Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice
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Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice
An exploration of the connections between research, learning theory, practice and the various constructs of literacy.
Curated by Dean J. Fusto
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Learning how to learn | Barbara Oakley | TEDxOaklandUniversity

This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. Engineering professor Barbara Oakley is co-teaching one of th

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Why Making Is Essential to Learning

Why Making Is Essential to Learning | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Making is as old as learning itself. While the maker movement may only be about a decade old, the human desire to create dates back to the earliest forms of human activity, from making stone tools to drawing on cave walls (Halverson & Sheridan, 2014; Martinez & Stager, 2014). Thinkers such as Pestalozzi, Montessori, and Papert helped paved the way for the maker movement by stressing the importance of hands-on, student-centered, meaningful learning. Instead of viewing learning as the transmission of knowledge from teacher to student, these thinkers embraced the idea that children learn best when encouraged to discover, play, and experiment.

More recently, maker education is being used as a way to connect do-it-yourself informal learning to classrooms. Driven by new technologies such as 3D printing, robotics, and kid-friendly coding, making is emerging as an effective way to introduce students to STEM, particularly women and minorities. By incorporating elements of making into the classroom, educators can bridge the gap between what students are passionate about and what they're learning in school.

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20 Ways to Learn More Efficiently - InformED

20 Ways to Learn More Efficiently - InformED | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Are you currently enrolled in an online course, hoping to learn a new language, or planning to take up a musical instrument? Although we all have our own preferences when it comes to learning, the way the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information is the same for all of us, and the more you understand about how your brain works, the easier it will be to learn and improve in just about every area of your life.

So based on current research, here are 20 things you can do to make your learning more efficient.

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What is Learning Analytics? – Infographic

What is Learning Analytics? – Infographic | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

"Learning Analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs."


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Jan MacWatters's curator insight, July 20, 2014 1:51 PM

This is definitely something that has piqued my interest to read more. about this topic..

Kiruthika Ragupathi's curator insight, July 20, 2014 7:47 PM

a simple but useful infographic!

John Lemos Forman's curator insight, July 20, 2014 10:55 PM

Muita expectativa mas ainda poucos resultados concretos ... De qualquer modo, esta se formando uma percepção de que o modelo educacional vai ser fortemente impactado nos próximos anos

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Developing Students’ Learning Philosophies

Developing Students’ Learning Philosophies | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
If students better understood why they're putting time and energy into being successful in school, they would become more engaged in their learning.

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5 Things You Need to Know About 21st Century Learning

5 Things You Need to Know About 21st Century Learning | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

"Through my various roles in the education space over the past three decades, I have talked to educators around the world and had the privilege of watching kids get excited about learning when taking on engineering and project challenges. We know that educators and learners today face some unique challenges, and working with some of the best and brightest in the field of education has opened my eyes to what we can achieve to bring 21st century learning to all students."


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online4ed's curator insight, November 6, 2015 11:48 AM

It's important that we remember today's learners may or may not be like us as we sat in classrooms years ago!  

Mei Lin Fung's curator insight, November 8, 2015 12:43 PM

real interaction tells us the most - at this time of disruption and change "the dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate for the stormy present" 

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Why Making Mistakes Is What Makes Us Human

Why Making Mistakes Is What Makes Us Human | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Could being wrong be the best way to recapture wonder?

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Joseph Pizzo's curator insight, September 7, 2015 9:33 AM

We learn from our errors.  They are the teachers that we often overlook.

Tony Guzman's curator insight, September 9, 2015 1:21 PM

This article and video share from a TED talk on why it is valuable to make mistakes.

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New research helps explain why girls do better in school

New research helps explain why girls do better in school | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Why do girls get better grades in elementary school than boys -- even when they perform worse on standardized tests?

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Mary Perfitt-Nelson's curator insight, January 4, 2013 7:41 AM

This really is an engagement issue.  As a former preschool, toddler and first grade teacher- I firml believe students "look different" based on gender at these early ages. 

 

So then what?  

