looked at the Wishbone app, and found most of the comments were positive. (Of course, I always wonder with any new app how much of the content comes from actual users and how much is posted by busy interns!) Wishbone does give a certain distance from judgement--the user is asking a question, and not really putting her own opinion, appearance, likes, etc., on display. As Dougherty states, it's about "your tastes, not your identity."


This article would be great for a high school discussion on social media!

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Six easy ways to tell if that viral story is a hoax

Six easy ways to tell if that viral story is a hoax | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Pete Brown writes: "But news in the digital age spreads faster than ever, and so do lies and hoaxes. Just like retractions and corrections in newspapers, online rebuttals often make rather less of a splash than the original misinformation. As I have argued elsewhere, digital verification skills are essential for today’s journalists, and academic institutions are starting to provide the necessary training.

But ordinary people are also starting to take a more sophisticated approach to the content they view online. It’s no longer enough to read the news – now, we want to understand the processes behind it. Fortunately, there are a few relatively effective verification techniques, which do not require specialist knowledge or costly software.


Image via www.urbanlegends.about.com

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Just in time for my website evaluation/critical thinking presentation! These ideas are great to demonstrate with students. Let them use the tools and analyze different content.

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ToSA Mark Van Over's curator insight, October 7, 2015 6:42 PM

A very important skill for students and adults. It's all about digital literacy!

Leslie Haas's curator insight, March 13, 12:47 AM

Just in time for my website evaluation/critical thinking presentation! These ideas are great to demonstrate with students. Let them use the tools and analyze different content.

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The science of ‘The Martian’: 5 TED-Ed Lessons to help you understand the film

The science of ‘The Martian’: 5 TED-Ed Lessons to help you understand the film | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

"The Martian stars Matt Damon as a stranded astronaut — and Mars as the red planet of doom. Can our hero survive life on Mars? Can NASA find a way to bring him home? To help you better understand the film — and the scifi novel that came first — we’ve picked 5 TED-Ed Lessons that explore some key Martian life skills."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I know a lot of my students went to see the movie this weekend. We just got back, and I thought the movie was great! It will be fun to share these videos during the week with classes.

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Digital Citizenship - 6th grade presentation

Digital Citizenship - 6th grade presentation | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

I updated my digital citizenship presentation, based on Craig Badura's digital citizenship kit found here. I used this last year, and found that the students could recall the images and what they represented four or five months later. I am trying to use more images and less text (and less me talking!) in all of my presentations.

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Feel free to use or share. Please give Mr. Badura credit for the original idea.

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The Covert World of Wikipedia Editing

The Covert World of Wikipedia Editing | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Joe Pinsker, quoting James Heilman,  writes: "Many people do not consider other people to be intelligent enough to use Wikipedia with a grain of salt, yet they consider themselves to be intelligent enough to use Wikipedia properly,” Heilman observes. To rely on Wikipedia without any skepticism is to act as though every editor is as relentless, principled, and stubborn as he is.

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

This is a great article for discussion among high school students. PR firms that hire editors to ensure a more favorable Wikipedia article? It shouldn't be shocking these days, but far too many people (not just students) use Wikipedia as their only source of information. I love the example of an Oxford University Press book that evidently contained content cribbed from the Wikipedia article! My 7th graders copying directly from the Wiki page -- complete with the numerical footnotes -- now have textbook writing as a career option. 

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6 of 10 Millennials Have 'Low' Technology Skills

6 of 10 Millennials Have 'Low' Technology Skills | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Dian Shaffhause writes: "American millennials may be the first generation that grew up with computers and Internet access, but all that time spent glued to a small screen hasn't translated to technology competence, according to a research project that analyzed data from an assessment of adult competencies that tests cognitive and workplace skills."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

This statistic floored me: "91 percent of millennials consider a lack of computer skills irrelevant to their job prospects..." How are we sending students off to college, let alone into the workforce, with such a lack of understanding of the world? 

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Pamela Huff's curator insight, June 18, 2015 4:30 PM

So nice to see that I'm not the only one who's noticed this change, and that we have the data to prove it. How we change this is the Big Question of the day.

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For Teenage Girls, Swimsuit Season Never Ends

For Teenage Girls, Swimsuit Season Never Ends | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
When young women are prompted to reflect on their physical appearance, they lose intellectual strength, research shows.
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:
This certainly would make an interesting discussion. I'd love to hear from both boys and girls about this study.
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Can mythbusters like Snopes.com keep up in a post-truth era?

Can mythbusters like Snopes.com keep up in a post-truth era? | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
The fact-checking website was launched to correct urban legends and false rumours. Now, with even presidential candidates repeating fake stories from the web, its co-founder David Mikkelson says ‘the bilge is rising faster than you can pump’
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I recommend Snopes to teachers and students a lot. (NB: Be aware that some of the queries on the site are not school appropriate, so always test  before you open the site on your screen for all to see!) 

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GwynethJones's curator insight, August 3, 11:29 AM

Share with your social studies peeps!

