Digital Literacy in the Library
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What Do TLs Teach?

What Do TLs Teach? | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Infographic on the things TLs teach (sometimes all at the same time!)

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Great infographic from Joyce Valenza and Gwyneth Jones.

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gimenez nathalie's curator insight, March 19, 2014 1:51 PM

Qu'est-ce que les profs doc enseignent? Un peu de vocabulaire anglais pour et sur la culture informationnelle.

GwynethJones's comment, April 28, 2014 3:13 PM
Why thank you, thank you very much! [she says in her best Elvis voice]
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This Is Not Fake News (but Don’t Go by the Headline)

This Is Not Fake News (but Don’t Go by the Headline) | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Sydney Ember writes: "Fake news — a neologism to describe stories that are just not true, like Pizzagate, and a term now co-opted to characterize unfavorable news — has given new urgency to the teaching of media literacy. Are Americans less able to assess credibility? Can they discern real news from disinformation?"

 

Image via Toa Heftiba on Unsplash.com

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I look forward to hearing more from Paul Mihailidis. I love the idea of not just teaching students to critique news but to understand that they have agency. This quote reminds me of Paul Fleischman's work in Eyes Wide Open: "Media literacy needs to be about connectivity, about engagement — and it needs to be intentionally civic." (Emphasis added.) Let's make sure this generation understands this!

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Critical thinking instruction in humanities reduces belief in pseudoscience 

Critical thinking instruction in humanities reduces belief in pseudoscience  | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

"A recent study by North Carolina State University researchers finds that teaching critical thinking skills in a humanities course significantly reduces student beliefs in "pseudoscience" that is unsupported by facts."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Teaching students to apply critical thinking skills across the curriculum is exactly what we do in the library! It's great to see research that supports what we do every day.

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Developing a “Healthy” Skepticism of Media Claims

Developing a “Healthy” Skepticism of Media Claims | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Tom McFadden writes: "Health journalism is a mess, which provides a great opportunity for science teachers. For my middle school science class, specifically, it provided the context and motivation for everything we did from our body systems unit to our culminating public health project.

Last summer, WNYC’s On the Media launched their “Skeptic’s Guide to Health News.” In the accompanying podcast episode, they tell the story of how a Ph.D-toting journalist laid a trap for health reporters with a study on chocolate and health risks. He did purposefully awful science (small sample size, mining a huge data set for correlations, etc.) in order to prove that he could find a journal to publish it and then garner worldwide media coverage. Soon, the Daily Mail was running the headline “Pass the Easter Egg! New study reveals that eating chocolate doesn’t affect your Body Mass Index!

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I just finished a lesson on hoax websites, using the Save the Guinea Worm site as an introduction. I think next year I may use some pseudoscience sites instead. After all, the Carter Center just declared that as of January 2017, there are no cases of dracunculiasis in the world! There are lots of good ideas in Tom's article to get me started.

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10 Visual Storytelling Rules Every Digital Marketer--and Student-- Needs to Know

10 Visual Storytelling Rules Every Digital Marketer--and Student-- Needs to Know | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Samantha Lile writes: "Long ago, storytellers were wise old men and women who conveyed tales of the ancients and lessons learned through the ages. Later, stories were told by authors, playwrights and directors. But thanks to technology, anyone can now become a storyteller, a reporter and a publisher.

 

Visual storytelling, in particular, has emerged as an important trend in web and graphic design, as well as other forms of marketing in the digital era – and for good reason. The visual cortex is the largest section of the human brain. According to a 2008 study, the average person remembers about 10 percent of what they hear when tested 72 hours later. But when visuals are added into the mix, the figure increases to 65 percent."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I found this via Lee Watanabe Crockett's post, but wanted to share Samantha Lile's full version. Lately I've been focused on students as consumers of digital information. It's important to remember they will be--indeed, they already are--creators of digital information, too! 

 

We'll be doing a digital storytelling project later this year, so I'll be sharing these tips with our student authors. 