 

Again.........I question the content we teach and the timeline we put boys on for learning that content.  I suspect more damage is done by expecting them to be something they aren't.  

 

I can vision a different reality where boys are allowed to be boys with strong men supporting and guiding along the way.  Yes.  We need more men in elementary schools.  

Mark E. Deschaine, PhD's curator insight, August 8, 2015 6:41 PM

This really is an engagement issue.  As a former preschool, toddler and first grade teacher- I firml believe students "look different" based on gender at these early ages. 

 

So then what?  

 

Again.........I question the content we teach and the timeline we put boys on for learning that content.  I suspect more damage is done by expecting them to be something they aren't.  

 

I can vision a different reality where boys are allowed to be boys with strong men supporting and guiding along the way.  Yes.  We need more men in elementary schools.  

Luciana Viter's curator insight, August 8, 2015 10:34 PM

This really is an engagement issue.  As a former preschool, toddler and first grade teacher- I firml believe students "look different" based on gender at these early ages. 

 

So then what?  

 

Again.........I question the content we teach and the timeline we put boys on for learning that content.  I suspect more damage is done by expecting them to be something they aren't.  

 

I can vision a different reality where boys are allowed to be boys with strong men supporting and guiding along the way.  Yes.  We need more men in elementary schools.  

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Learning concept map

Learning concept map | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

"Various learning theories and concepts with an interactive learning mind map ..."


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Digital Scholarship | Open Educational Resources (OERs) for digital scholars

Digital Scholarship | Open Educational Resources (OERs) for digital scholars | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
The material that you can access through this website is intended to help you develop your use of digital technologies in your university studies.

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The Science of Smart | American RadioWorks |

The Science of Smart | American RadioWorks | | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

"Researchers have long been searching for better ways to learn. In recent decades, experts working in cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have opened new windows into how the brain works, and how we can learn to learn better.

In this program, we look at some of the big ideas coming out of brain science. We meet the researchers who are unlocking the secrets of how the brain acquires and holds on to knowledge. And we introduce listeners to the teachers and students who are trying to apply that knowledge in the real world."


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Beth Dichter's curator insight, October 20, 2014 7:44 PM

This radio documentary focuses on current research on how we learn. You may listen to the documentary, or you may read the transcripts. There are three programs that discuss:

* This is Your Brain on Language - This portion focuses on raising a bilingual child. It turns out that children whom are bilingual have higher executive functioning skills.

* Learning to Love Tests - That's right, we can teach students to love tests, but only if we use them correctly!

* Variation is Key to Deeper Learning - Trial and error is one way to learn, but it turns out that if you "build a level of desirable difficulty" into the learning process (and tests) students may retain more knowledge and skills.

Choose to listen to the interviews with experts in these areas, or read through the transcripts to learn more about this new research and how it may impact your teaching and your students.

diane gusa's comment, October 20, 2014 7:48 PM
your curation is the best!
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The Effort Effect--Carol Dweck

The Effort Effect--Carol Dweck | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

The Effort Effect

According to a Stanford psychologist, you’ll reach new heights if you learn to embrace the occasional tumble.

James Yang

 

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By Marina Krakovsky

 

One day last November, psychology professor Carol Dweck welcomed a pair of visitors from the Blackburn Rovers, a soccer team in the United Kingdom’s Premier League. The Rovers’ training academy is ranked in England’s top three, yet performance director Tony Faulkner had long suspected that many promising players weren’t reaching their potential. Ignoring the team’s century-old motto—arte et labore, or “skill and hard work”—the most talented individuals disdained serious training.

On some level, Faulkner knew the source of the trouble: British soccer culture held that star players are born, not made. If you buy into that view, and are told you’ve got immense talent, what’s the point of practice? If anything, training hard would tell you and others that you’re merely good, not great. Faulkner had identified the problem; but to fix it, he needed Dweck’s help.

