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Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men

Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
After years of failed attempts, researchers have successfully generated stem cells from adults. The process could provide a new way for scientists to generate healthy replacements for diseased or damaged cells in patients

 

After years of failed attempts, researchers have finally generated stem cells from adults using the same cloning technique that produced Dolly the sheep in 1996.

 

A previous claim that Korean investigators had succeeded in the feat turned out to be fraudulent. Then last year, a group at Oregon Health & Science University generated stem cells using the Dolly technique, but with cells from fetuses and infants.In this case, cells from a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man were used to generate two separate lines of stem cells.
The process, known as nuclear transfer, involves taking the DNA from a donor and inserting it into an egg that has been stripped of its DNA. The resulting hybrid is stimulated to fuse and start dividing; after a few days the “embryo” creates a lining of stem cells that are destined to develop into all of the cells and tissues in the human body. Researchers extract these cells and grow them in the lab, where they are treated with the appropriate growth factors and other agents to develop into specific types of cells, like neurons, muscle, or insulin-producing cells.
Reporting in the journal Cell Stem Cell, Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at biotechnology company Advanced Cell Technology, and his colleagues found that tweaking the Oregon team’s process was the key to success with reprogramming the older cells. Like the earlier team, Lanza’s group used caffeine to prevent the fused egg from dividing prematurely. Rather than leaving the egg with its newly introduced DNA for 30 minutes before activating the dividing stage, they let the eggs rest for about two hours. This gave the DNA enough time to acclimate to its new environment and interact with the egg’s development factors, which erased each of the donor cell’s existing history and reprogrammed it to act like a brand new cell in an embryo.


The team, which included an international group of stem cell scientists, used 77 eggs from four different donors. They tested their new method by waiting for 30 minutes before activating 38 of the resulting embryos, and waiting two hours before triggering 39 of them. None of the 38 developed into the next stage, while two of the embryos getting extended time did. “There is a massive molecular change occurring. You are taking a fully differentiated cell, and you need to have the egg do its magic,” says Lanza. “You need to extend the reprogramming time before you can force the cell to divide.”

 

While a 5% efficiency may not seem laudable, Lanza says that it’s not so bad given that the stem cells appear to have had their genetic history completely erased and returned to that of a blank slate. “This procedure works well, and works with adult cells,” says Lanza.

 

The results also teach stem cell scientists some important lessons. First, that the nuclear transfer method that the Oregon team used is valid, and that with some changes it can be replicated using older adult cells. “It looks like the protocols we described are real, they are universal, they work in different hands, in different labs and with different cells,” says Shoukhrat Mitalopov, director of the center for embryonic cell and gene therapy at Oregon Health & Science University, and lead investigator of that study.

 

VIDEO: Breakthrough in Cloning Human Stem Cells: Explainer

 

MORE: Stem-Cell Research: The Quest Resumes


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets
Articles on the joys and challenges of being differently abled and the gadgets that help us be independent and productive.
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These exoskeleton heels could help stroke victims walk again

These exoskeleton heels could help stroke victims walk again | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
It isn't quite the soft exosuit that DARPA's working on, but scientists have developed a lightweight exoskeleton that'll take some of the work out of walking.

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People with Disabilities Earn 37% Less on Average

People with Disabilities Earn 37% Less on Average | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Among workers with high school degree or equivalent, those with disabilities earned on average less than their peers.

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IPAD TEACHERS | Add Sign Language videos to iPad movies

Add Sign Language Videos in iMovie App

In the past we have used the titles tool in iMovie for iPad to add subtitles to videos in school for creating...

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Cindy Rudy's curator insight, March 17, 2015 10:41 AM

This add a whole other dimension in the form of accessibility.

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50 Online Early Readers (with audio) - mattBgomez

50 Online Early Readers (with audio) - mattBgomez | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
I found an awesome website that has over 100 early readers with audio! The site is Unite For Literacy and I took the first 50 of the books and created a Symbaloo webmix for my class. The best part is these books work on the iPad as well! I will make another webmix of 50 more books soon.

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Great site for children's books with audio!

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How the Human Brain and Skull Connect May Have Implications for Spina Bifida and Chiari Malformations Treatments

How the Human Brain and Skull Connect May Have Implications for Spina Bifida and Chiari Malformations Treatments | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Researchers discover network of tissue communication that ensures the brain and spinal cord are matched with the skull and spinal column during embryonic development.

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MyStorybook.com - Free Storybook Making Online

MyStorybook.com - Free Storybook Making Online | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it

Write and share your very own storybooks with this free online app!

 


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A.K.Andrew's curator insight, September 25, 2014 5:59 PM

Looks like a great tool for young and not so young!

natasha dcosta's curator insight, October 3, 2014 11:40 PM

teachers and technology 

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Music Therapy Can Help Stop Violence In Special Needs Children

Music Therapy Can Help Stop Violence In Special Needs Children | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Music therapy can help children with ASD or ODD to stop violent behavior and assist with developing cognitive functioning, social skill interaction, and grade point average.