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How to NOT Get Duped By Fake News

How to NOT Get Duped By Fake News | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

William Colglazier writes: "Asking simple and logical questions can destroy a lunch-time rumor, and it’s exactly what needs to be done when engaging with updates to your newsfeed on Facebook and Twitter. Rumors and lies are not a 21st century invention, and neither is fake news."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Advice on fake news written to a teen audience. I like how Colglazier compares fake news to high school rumors and think it would be a good comparison to share with students. How about getting them to write their own pledge of allegiance to be more critical thinkers?

 

I've been presenting the Staten Island Ferry Disaster and the Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus to 6th graders (Octopi: Heartless Killer or Adorable and Endangered?) I will be adding some points from this article in our discussion.

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Nancy Jones's curator insight, January 19, 9:17 AM
Intertesting article on the topic of the day that appeared in Teen Vogue. Given these times, it is essential to include media literacy in our curriculums so that social media alone is not a source our young rely on for information.
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A lawyer rewrote Instagram’s terms of use ‘in plain English’ so kids would know their privacy rights

A lawyer rewrote Instagram’s terms of use ‘in plain English’ so kids would know their privacy rights | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Amy B. Wang writes: "It’s no secret that teenagers love social media.

 

Members of “Generation Z” can spend up to nine hours a day sharing photos on Instagram, consuming “content” on YouTube and talking to friends on Snapchat. (Just don’t ask them to get excited about Facebook.)

 

But how much do these teens understand what they’ve agreed to give up when they start an account with those sites?

 

Probably very little, according to a report released last week — and dense terms and conditions that are “impenetrable and largely ignored” are partly to blame."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Be sure to click on the report to see the rewritten terms and conditions. Do your students understand all their DMs are mined by Instagram (and do they care?) 

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GwynethJones's curator insight, January 8, 4:41 PM

This is super cool!

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Hoaxy: How claims spread online

Hoaxy: How claims spread online | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

From the website: "Hoaxy visualizes the spread of claims and related fact checking online. A claim may be a fake news article, hoax, rumor, conspiracy theory, satire, or even an accurate report. Anyone can use Hoaxy to explore how claims spread across social media."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

An interesting site to explore with students. It works best when you can compare a claim and fact check as one data set. When I looked at the claim and fact check on "Obama signs Christmas bill making alternative media illegal," the data showed how the claim appeared and was shared for two days before any fact checking was shared. That alone could be a great discussion point for students. Share the quote often attributed to Winston Churchill: "A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth gets its pants on," or the updated versions in this New York Times headline: "A Lie Races Across Twitter Before the Truth Can Boot Up." (And that four year old article is also a fine one to add to your fake news discussion!)

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Nancy Jones's curator insight, January 9, 10:00 AM
this provides an interesting visual to begin a conversation regarding fake news.
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How Data And Information Literacy Could End Fake News

How Data And Information Literacy Could End Fake News | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Kalev Leetaru writes: "Technology alone cannot solve the fake news problem – only through teaching society to be data and information literate can we improve citizens’ ability to interpret the world around them."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Things that stood out for me:

 

  • While the idea of an extension or plug-in that would flag fake news is appealing, Leetaru notes that fake news is "not black and white, it is a hundred shades of gray." The emotional language and the political disposition of the reader both play a part in the interpretation of fake news. (Although I'm still not clear how one can "interpret" facts differently, I get that two people could have different conclusions based on those facts.)
  • Leetaru's idea of a 3D graph to analyze coverage of a topic is intriguing, and easily adaptable for a class project. Looking at an organization's coverage of a topic and determining, on average, how positive or negative it is, how often (and in what detail) the topic is covered, and finally how emotionally charged the coverage is could be a fascinating project in a middle or high school classroom.  I'd love to tie this to the project we did with 7th grade science classes on using social media to sway public opinion on environmental issues.(And this year, I'd love to explore developing bots for that!) This all would be a great tie-in for anyone using Paul Fleischman's Eyes Wide Open book and website. 
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Nancy Jones's curator insight, December 15, 2016 11:11 AM
Fake news ... we here about it everyday. this whole idea needs to be added to the idea of the need for a variety of literacies, not just digital literacy. This provides a challenge to educators, but something we need to step up about.
Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, February 3, 3:22 AM
Data And Information Literacy
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Fake News Recommendations - Media Literacy Clearinghouse

Fake News Recommendations - Media Literacy Clearinghouse | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Frank Baker writes: "From the various news stories and blog posts recently about “fake news,” I have culled the following recommendations and advice." 