A 60-year-old academic psychologist might seem an unlikely sports motivation guru. But Dweck’s expertise—and her recent book, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success—bear directly on the sort of problem facing the Rovers. Through more than three decades of systematic research, she has been figuring out answers to why some people achieve their potential while equally talented others don’t—why some become Muhammad Ali and others Mike Tyson. The key, she found, isn’t ability; it’s whether you look at ability as something inherent that needs to be demonstrated or as something that can be developed.

What’s more, Dweck has shown that people can learn to adopt the latter belief and make dramatic strides in performance. These days, she’s sought out wherever motivation and achievement matter, from education and parenting to business management and personal development.

As a graduate student at Yale, Dweck started off studying animal motivation. In the late 1960s, a hot topic in animal research was “learned helplessness”: lab animals sometimes didn’t do what they were capable of because they’d given up from repeat failures. Dweck wondered how humans coped with that. “I asked, ‘What makes a really capable child give up in the face of failure, where other children may be motivated by the failure?’” she recalls.

At the time, the suggested cure for learned helplessness was a long string of successes. Dweck posited that the difference between the helpless response and its opposite—the determination to master new things and surmount challenges—lay in people’s beliefs about why they had failed. People who attributed their failures to lack of ability, Dweck thought, would become discouraged even in areas where they were capable. Those who thought they simply hadn’t tried hard enough, on the other hand, would be fueled by setbacks. This became the topic of her PhD dissertation.

Dweck and her assistants ran an experiment on elementary school children whom school personnel had identified as helpless. These kids fit the definition perfectly: if they came across a few math problems they couldn’t solve, for example, they no longer could do problems they had solved before—and some didn’t recover that ability for days.

Through a series of exercises, the experimenters trained half the students to chalk up their errors to insufficient effort, and encouraged them to keep going. Those children learned to persist in the face of failure—and to succeed. The control group showed no improvement at all, continuing to fall apart quickly and to recover slowly. These findings, says Dweck, “really supported the idea that the attributions were a key ingredient driving the helpless and mastery-oriented patterns.” Her 1975 article on the topic has become one of the most widely cited in contemporary psychology.

Attribution theory, concerned with people’s judgments about the causes of events and behavior, already was an active area of psychological research. But the focus at the time was on how we make attributions, explains Stanford psychology professor Lee Ross, who coined the term “fundamental attribution error” for our tendency to explain other people’s actions by their character traits, overlooking the power of circumstances. Dweck, he says, helped “shift the emphasis from attributional errors and biases to the consequences of attributions—why it matters what attributions people make.” Dweck had put attribution theory to practical use.

She continued to do so as an assistant professor at the University of Illinois, collaborating with then-graduate student Carol Diener to have children “think out loud” as they faced problem-solving tasks, some too difficult for them. The big surprise: some of the children who put forth lots of effort didn’t make attributions at all. These children didn’t think they were failing. Diener puts it this way: “Failure is information—we label it failure, but it’s more like, ‘This didn’t work, I’m a problem solver, and I’ll try something else.’” During one unforgettable moment, one boy—something of a poster child for the mastery-oriented type—faced his first stumper by pulling up his chair, rubbing his hands together, smacking his lips and announcing, “I love a challenge.”

Such zest for challenge helped explain why other capable students thought they lacked ability just because they’d hit a setback. Common sense suggests that ability inspires self-confidence. And it does for a while—so long as the going is easy. But setbacks change everything. Dweck realized—and, with colleague Elaine Elliott soon demonstrated—that the difference lay in the kids’ goals. “The mastery-oriented children are really hell-bent on learning something,” Dweck says, and “learning goals” inspire a different chain of thoughts and behaviors than “performance goals.”

Students for whom performance is paramount want to look smart even if it means not learning a thing in the process. For them, each task is a challenge to their self-image, and each setback becomes a personal threat. So they pursue only activities at which they’re sure to shine—and avoid the sorts of experiences necessary to grow and flourish in any endeavor. Students with learning goals, on the other hand, take necessary risks and don’t worry about failure because each mistake becomes a chance to learn. Dweck’s insight launched a new field of educational psychology—achievement goal theory.