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Teachers are thanking Melania Trump

Teachers are thanking Melania Trump | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
Teachers and academics discuss plagiarism following Melania Trump's speech
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:
A teachable moment indeed!
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Sandra Markus's curator insight, August 12, 10:16 AM

A great example of plagiarism for Digital Literacy curriculum

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Why SearchResearch skills matter in education

Why SearchResearch skills matter in education | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Dan Russell writes: "There’s a difference between knowing that something exists, being able to find it rapidly with a moment’s worth of research, and then being able to pull together multiple sources of information into a coherent analysis. 

In particular, the research skills gap is growing.  Students (and teachers, and for that matter, employees) who are able to do rapid and accurate research on a topic have a substantial advantage in getting things done and deepening their understanding.  

What’s more, there’s an unexpected second-order effect: those that have developed and sharpened their research skills can grow those research skills over time, increasingly widening the gap from their peers who haven’t mastered that self-teaching nuance. Having research skills isn’t just an optional part of your education—they’re essential.  Especially once you know how to do the research to upgrade your research skills." 

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I learn so much reading Dan's blog! I'll be sharing this with teachers and students. Being able to Google a fact and being able to dig deeper to find the best resources and increase understanding is like the difference between knowing a tomato is a fruit, and knowing not to put it in a fruit salad. (Or better yet, knowing that in the United States we don't do that. In South Korea, cherry tomatoes in bingsu are a real treat!)

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BMO's curator insight, June 20, 11:42 AM

Onderwijs en de veranderende onderzoeksvaardigheden

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Digital Citizenship: Two Perspectives on Using Social Media in Education

Digital Citizenship: Two Perspectives on Using Social Media in Education | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
Social media plays a huge role in our lives & the lives of our students. We asked two social media rockstars for their advice on social media in education. 

Via GwynethJones
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Some great  pointers in here from Gwyneth and Tyler! Just to prove the point, I met Gwyneth via Twitter and now consider her one of my go-to gurus on anything middle school library related. So get out there on social media and find your tribe!

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GwynethJones's curator insight, May 27, 7:55 AM

My take on this topic...along with the admirable Tyler Tarver.

 

Was honored, always, but I feel like  I used the term "sharing cool things" WAY too many times! LOL

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Knowing the Difference Between Digital Skills and Digital Literacies, and Teaching Both

Knowing the Difference Between Digital Skills and Digital Literacies, and Teaching Both | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Maha Bali writes: "We often hear people talk about the importance of digital knowledge for 21st-century learners. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Maha Bali's article is worth sharing widely with anyone who needs to be nudged ever so gently into the 21st century of education. (We're 16% through it, folks!) Bali addresses the need to teach about digital skills and literacy in an authentic context, not a vacuum, and gives many concrete examples for doing that. 

 

I recently did a lesson on blogging with a 6th grade class. We looked at several tween and teen blogs, then reviewed good digital citizenship practices emphasizing student safety and copyright. Finally, each student created a blog on Blogger. Will they make mistakes? Probably. (When I specifically told them to keep it school appropriate, with nothing in the blog they wouldn't be allowed to do at school, and one student immediately started searching for "Call of Duty 3" images!) Will we all learn something from this? Absolutely. 

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Cristin Kennedy's curator insight, March 26, 12:07 PM

Maha Bali's article is worth sharing widely with anyone who needs to be nudged ever so gently into the 21st century of education. (We're 16% through it, folks!) Bali addresses the need to teach about digital skills and literacy in an authentic context, not a vacuum, and gives many concrete examples for doing that. 

 

I recently did a lesson on blogging with a 6th grade class. We looked at several tween and teen blogs, then reviewed good digital citizenship practices emphasizing student safety and copyright. Finally, each student created a blog on Blogger. Will they make mistakes? Probably. (When I specifically told them to keep it school appropriate, with nothing in the blog they wouldn't be allowed to do at school, and one student immediately started searching for "Call of Duty 3" images!) Will we all learn something from this? Absolutely. 

Natasha Georgiou's curator insight, March 27, 12:00 AM

Maha Bali's article is worth sharing widely with anyone who needs to be nudged ever so gently into the 21st century of education. (We're 16% through it, folks!) Bali addresses the need to teach about digital skills and literacy in an authentic context, not a vacuum, and gives many concrete examples for doing that. 

 

I recently did a lesson on blogging with a 6th grade class. We looked at several tween and teen blogs, then reviewed good digital citizenship practices emphasizing student safety and copyright. Finally, each student created a blog on Blogger. Will they make mistakes? Probably. (When I specifically told them to keep it school appropriate, with nothing in the blog they wouldn't be allowed to do at school, and one student immediately started searching for "Call of Duty 3" images!) Will we all learn something from this? Absolutely. 