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

A great summary from Frank of various strategies for analyzing online "news."

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GwynethJones's curator insight, December 8, 2016 7:54 AM

Teaching our kids to be savvy curators of information!

Martha Bongiorno's curator insight, December 8, 2016 8:59 AM
You can never have too many resources for this topic!
Vicki Hansen's curator insight, December 8, 2016 9:13 AM
Frank Baker provides lots of resources and insight into the many ways we can help our kids recognize fake news.
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We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator In The Suburbs. Here's What We Learned

We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator In The Suburbs. Here's What We Learned | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Laura Sydell writes: "A lot of fake and misleading news stories were shared across social media during the election. One that got a lot of traffic had this headline: "FBI Agent Suspected In Hillary Email Leaks Found Dead In Apparent Murder-Suicide." The story is completely false, but it was shared on Facebook over half a million times.

We wondered who was behind that story and why it was written. It appeared on a site that had the look and feel of a local newspaper. Denverguardian.com even had the local weather. But it had only one news story — the fake one."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Why can't we just do an entire semester on this topic? Every day I find more articles about fake news, post-truth, social media, etc. that I want to share with students. This election cycle should wake us up to the fact that so many of us--adults, not just students--are simply illiterate when it comes to media. It is such a critical role for librarians!

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Most Students Don’t Know When News Is Fake, Stanford Study Finds

Most Students Don’t Know When News Is Fake, Stanford Study Finds | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Sue Shellenbarger writes: "However, fewer schools now have librarians, who traditionally taught research skills. And media literacy has slipped to the margins in many classrooms, to make room for increased instruction in basic reading and math skills."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I don't think the results would be much different if we asked adults to complete the survey! I still remember this post because I was so shocked that adults gave credence to comments on an article about vaccines because they assumed the person commenting must know something about the topic if they took the time to say something!

 

And why can't "increased instruction in basic reading and math skills" include media literacy? The focus on text-based evidence and informational text in the Common Core lends itself to finding credible sources, determining bias, etc., which is the very core of becoming media literate. Teaching media literacy shouldn't be a stand-alone topic: critical thinking should imbue every subject area.

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How Fake News Goes Viral: A Case Study

How Fake News Goes Viral: A Case Study | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Sapna Maheshwari writes: "While some fake news is produced purposefully by teenagers in the Balkans or entrepreneurs in the United States seeking to make money from advertising, false information can also arise from misinformed social media posts by regular people that are seized on and spread through a hyperpartisan blogosphere.

Here, The New York Times deconstructs how Mr. Tucker’s now-deleted declaration on Twitter the night after the election turned into a fake-news phenomenon. It is an example of how, in an ever-connected world where speed often takes precedence over truth, an observation by a private citizen can quickly become a talking point for a world leader, even as it is being proved false."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

This is a great timeline to share with students, and a reminder that once you post something on social media, you no longer control the narrative. 

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Why Students Can't Google Their Way to the Truth

Why Students Can't Google Their Way to the Truth | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Sam Wineburg and Sarah McGrew write: "In search of answers, many of us ask our kids to "Google" something. These so-called digital natives, who've never known a world without screens, are the household's resident fact-checkers. If anyone can find the truth, we assume, they can.

 

Don't be so sure.