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Jewish Quarter of Old City to become wheelchair accessible - Jerusalem Post

Jewish Quarter of Old City to become wheelchair accessible Jerusalem Post. A NIS 20 million initiative spearheaded by the Jerusalem Municipality, Bituach Leumi and the Jerusalem Development Authority will make the Jewish Quarter in the Old City and...


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Scientists bypass spinal cord non-invasively to trigger walking

Scientists bypass spinal cord non-invasively to trigger walking | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it

Japanese researchers have created an “artificial neural connection” (ANC) from the brain directly to the spinal locomotion center in the lower thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine, potentially one day allowing patients with spinal-cord damage, such as paraplegics, to walk.


The study led by Shusaku Sasada, research fellow, and Yukio Nishimura, associate professor, both of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), was published online in The Journal of Neuroscience on August 13, 2014.


Neural networks called “central pattern generators” (see Ref. 2 and 3 below) in the locomotion center (lower than the lesion site) are capable of producing rhythmic movements, such as walking, even when isolated from the brain, the researchers suggest.


The researchers worked with neurologically intact subjects who are were asked to allow the computer to passively control their leg movements.


As a surrogate, the researchers used muscle signals normally generated by the arm movements associated with leg movements. These signals were used to control a computer-driven magnetic device that non-invasively (externally) stimulated neurons in the spinal locomotion center.


Additional simultaneous peripheral electrical stimulation to the foot via the ANC enhanced this walking-like behavior. Kinematics of the induced behaviors were identical to those observed in normal voluntary walking. The researchers said they are planning clinical studies in the near future.


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California Hospital Blood Tests Vary from $10 to $10,169 for Identical Test

California Hospital Blood Tests Vary from $10 to $10,169 for Identical Test | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Research shows significant price difference for blood tests in California hospitals, with some patients charged $10 for one test and others charged $10,169 for identical test.

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List of the Best Private Special Needs Schools

List of  the Best Private Special Needs Schools | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
List of the best U.S. private schools for special needs students based on educational offerings, student to faculty ratio, awards won, and extra-curricular activities.

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Jewish Special Needs Education: Removing the Stumbling Block: Our Children Aren't Broken - Thoughts On How Society Treats Disability

Jewish Special Needs Education: Removing the Stumbling Block: Our Children Aren't Broken - Thoughts On How Society Treats Disability | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it

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Lisa Friedman's curator insight, July 21, 2014 7:28 PM
When we spend our lives trying to “fix” our children and our students; no matter how pure our intentions, we perpetuate a societal concept of “normal” that views disability as broken. - See more at: http://jewishspecialneeds.blogspot.com/2014/07/our-children-arent-broken-thoughts-on.html#sthash.IxIYYxWl.dpufDo you know Jonathan Mooney? You need to. He’s awesome. This past Spring I heard him speak and I’ve recently finished reading his book, “The Short Bus: A Journey Beyond Normal”. - See more at: http://jewishspecialneeds.blogspot.com/2014/07/our-children-arent-broken-thoughts-on.html#sthash.IxIYYxWl.dpufDo you know Jonathan Mooney? You need to. He’s awesome. This past Spring I heard him speak and I’ve recently finished reading his book, “The Short Bus: A Journey Beyond Normal”. - See more at: http://jewishspecialneeds.blogspot.com/2014/07/our-children-arent-broken-thoughts-on.html#sthash.IxIYYxWl.dpuf
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Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau

Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
The U.S. Census Bureau provides American disability facts for features for the anniversary of Americans with Disabilities Act on July 26 .

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Free to Low-Cost Assistive Technology Solutions - YouTube

Oklahoma ABLE Tech explores free to low-cost assistive technology solutions. Categories featured include reading, vision, hearing, handwriting/keyboarding, c...

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Adaptive Clothing & Footwear: Information & List of Stores

Adaptive Clothing & Footwear: Information & List of Stores | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Information on adaptive clothing designed for people with disabilities or mobility challenges and seniors who may have difficulty dressing themselves.

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Disabled World's curator insight, March 25, 2015 5:30 PM

With adaptive clothing, a disabled or elderly patient can retain dignity, can provide some level of self-care, and experience the added comfort of quicker access to medical appliances and needs for both them and for a nurse or physician.

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My Emotions Chart – Helping your child identify and understand emotions | Patient Talk

My Emotions Chart – Helping your child identify and understand emotions | Patient Talk | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
RT @AutismTalkASD: A free chart which can help your child with autism identify emotions... http://t.co/GVJt0j5v1P

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Penalties and Fines for Hospitals that Treat the Poor

Penalties and Fines for Hospitals that Treat the Poor | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Last week, the federal government revealed that it will fine more than 2,600 hospitals in the coming year, because too many Medicare patients treated at these hospitals are ending up back in the hospital within 30 days of going home. Two new conditions have been added in this round of penalties: elective hip and knee replacement, and chronic lung disease.

