There exist over 100 standard symbols that the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) include in their maps. For sighted users these maps facilitate map cognition, this understanding of the symbols allows more time spent in the understanding of the geography than the understanding of the symbols.Although this cannot be said for textual maps.
There are various obstacles with tactile maps, the most prominent ones would be the limited research in the area and that some of the technical factors that are straightforward in visual maps present some difficulties in tactile maps. Without the use of vision, blind people rely on other channels to gain the necessary information to travel; textual maps provide that. Tactile maps are linked to better spatial decisions making, environmental knowledge and independent travel.