Dweck’s next question: what makes students focus on different goals in the first place? During a sabbatical at Harvard, she was discussing this with doctoral student Mary Bandura (daughter of legendary Stanford psychologist Albert Bandura), and the answer hit them: if some students want to show off their ability, while others want to increase their ability, “ability” means different things to the two groups. “If you want to demonstrate something over and over, it feels like something static that lives inside of you—whereas if you want to increase your ability, it feels dynamic and malleable,” Dweck explains. People with performance goals, she reasoned, think intelligence is fixed from birth. People with learning goals have a growth mind-set about intelligence, believing it can be developed. (Among themselves, psychologists call the growth mind-set an “incremental theory,” and use the term “entity theory” for the fixed mind-set.) The model was nearly complete (see diagram).

Growing up in Brooklyn in the ’50s, Dweck did well in elementary school, earning a spot in a sixth-grade class of other high achievers. Not just any spot, it turned out. Their teacher, Mrs. Wilson, seated the students in IQ order and even used IQ scores to dole out classroom responsibilities. Whether Mrs. Wilson meant to or not, she was conveying her belief in fixed intelligence. Dweck, who was in row 1, seat 1, believes Mrs. Wilson’s intentions were good. The experience didn’t scar her—Dweck says she already had some of the growth mind-set—but she has shown that many students pegged as bright, especially girls, don’t fare as well.

Tests, Dweck notes, are notoriously poor at measuring potential. Take a group of adults and ask them to draw a self-portrait. Most Americans think of drawing as a gift they don’t have, and their portraits look no better than a child’s scribbles. But put them in a well-designed class—as Betty Edwards, the author ofDrawing on the Right Side of the Brain, has—and the resulting portraits look so skilled it’s hard to believe they’re the work of the same “talentless” individuals. The belief that you can’t improve stunts achievement.

Culture can play a large role in shaping our beliefs, Dweck says. A college physics teacher recently wrote to Dweck that in India, where she was educated, there was no notion that you had to be a genius or even particularly smart to learn physics. “The assumption was that everyone could do it, and, for the most part, they did.” But what if you’re raised with a fixed mind-set about physics—or foreign languages or music? Not to worry: Dweck has shown that you can change the mind-set itself.

The most dramatic proof comes from a recent study by Dweck and Lisa Sorich Blackwell of low-achieving seventh graders. All students participated in sessions on study skills, the brain and the like; in addition, one group attended a neutral session on memory while the other learned that intelligence, like a muscle, grows stronger through exercise. Training students to adopt a growth mind-set about intelligence had a catalytic effect on motivation and math grades; students in the control group showed no improvement despite all the other interventions.

“Study skills and learning skills are inert until they’re powered by an active ingredient,” Dweck explains. Students may know how to study, but won’t want to if they believe their efforts are futile. “If you target that belief, you can see more benefit than you have any reason to hope for.”

The classroom workshop isn’t feasible on a large scale; for one thing, it’s too costly. So Dweck and Blackwell have designed a computer-based training module to simulate the live intervention. Their hip multimedia software, called Brainology, is still in development, but thanks to early buzz from a Time magazine article and Dweck’s recent book, teachers have begun clamoring for it, one even asking to become a distributor.

Unlike much that passes for wisdom about education and performance, Dweck’s conclusions are grounded in solid research. She’s no rah-rah motivational coach proclaiming the sky’s the limit and attitude is everything; that’s too facile. But the evidence shows that if we hold a fixed mind-set, we’re bound not to reach as high as we might.

Although much of Dweck’s research on mind-sets has taken place in school settings, it’s applicable to sports, business, interpersonal relationships and so on. “Lots and lots of people are interested in her work; it touches on so many different areas of psychology and areas outside of psychology,” says Stanford psychology professor Mark Lepper, ’66, who as department chair in 2004 lured Dweck away from Columbia, where she’d been for 15 years. “The social psychologists like to say she’s a social psychologist; the personality psychologists say she’s a personality psychologist; and the developmental psychologists say she’s a developmental psychologist,” Lepper adds.