 

True, many of our kids can flit between Facebook and Twitter while uploading a selfie to Instagram and texting a friend. But when it comes to using the Internet to get to the bottom of things, Junior's no better than the rest of us. Often he's worse."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

While the comments on the article may dispute the "bias" of the authors, I think the points they share about researching like a fact checker are well worth sharing with students:

 

  • Before you spend time on a website, determine who sponsors or writes it. (Reading laterally, checking the site on other sites, rather than vertically, scrolling through the site as if it's already vetted.)
  • The "About" page doesn't tell you everything, or perhaps anything of value. Don't rely on it to determine if a source is reputable.
  • On any search engine, first doesn't equal best! Scroll through a few pages of results (or use search limiters in the first place!) to see what sites show up. Scrutinize the URL to see if you can get some information about the site before you even click on the link.

 

NB: Thanks to The Healthy Librarian for this article.

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C Kennedy's curator insight, November 18, 2016 5:29 AM

While the comments on the article may dispute the "bias" of the authors, I think the points they share about researching like a fact checker are well worth sharing with students:

 

  • Before you spend time on a website, determine who sponsors or writes it. (Reading laterally, checking the site on other sites, rather than vertically, scrolling through the site as if it's already vetted.)
  • The "About" page doesn't tell you everything, or perhaps anything of value. Don't rely on it to determine if a source is reputable.
  • On any search engine, first doesn't equal best! Scroll through a few pages of results (or use search limiters in the first place!) to see what sites show up. Scrutinize the URL to see if you can get some information about the site before you even click on the link.

 

NB: Thanks to The Healthy Librarian for this article.

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Guinea Worm Attacks! Fake News, Website Evaluation, and Critical Thinking

Guinea Worm Attacks! Fake News, Website Evaluation, and Critical Thinking | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Presentation on fake news and website evaluation

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

My 7th graders love this lesson. When they take notes, I tell them to leave space for a title, which they will come up with after the presentation. I'm constantly mixing things up on this lesson (just added the EasyBib Website Evaluator link after a co-worker in my district found it during a library conference this week.) Today one class was very focused on the fake news slide, so I had them come up with a clickbait headline for their notes. It certainly generated more conversation than when I asked for a title! 

 

Most classes go to the computers after the presentation and look at Media Bias Fact Check to choose two news sources that are far right and far left, then compare stories on similar topics. If I have time, I let students work in pairs, so each student reads one article, takes notes and summarizes. I ask them to focus on word choice, since often the only difference in the articles are the adjectives used. 

 

I added detailed notes at the bottom of the slides. Feel free to make a copy and use, share or modify.

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Can You Spot Bad Science Reporting?

Can You Spot Bad Science Reporting? | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

How can you spot bad science reporting? Host Myles Bess helps you do just that by following this simple acronym: G - L - A - D. 

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

This episode of the series might need a little editing for middle school (I had divided opinions from teachers about the use of the "BS" abbreviation) but I think the GLAD acronym is a good one to use along with the points in the On the Media handbook . I subscribed to the Above the Noise YouTube channel and look forward to seeing more episodes.

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Where to find what's disappeared online, and a whole lot more: the Internet Archive

Where to find what's disappeared online, and a whole lot more: the Internet Archive | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

MaryKay Magistad writes: "The Internet Archive's Wayback Machine is much beloved by investigative reporters and others, looking to find out what a webpage looked like at some point in the past, even if it's since disappeared. But the Internet Archive's work is much more ambitious than that. Founder Brewster Kahle says through scanning books and recording video feeds around the world, it aims to make all human knowledge universally available on a decentralized Web, and illiberal impulses among leaders in America and elsewhere are only 'putting a fire under our butts"'to do the work, swiftly and effectively."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I listened to this story on the way home from work, and smiled all the way. A ray of hope in this era of alternative facts. 

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Website Evaluation Lesson

Website Evaluation Lesson | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

 If it’s on the Internet, it must be true! Watch this absolutely true video!

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I did a quick presentation for 6th graders on website evaluation. The link is the the Slides. I have added some notes on each slide to give a better idea of what I'm telling students. Here's a link to the bookmark I give them. I couldn't fit both "Appropriate" and "Accurate" on it, but most 6th graders at our school keep a JAR (Journal of Academic Research) so they paste the bookmark in their JAR and take notes next to it. 