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Guide to Adaptive Skiing Resorts

Guide to Adaptive Skiing Resorts | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
There have been many ground-breaking introductions of adaptive ski equipment over the years. The first ski outriggers were created around 1970. These were followed by a list of other game-changing devices in the sport including the ski bra in 1974, which prevents ski tips from crossing, the first sit ski in 1978 and the mono ski in 1984.

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Starting to consider holiday vacations? Here's some info that might help.

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8.4M in Funding for Employment Opportunities for People with Disabilities

8.4M in Funding for Employment Opportunities for People with Disabilities | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
$8.4M in continued funding to improve employment opportunities for people with disabilities announced by US Labor Department.

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How to connect to hearing aids for auditory accessibility on your iPhone or iPad - iMore

How to connect to hearing aids for auditory accessibility on your iPhone or iPad - iMore | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it

"The iPhone and iPad come equipped with some great accessibility features that open the door to all kinds of functionality for those with hearing and visual impairments. One especially useful feature for those with auditory impairments is the ability to pair their iPhone or iPad with many supported hearing aids. There are even some hearing aids that carry the made for iPhone moniker so you know your experience will be seamless. To get started, you've just got to pair them together! "


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Washington, DC: Top 5 Wheelchair Accessible Attractions

Washington, DC: Top 5 Wheelchair Accessible Attractions | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Almost every aspect of the city is wheelchair accessible; from the metro to all attractions and landmarks. After all, what would you expect from the...

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‘Shape-memory polymer’ material could help reconstruct faces

‘Shape-memory polymer’ material could help reconstruct faces | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it

Injuries, birth defects (such as cleft palates) or surgery to remove a tumor can create gaps in bone that are too large to heal naturally. And when they occur in the head, face or jaw, these bone defects can dramatically alter a person's appearance. Researchers will report today that they have developed a "self-fitting" material that expands with warm salt water to precisely fill bone defects, and also acts as a scaffold for new bone growth.


Currently, the most common method for filling bone defects in the head, face or jaw (known as the cranio-maxillofacial area) is autografting. That is a process in which surgeons harvest bone from elsewhere in the body, such as the hip bone, and then try to shape it to fit the bone defect.


"The problem is that the autograft is a rigid material that is very difficult to shape into these irregular defects," says Melissa Grunlan, Ph.D., leader of the study. Also, harvesting bone for the autograft can itself create complications at the place where the bone was taken. Another approach is to use bone putty or cement to plug gaps. However, these materials aren't ideal. They become very brittle when they harden, and they lack pores, or small holes, that would allow new bone cells to move in and rebuild the damaged tissue.


To develop a better material, Grunlan and her colleagues at Texas A&M University made a shape-memory polymer (SMP) that molds itself precisely to the shape of the bone defect without being brittle. It also supports the growth of new bone tissue.


SMPs are materials whose geometry changes in response to heat. The team made a porous SMP foam by linking together molecules of poly(ε-caprolactone), an elastic, biodegradable substance that is already used in some medical implants. The resulting material resembled a stiff sponge, with many interconnected pores to allow bone cells to migrate in and grow. Upon heating to 140 degrees Fahrenheit, the SMP becomes very soft and malleable. So, during surgery to repair a bone defect, a surgeon could warm the SMP to that temperature and fill in the defect with the softened material. Then, as the SMP is cooled to body temperature (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit), it would resume its former stiff texture and "lock" into place.


The researchers also coated the SMPs with polydopamine, a sticky substance that helps lock the polymer into place by inducing formation of a mineral that is found in bone. It may also help osteoblasts, the cells that produce bone, to adhere and spread throughout the polymer. The SMP is biodegradable, so that eventually the scaffold will disappear, leaving only new bone tissue behind. To test whether the SMP scaffold could support bone cell growth, the researchers seeded the polymer with human osteoblasts. After three days, the polydopamine-coated SMPs had grown about five times more osteoblasts than those without a coating. Furthermore, the osteoblasts produced more of the two proteins, runX2 and osteopontin, that are critical for new bone formation.


Grunlan says that the next step will be to test the SMP's ability to heal cranio-maxillofacial bone defects in animals. "The work we've done in vitro is very encouraging," she says. "Now we'd like to move this into preclinical and, hopefully, clinical studies."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Thoughts on Ableism in America Today

Thoughts on Ableism in America Today | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Thomas C. Weiss writes on ableism in America today including federal and state policies.

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5 Practical Steps to Getting Started on a Family Budget | Marla Murasko's Musings From A Special Needs Mom | special needs, family, fashion, travel and more

5 Practical Steps to Getting Started on a Family Budget | Marla Murasko's Musings From A Special Needs Mom | special needs, family, fashion, travel and more | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it

Via Special & Determined | A Special Needs Mom Blog
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Non Accessible Tourism Costing Economy Billions

Non Accessible Tourism Costing Economy Billions | Differently Abled and Our Glorious Gadgets | Scoop.it
Researchers find European tourism sector losing out on 142 billion a year due to poor infrastructure, services and attitudes towards travelers with disabilities.

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