By all rights, her appeal should transcend academia, says New Yorker writer Malcolm Gladwell, who is well known for making psychological research accessible to the general public. “One of the most popular pieces I ever did relied very heavily on work done by Carol Dweck,” he said in a December interview in theJournal of Management Inquiry. “Carol Dweck deserves a big audience. It is criminal if she does not get that audience.” Perhaps Mindset will help; it was written for lay readers.

It certainly cemented Tony Faulkner’s belief that Dweck could help the Blackburn Rovers soccer team. Unlike the disadvantaged kids in Dweck’s middle-school study, the Rovers didn’t think they lacked what it took to succeed. Quite the opposite: they thought their talent should take them all the way. Yet both groups’ fixed mind-set about ability explains their aversion to effort.

But aren’t there plenty of people who believe in innate ability and in the notion that nothing comes without effort? Logically, the two ideas are compatible. But psychologically, explains Dweck, many people who believe in fixed intelligence also think you shouldn’t need hard work to do well. This belief isn’t entirely irrational, she says. A student who finishes a problem set in 10 minutes is indeed better at math than someone who takes four hours to solve the problems. And a soccer player who scores effortlessly probably is more talented than someone who’s always practicing. “The fallacy comes when people generalize it to the belief that effort on any task, even very hard ones, implies low ability,” Dweck says.

Her advice for the Rovers rings true for anyone stuck in a fixed mind-set. “Changing mind-sets is not like surgery,” she says. “You can’t simply remove the fixed mind-set and replace it with the growth mind-set.” The Rovers are starting their workshops with recent recruits—their youngest, most malleable players. (Faulkner realizes that players who’ve already earned millions from being “naturals” have little incentive to reshape their brains.) The team’s talent scouts will be asking about new players’ views on talent and training—not to screen out those with a fixed mind-set, but to target them for special training.

In his 2002 essay that relied on Dweck’s work, Gladwell cited one of her best-known experiments to argue that Enron may have collapsed precisely because of the company’s talent-obsessed culture, not despite it. Dweck’s study showed that praising children for intelligence, rather than for effort, sapped their motivation (see sidebar). But more disturbingly, 40 percent of those whose intelligence was praised overstated their scores to peers. “We took ordinary children and made them into liars,” Dweck says. Similarly, Enron executives who’d been celebrated for their innate talent would sooner lie than fess up to problems and work to fix them.

Business School professor Jeffrey Pfeffer says Dweck’s research has implications for the more workaday problem of performance management. He faults businesses for spending too much time in rank-and-yank mode, grading and evaluating people instead of developing their skills. “It’s like the Santa Claus theory of management: who’s naughty and who’s nice.”

Leaders, too, can benefit from Dweck’s work, says Robert Sternberg, PhD ’75, Tufts University’s dean of the School of Arts and Sciences. Sternberg, a past president of the American Psychological Association, says that excessive concern with looking smart keeps you from making bold, visionary moves. “If you’re afraid of making mistakes, you’ll never learn on the job, and your whole approach becomes defensive: ‘I have to make sure I don’t screw up.’”

Social psychologist Peter Salovey, ’80, MA ’80, dean of Yale College and a pioneer in the field of emotional intelligence, says Dweck’s ideas have helped him think through a controversy in his field. Echoing an older debate about the malleability of general intelligence, some scholars say emotional intelligence is largely inborn, while others, like Salovey, see it as a set of skills that can be taught and learned. “People say to me all the time, ‘I’m not a people person,’ or ‘I’m not good at managing my emotions,’” unaware that they’re expressing a fixed mind-set, Salovey says.

Stanford psychology professor James Gross has begun extending Dweck’s work to emotions. In a recent study, Gross and his colleagues followed a group of Stanford undergrads as they made the transition to college life. Those with a fixed mind-set about emotions were less able to manage theirs, and by the end of freshman year, they’d shown poorer social and emotional adjustment than their growth-minded counterparts.