Darin Nakakihara's curator insight, March 27, 12:44 PM

Maha Bali's article is worth sharing widely with anyone who needs to be nudged ever so gently into the 21st century of education. (We're 16% through it, folks!) Bali addresses the need to teach about digital skills and literacy in an authentic context, not a vacuum, and gives many concrete examples for doing that. 

 

I recently did a lesson on blogging with a 6th grade class. We looked at several tween and teen blogs, then reviewed good digital citizenship practices emphasizing student safety and copyright. Finally, each student created a blog on Blogger. Will they make mistakes? Probably. (When I specifically told them to keep it school appropriate, with nothing in the blog they wouldn't be allowed to do at school, and one student immediately started searching for "Call of Duty 3" images!) Will we all learn something from this? Absolutely. 

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Bridging a Digital Divide That Leaves Schoolchildren Behind

Bridging a Digital Divide That Leaves Schoolchildren Behind | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
The Federal Communications Commission is expected to vote soon on a plan that could add subsidies for broadband Internet services in low-income homes.
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Students taking a longer bus route home so they can access the Internet? There's got to be a better solution than free wifi on buses! How can we address digital literacy without equitable access?

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Markers of Quality: The Role of Librarians in Everyday Life Information Literacy

Markers of Quality: The Role of Librarians in Everyday Life Information Literacy | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Leslie Stebbins writes: "This all started when my teenage son reported that Adam Sandler has Ebola. He saw it trending on Facebook. I sighed inwardly and asked if he had looked at the source of the information. Being the son of a librarian he quickly said: “Yes! CNN.COM.”

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Lots of great things here to share (and links to explore.) I will be using Stebbins' descriptions of many Google searches as "clever marketing drivel masquerading as information." I can't wait to read her book during winter break!


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Resources: Plagiarism and Academic Integrity

Resources: Plagiarism and Academic Integrity | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Trip Gabriel writes: "Professors used to deal with plagiarism by admonishing students to give credit to others and to follow the style guide for citations, and pretty much left it at that.

But [recent] cases…suggest that many students simply do not grasp that using words they did not write is a serious misdeed."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

There are lots of great resources here for discussions about plagiarism. We'll be adding an academic integrity statement to all of our research papers this year. 

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Leslie Haas's curator insight, March 13, 12:48 AM

There are lots of great resources here for discussions about plagiarism. We'll be adding an academic integrity statement to all of our research papers this year. 

Наталия Вяткина's curator insight, March 14, 10:15 AM

There are lots of great resources here for discussions about plagiarism. We'll be adding an academic integrity statement to all of our research papers this year. 

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The Pause Before the Post: Protecting Yourself Online | Amy Poehler's Smart Girls

The Pause Before the Post: Protecting Yourself Online | Amy Poehler's Smart Girls | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it
It's about living mindfully on social media because—let's be real—the internet can be the best. It's this amazing thing that connects us all to one other...
Mary Reilley Clark's insight:
Great article to share with students and parents.
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Payday for Ice Bucket Challenge’s Mocked Slacktivists

Payday for Ice Bucket Challenge’s Mocked Slacktivists | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Nick Kristof writes: "So think of armchair activism as a gateway drug. It exposes people to causes and sometimes gets them hooked. And while it doesn’t always solve problems, it tends to build awareness of crises — a necessary but not sufficient step to getting them resolved."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

It's good to see something positive came out of what I honestly thought was a bit of self-promotion from people who shared this on social media. Pair it with this article and this one to show students how the term slacktivism developed. What a great topic for a debate!

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Creating an Environment That Discourages Plagiarism

Creating an Environment That Discourages Plagiarism | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Alice Chen writes: "Why do students plagiarize? Most of the time it's probably due to two reasons: they don't know how to properly cite their sources or they don't know what to write.

In my English Language Arts class, my students are constantly writing. It may be blog posts, essays, or speeches. We don't use services like Turnitin so how do I know that they are truly the authors of the work they call their own?

First, my students start and complete most of their writing in class. When given time to write, there is less inclination to cheat."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Alice gives lots of good advice for teachers here, and takes full advantage of Google tools to assist students in their writing. I'm going to suggest the use of mind maps to get students to brainstorm about their writing. I've watched too many students open a Google Doc, Google their topic in another window, and toggle back and forth between skimming a source and writing. It's the easiest way to plagiarize, intentionally or not.


Creating a mind map, sharing their Google doc with their teacher, and getting feedback from other students are all ways to interrupt the "Google, copy and paste" system that runs rampant through research projects I've seen.

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Elizabeth E Charles's curator insight, August 1, 2015 6:17 AM

Alice gives lots of good advice for teachers here, and takes full advantage of Google tools to assist students in their writing. I'm going to suggest the use of mind maps to get students to brainstorm about their writing. I've watched too many students open a Google Doc, Google their topic in another window, and toggle back and forth between skimming a source and writing. It's the easiest way to plagiarize, intentionally or not.

 

Creating a mind map, sharing their Google doc with their teacher, and getting feedback from other students are all ways to interrupt the "Google, copy and paste" system that runs rampant through research projects I've seen.