 

I also have students look at other sites and analyze in small groups, using what they learned in the presentation. Interestingly, I just spent the day at the local university learning from the librarians there about how they present research to freshman. One of the librarians mentioned she doesn't like the CRAP acronym because she doesn't want students to think currency is most important. So I will be sure to stress that to students. Could be a good discussion question for them, too!

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What Happened When Dylann Roof Asked Google For Information About Race?

What Happened When Dylann Roof Asked Google For Information About Race? | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Rebecca Hersher writes: "The most emphatic statements on Roof's behalf came from defense attorney David Bruck. For weeks, the prosecution had presented evidence that Roof is a white supremacist whose violent racism drove him to kill black people. Bruck asked the jury to consider how the 22-year-old came to believe the things he did.

As NPR reported: " 'There is hatred all right, and certainly racism, but it goes a lot further than that,' [Bruck] said." 'Every bit of motivation came from things he saw on the internet. That's it. ... 'He is simply regurgitating, in whole paragraphs, slogans and facts — bits and pieces of facts that he downloaded from the internet directly into his brain.' "

Bruck was referring to Roof's assertion in his confession and in a manifesto that a Google search shaped his beliefs.

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I'd be interested to hear students' reactions to this article. We talk a lot about Google search results, and how first page results doesn't mean best results(and I'm not happy that the Stormfront website on Martin Luther King still shows up on the first page of Google's results.) What a horrific example of what can happen when someone can't think critically about information they're exposed to. 

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The challenge facing libraries in an era of fake news

The challenge facing libraries in an era of fake news | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Donald Barclay writes: "Thirty or 40 years ago, a student writing a research paper on the topic of acid rain might have needed to decide whether an article from a scientific journal like Nature was a more appropriate source than an article from a popular magazine like Time.

 

Today’s students, however, must know how to distinguish between articles published by genuine scholarly journals and those churned out by look-alike predatory and fake journals that falsely claim to be scholarly and peer-reviewed."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

There's a link in this article to the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education from the Association of College and Research Libraries. Barclay notes that, "This new approach asks students to put in the time and effort required to determine the credibility and appropriateness of each information source for the use to which they intend to put it." If we in the primary and secondary libraries haven't educated students on how to do this, I don't think they'll have the mental stamina to do it in college! This makes me even more excited about the workshop our local state university is offering to get secondary library staff to understand what info literacy skills college students need, and to design collaborative lessons to help our students strengthen (or build) those skills.

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School Libraries Fight Fake News | Knowledge Quest

School Libraries Fight Fake News | Knowledge Quest | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Mica Johnson writes: "Fake news has been all over the real news lately. From Mark Zuckerburg to Pizzagate, fake news is a huge problem, and it’s not going away on its own."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Mica shares some ideas you can adopt in your library. Our role is always changing, so I was immediately intrigued by Mica's suggestion to shift from "website evaluation" to "resource evaluation." After all, so much of the information we're evaluating doesn't come from a website anymore--think of memes, shared items on social media, etc. It would be interesting to have students analyze a week of their "news" exposure to see how much of it comes from traditional sources such as The New York Times compared to social media, etc. 

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Truthy Lies and Surreal Truths: A Plea - Hybrid Pedagogy

Truthy Lies and Surreal Truths: A Plea - Hybrid Pedagogy | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Kris Shaffer writes: "Help awaken your students to these new practices of digital deception, and help them face them effectively. They need this knowledge."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

I am aware I am sharing this without doing the deep reading and reflection that the article calls for (I will go back and read again later when I have uninterrupted time) but I wanted to save and share it now.

 

Kris gives some examples of the insidious nature of misinformation, of the need for better "crap detection", and some thoughtful guidelines for how to combat the false information being spread. What jumped out at me was his recommendation to thoughtfully curate resources that provide accurate information and keep them visible in the social media stream. This is something librarians should excel at, right? I feel that responsibility more than ever!

 

And speaking of curation, thanks to School Library Connection for reposting this article from Joyce Valenza. If you don't curate, Joyce thoughtfully outlines why you should!