As she approaches the end of her third year at Stanford, Dweck has embraced the challenge of cross-country culture shock in a manner consistent with the growth mind-set. Nearby San Francisco provides her with the benefits of a great city, she says, including a dining scene that rivals New York’s; and the University supplies a more cozy sense of community. She’s also brought a bit of the New York theater scene with her in the form of her husband, critic and director David Goldman. He founded and directs the National Center for New Plays at Stanford.

At the Association for Psychological Science convention in May, Dweck will give the keynote address. The topic: “Can Personality Be Changed?” Her short answer, of course, is yes. Moreover, holding a growth mind-set bodes well for one’s relationships. In a recent study, Dweck found that people who believe personality can change were more likely than others to bring up concerns and deal with problems in a constructive way. Dweck thinks a fixed mind-set fosters a categorical, all-or-nothing view of people’s qualities; this view tends to make you ignore festering problems or, at the other extreme, give up on a relationship at the first sign of trouble. (The growth mind-set, though, can be taken too far if someone stays in an abusive relationship hoping her partner will change; as always, the person has to want to change.)

These days, Dweck is applying her model to kids’ moral development. Young children may not always have beliefs about ability, but they do have ideas about goodness. Many kids believe they’re invariably good or bad; other kids think they can get better at being good. Dweck has already found that preschoolers with this growth mind-set feel okay about themselves after they’ve messed up and are less judgmental of others; they’re also more likely than kids with a fixed view of goodness to try to set things right and to learn from their mistakes. They understand that spilling juice or throwing toys, for example, doesn’t damn a kid as bad, so long as the child cleans up and resolves to do better next time. Now Dweck and graduate student Allison Master are running experiments at Bing Nursery School to see if teaching kids the growth mind-set improves their coping skills. They’ve designed a storybook with the message that preschoolers can go from “bad” one year to better the next. Can hearing such stories help a 4-year-old handle a sandbox setback?

Dweck’s students from over the years describe her as a generous, nurturing mentor. She’d surely attribute these traits not to an innate gift, but to a highly developed mind-set. “Just being aware of the growth mind-set, and studying it and writing about it, I feel compelled to live it and to benefit from it,” says Dweck, who took up piano as an adult and learned to speak Italian in her 50s. “These are things that adults are not supposed to be good at learning.”


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Andrew Blanco's curator insight, February 5, 2015 11:06 AM

effort is everything

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The Learning Myth: Why I'm Cautious About Telling My Son He's Smart

The Learning Myth: Why I'm Cautious About Telling My Son He's Smart | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
By: Salman Khan
Join the #YouCanLearnAnything movement


My 5-year-­old son has just started reading. Every night, we lie on his bed and he reads a short book to me. Inevitably, he’ll hit a word

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Ivon Prefontaine, PhD's curator insight, August 24, 2014 10:42 PM

I was an early reader and yet I did not read. I memorized what older brothers and parents read to me from the picture book. I could repeat the story verbatim. I am not sure a five year old not recognizing the word gratefully is a problem. Where will they be as a reader later is the key.

 

@ivon_ehd1

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How Do You Learn Learning?

How Do You Learn Learning? | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Learning - that elusive moment when things make sense. 

Learning - that inclusive moment which allows one to become a member of a specific group. 

Learning - how does one learn today?

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David W. Deeds's curator insight, June 21, 8:33 PM

This is interesting. Thanks to Elizabeth E. Charles.

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Education vs Learning - What Exactly is the Difference? - EdTechReview™ (ETR)

Education vs Learning - What Exactly is the Difference? - EdTechReview™ (ETR) | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Surely learning and formal education are not entirely the same thing? But what exactly is the difference?

Via Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa) , Aki Puustinen, Suvi Salo, Ivon Prefontaine, PhD, Jaro Berce, Amy Ragsdale, Mark E. Deschaine, PhD
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Ness Crouch's curator insight, April 15, 2015 7:51 PM

Excellent read. I recommend taking a look at this article. Sometimes the lines between education and learning can be blurry. Time to clear that up.

Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, March 28, 2:22 AM
Education vs Learning
Ricardo Rodrigues's curator insight, March 28, 5:57 PM
Qual a diferença entre o método de ensino utilizado e aprendizagem?
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25 Ways to Develop 21st Century Thinkers

25 Ways to Develop 21st Century Thinkers | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Free resource of educational web tools, 21st century skills, tips and tutorials on how teachers and students integrate technology into education

Via Elicenia Monsalve Upegui, Yashy Tohsaku
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10 research-based insights on how the brain learns by @mattmiller

10 research-based insights on how the brain learns by @mattmiller | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
What we believe about learning is sometimes totally opposite to how the brain actually learns. Here are 10 insights on how the brain learns.

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Lon Woodbury's curator insight, March 28, 2016 6:15 AM

Expand these academic insights into learning about life, and they seem to still apply. -Lon

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Learning as Weaving - Hybrid Pedagogy

Learning as Weaving - Hybrid Pedagogy | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
As educators, we want to teach in ways that support our students to be the best that they can be. We yearn for the lightbulb moment.

Via Elizabeth E Charles
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Face-to-Face vs. Online Learning: Why Is It Either/Or?

Face-to-Face vs. Online Learning: Why Is It Either/Or? | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Communication skills and growth mindset are critical in adopting a schoolwide online program because, regardless of the technology, these skills are the heart of learning.

Via Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa) , Bonnie Bracey Sutton
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www.cheapassignmenthelp.com's curator insight, October 31, 2015 1:56 PM

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Rescooped by Dean J. Fusto from iGeneration - 21st Century Education (Pedagogy & Digital Innovation)
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You Can Learn Anything - YouTube

Khan Academy is on a mission to unlock the world's potential. Most people think their intelligence is fixed. The science says it’s not. It starts with knowin...

Via Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa)
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Rescooped by Dean J. Fusto from Personal Learning Network
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Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

Via Rebecca Frazee, diane gusa
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Rebecca Frazee's curator insight, May 22, 2015 1:32 PM

2014 Study abstract and list of articles that cite this one. Good resources. #LDT-LSDM.

The study reports: "The data reported here indicate that active learning increases examination performance by just under half a SD and that lecturing increases failure rates by 55%. The heterogeneity analyses indicate that (i) these increases in achievement hold across all of the STEM disciplines and occur in all class sizes, course types, and course levels; and (ii) active learning is particularly beneficial in small classes and at increasing performance on concept inventories.

Although this is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of the undergraduate STEM education literature to date, ...our results are consistent with previous work by other investigators."

diane gusa's curator insight, July 17, 2015 11:39 AM

he data reported here indicate that active learning increases examination performance by just under half a SD and that lecturing increases failure rates by 55%. The heterogeneity analyses indicate that (i) these increases in achievement hold across all of the STEM disciplines and occur in all class sizes, course types, and course levels; and (ii) active learning is particularly beneficial in small classes and at increasing performance on concept inventories.

Rescooped by Dean J. Fusto from Learning in the 21st century
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The Definition Of Intrinsic Motivation

The Definition Of Intrinsic Motivation | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
The Definition Of Intrinsic Motivation

A decent working definition of intrinsic motivation is “motivation that stems directly from an action rather than a reward.” Dr. Richard Ryan and Edward Deci explain in their Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions & New Directions.

“Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated, a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external products, pressures, or rewards….In Self-Determination Theory, we distinguish between different types of motivation based on the different reason or goals that give rise to an action. The most basic distinction is between intrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome. Extrinsic motivation thus contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which refers to doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, rather than its instrumental value.”

Put another way, if a student studies for a test to make a qualifying grade to play for the basketball team, that would be an example of extrinsic motivation. Another example? Studying to “get good grades.” And as you probably know by now, its polar opposite, intrinsic motivation, is the more powerful of the two, though not necessarily more common.

In the following video, Daniel Pink explores the incredible impact of intrinsic motivation on performance, innovation, and the way we learn. While he frames the idea around “business,” he is clearly discussing learning and performance, which is why we’re all here, yes?

 


Via Sharrock, Tony Meehan
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Sharrock's curator insight, February 20, 2015 8:43 AM


Kyle Pearce • 2 years ago writes: "we've all heard teachers say that their students lack "intrinsic motivation" without realizing that our delivery of course content is a huge factor in whether we will ever see students motivated intrinsically."

Tony Meehan's curator insight, February 20, 2015 4:11 PM

As @DanielPink says, this is something which has been proven time and time again and has been written about at least since the early 90s by @alfiekohn. Rewards (or extrinsic motivators) kill the creative instinct or the natural intrinsic motivation we have to learn and to love learning for itself.  We have to find what it is that pupils are interested in, awaken a passion in them for learning and work with them from that point.  The world we live in now is far less certain but far more exciting.  We have no idea what will happen in five, 10, 20 years (as @SirKenRobinson said about 10 years ago) that we need to foster creativity and the capacity to think way, way outside the box. That requires we stop churning out rewards to pupils in the hope that they will be masters of their own learning.  How much more proof is needed to demonstrate that rewards don't work? The reward is in the learning. We educators have to make learning rewarding.


In SCHOOLS we need to develop in our learners:

"Autonomy: the urge to direct our own lives

Mastery: the desire to get better and better at something that matters

Purpose: the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves"


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In the Future Your Therapy and Education Will Be Tailored to Your Brain | MIND Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network

In the Future Your Therapy and Education Will Be Tailored to Your Brain | MIND Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Looking at individual-level information on brain processes could also be useful for figuring out who would best benefit from specific training regimens or learning techniques. Currently, in a project led by cognitive neuroscientist Joseph Hopfinger at the University of North Carolina, we are collecting functional MRI data on college students using the brain-training programs offered by Lumosity, an online brain-training company. Data indicate that Lumosity games can increase cognitive abilities such as working memory, processing speed and attention. We want to identify those individuals most likely to benefit from this training by looking at their brain processes. The results might help us develop cognitive training methods tailored to different types of brains, enabling more people to benefit from the technology.

Instead of comparing brain patterns of those who improve after training with those who do not, we built models of brain processes in individual brains to look for the various processes that predict improvement of cognitive performance after training. This method enables us to separate people who may have scored equally well but who approach cognitive tasks differently, so are heterogeneous in their brain processes. Revealing these potentially various neurobiological underpinnings of improvement will enable researchers to tailor brain-training programs to the needs and deficits of individuals. For example, by looking at patterns that related to no improvement, researchers may be able to develop training protocols that target specific connections among regions. Our work should enable Lumosity to provide products that help a wider group of consumers. Having even better tools for keeping the mind sharp will become increasingly important as the nation’s aging population experiences the expected cognitive decline.

Via Miloš Bajčetić, Yashy Tohsaku
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Studying With Quizzes Helps Make Sure the Material Sticks

Studying With Quizzes Helps Make Sure the Material Sticks | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it
Neuroscientists have known for a long time that regular quizzing on information helps make it stick, but students and teachers don't always know how to apply that research to classroom practice or study habits.

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Learning requires a change in the brain...

Learning requires a change in the brain... | Linking Literacy & Learning: Research, Reflection, and Practice | Scoop.it

Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, September 14, 2014 8:15 AM

How do students learn? There are many concepts that look at this question, and the visual above in one way to view this. 

To the left you have a box that shows that students take in content by reading, writing, listening and experiencing, and that to comprehend and interpret content they must have prior knowledge, make observations, identify main and supporting ideas and gather evidence.

In the midle section the student has to take the input and use critical thinking skills. To do this they must also be engaged in and committed to the learning process. 

And the final section looks at their output, how does the student show what they have learned.

In all phases technology may play a role.

This visual would be great to spark discussion amongst faculy.

Raquel Oliveira's curator insight, September 23, 2014 7:21 PM

Aprendizagem requer mudanças no cérebro.

Uma conversa interessante sobre pensamento critico.