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GwynethJones's curator insight, December 10, 2016 7:29 PM

Digital deception, outright lies, and bogus news - now more than EVER we need to teach how discernment & authority.

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Truth, truthiness, triangulation: A news literacy toolkit for a “post-truth” world

Truth, truthiness, triangulation: A news literacy toolkit for a “post-truth” world | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Joyce Valenza writes: "We were guaranteed a free press,  We were not guaranteed a neutral or a true press. We can celebrate the journalistic freedom to publish without interference from the state.  We can also celebrate our freedom to share multiple stories through multiple lenses.

But it has always been up to the reader or viewer to make the reliability and credibility decisions."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Joyce has gathered so many great resources here that you could design an entire media literacy unit without looking elsewhere. I love this focus she provides: "We need to teach the important lessons of everyday civics for new consumption and production landscapes. These lessons involve sustained critical thinking, a practice to engage in regularly as we read and view and inquire with learners of all ages across disciplines." It may feel like an added responsibility to our job in the library, but it's certainly a critical one. I've been asked by a few teachers to address this, and I don't see it as something that can be taught as a stand-alone lesson. How can we embed this into our instruction throughout the school year so that our students are more critical consumers--and producers--of information? 

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New Media Literacy Skills Empower Learners

New Media Literacy Skills Empower Learners | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Mercer Hall and Patricia Russac write: "The media literacy program at our school has been in place for over 16 years, and it starts with the first graders. We’re fortunate, too, that our students are permitted to use social media for learning; it allows us to update our program to include new media literacy skills as part of the learning process. In an age of media bombardment, learners must be permitted to practice skills not only for today’s world, but also for their future."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

There are some good resources here. While I think the We the Voters video might be too intense for my 6th graders, I would love to use the "New Media Literacies" video with 7th graders.  Students could explore the terms the narrators list to describe what's involved in being media literate-- judgment, negotiation, appropriation, play, etc.--and create examples to foster understanding for other students (and staff!)

 

I wish that media literacy was embedded in our curriculum. I work with a few teachers who address it, but it's such a critical skill that every subject area teacher could find a way to work it into their classroom. Addressing it once a month in the library is not enough!

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Students Need Our Help Detecting Fake News

Students Need Our Help Detecting Fake News | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Frank W. Baker writes: "If I were addressing this problem in a 21st century classroom, I think I would start by asking students: what is news and who delivers it? Can your students distinguish between purposeful, legitimate news and the other stuff out there? This seems a good place to start."

 

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

Frank speaks about calling out the fake news by challenging the sender of the message. I would love to discuss that with students to come up with wording that would both make clear the fake news is just that AND not put the sender on the defensive. My approach, of sharing a link to Snopes or another site that refutes the fake news, has not been well received. I've been told I should share the correction privately. I get that no one likes to be corrected publicly, but so few people post corrections, or even delete the fake news. (Of course, this man tried to fix his mistake, but again, a retraction in social media was far too late to stop the damage.) I'd be very interested to hear how students would approach this!

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This researcher programmed bots to fight racism on Twitter. It worked.

This researcher programmed bots to fight racism on Twitter. It worked. | Digital Literacy in the Library | Scoop.it

Kevin Munger writes: "Overall, I found that it is possible to cause people to use less harassing language. This change seems to be most likely when both individuals share a social identity. Unsurprisingly, high status people are also more likely to cause a change."

Mary Reilley Clark's insight:

There's a lot to dig into here. I'm not sure most students are aware of bots or of buying followers, which is a good place to start. When I talk about digital citizenship, I always address cyberbullying. I emphasize that being an upstander by making a comment of support to the person being bullied, or by merely commenting that the bully is being unkind, can go a long way. Now, here is some statistical proof of that, with some caveats. It would be interesting to hear students' take on what "sharing a social identity" means to them. Thanks to Diane Main, @Dowbiggin on Twitter for sharing this.

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GwynethJones's curator insight, November 19, 2016 6:51 PM

Programming for good.