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A Resource for Wood Boring Beetles of the World

A Resource for Wood Boring Beetles of the World | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
A Resource for Wood Boring Beetles of the World (WBB Resource)...
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Diagnostic activities for plant pests
Information on diagnostic activities on pests and diseases of plants follow the activities of EPPO Panels on diagnostics
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EPPO and Diagnostics for plant pests of quarantine significance

EPPO and Diagnostics for plant pests of quarantine significance | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

 

'Diagnostic activities for plant pests' is maintained by the Secretariat of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) and its aim is to share information on diagnostics.

 

EPPO is an intergovernmental organization created in 1951 which currently has 50 member countries. EPPO is responsible for harmonization and cooperation among the National Plant Protection Organizations (official authorities) of its member countries. EPPO helps its members in their efforts to protect plant health in agriculture, forestry and the uncultivated environment (standard-setting activities and exchange of information).

 

EPPO has established a programme on diagnostics since 1992

view the approved diagnostic protocols on the EPPO official website:

http://archives.eppo.int/EPPOStandards/diagnostics.htm

 

On this website, a page dedicated to EPPO activities on diagnostics is also available at: http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/diagnostic_activities.htm

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The EPPO Secretariat maintains other scoop.it magazines onPest Risk Analysis (http://www.scoop.it/t/pest-risk-analysis) Pest Alerts (http://www.scoop.it/t/pest-alerts), Invasive Alien Plants (http://www.scoop.it/t/invasive-alien-plants), Video of plant pests (http://www.scoop.it/t/pests-on-videos), Communication on pests (http://www.scoop.it/t/communication-and-citizen-sciences-on-pests-and-invasive-alien-species)

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Meloidogyne luci n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitising different crops in Brazil, Chile and Iran  »  Carneiro et al. 2014

Meloidogyne luci n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitising different crops in Brazil, Chile and Iran  »  Carneiro et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
A new root-knot nematode parasitising vegetables, flowers and fruits in Brazil, Iran and Chile, is described as Meloidogyne luci n. sp. The female has an oval to squarish perineal pattern with a low to moderately high dorsal arc and without shoulders, similar to M. ethiopica. The female stylet is robust and 15-16 μm long; the distance from the dorsal pharyngeal gland orifice to the stylet base (DGO) is 3-4 μm. Males have a high, rounded head cap continuous with the body contour. The labial disc is fused with the medial lips to form an elongated lip structure. The head region is not marked by incomplete annulations. Male stylet robust, 20.8-23.0 μm long with rounded knobs; the DGO is 2.5-4.5 μm. The stylet of second-stage juveniles (J2) is 12.0-13.5 μm long and the DGO to the stylet base is 2.3-3.3 μm. The J2 tail is conoid with finely rounded terminus and is 40.0-48.5 μm long. Biochemically, the esterase phenotype L3 (Rm: 1.05, 1.10, 1.25) is unique and is the most useful character to differentiate M. luci n. sp. from all other Meloidogyne species. Reproduction is by mitotic parthenogenesis (2n = 42-46 chromosomes). In a differential host test, the population from Lavandula spica, Caxias do Sul, RS State, Brazil, reproduced on tomato cv. Rutgers, tobacco cv. NC95 and pepper cv. California Wonder. No reproduction occurred on watermelon cv. Charleston Gray, cotton cv. Deltapine 61 or peanut cv. Florunner. In Neighbour-Joining analyses of ITS and D2-D3 rRNA sequences, populations of M. luci n. sp. from Brazil, Chile and Iran clustered together and were clearly separated from other Meloidogyne spp., thus confirming that all three populations are very similar and conspecific.
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Bursaphelenchus gillanii sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) – a new species of the xylophilus group in packaging wood imported from China Schönfeld et al. 2014

Bursaphelenchus gillanii sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) – a new species of the xylophilus group in packaging wood imported from China Schönfeld et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
A new Bursaphelenchus species of the xylophilus group was detected in coniferous packaging wood imported with goods from China in 2011. The new species is described herein and compared with other species of the xylophilus group. Bursaphelenchus gillanii sp. n. has a slim body (a = 31 (28-34) and 33 (29-36) in females and males, respectively), c′ = 3.8 (3.2-4.5) and 2.1 (1.7-2.5) in females and males, respectively, a large vulval flap, a 5-7 μm long digitate mucro as a continuation of the female tail, excretory pore at or closely posterior to the median bulb, strongly arcuate spicules, 34 (31-37) μm long as measured along the median line, with prominent pointed rostrum and small cucullus. The ITS-RFLP pattern of the new species obtained by digestion of the PCR product with RsaI, HaeIII, MspI, HinfI and AluI is different from other known Bursaphelenchus species. Results of sequencing the ITS1/2 region demonstrate the close relationship of the new species to B. mucronatus and B. xylophilus.
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Comparison of three conventional PCR test (Bulman & Marshall, ) versions for the molecular identification of Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis cysts and juveniles - Vossenberg - 2014

Comparison of three conventional PCR test (Bulman & Marshall, ) versions for the molecular identification of Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis cysts and juveniles - Vossenberg - 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

Three different versions of the conventional PCR described by Bulman & Marshall () for the identification of cysts and juveniles ofGlobodera pallida and G. rostochiensis were compared: the original Bulman & Marshall, Bulman & Marshall as described in EPPO PM 7/40 (2) and an in-house modified version of the Dutch National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO-NL).

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Detection and quantification of airborne inoculum of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus using real-time PCR assays - Chandelier - Plant Pathology - Chandelier et al. 2014

Detection and quantification of airborne inoculum of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus using real-time PCR assays - Chandelier - Plant Pathology - Chandelier et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

A method based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the use of rotating-arm spore traps was developed for quantifying airborne Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus ascospores. The method was sensitive and reproducible, and the collection efficiency was 10% of the spores present in the air.

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EPPO adopted a diagnostic protocol  Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus in 2013

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epp.12061/pdf

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Phylogeny of the Genus Synchytrium and the Development of TaqMan PCR Assay for Sensitive Detection of Synchytrium endobioticum in Soil-Smith et al. 2014

Phylogeny of the Genus Synchytrium and the Development of TaqMan PCR Assay for Sensitive Detection of Synchytrium endobioticum in Soil-Smith et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

To facilitate screening for Synchytrium endobioticum in soil, three TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed from SSU, ITS, and IGS rDNA sequences to detect sporangia in the chloroform-flotation fraction of sieved soil extracts.  There was 100% accordance between the SSU and ITS-1 TaqMan assays. Utilizing these two assays in tandem achieved good specificity for S. endobioticum, generating negative results with cloned SSU and ITS-1 regions from 14 other Synchytrium spp.  

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The  EPPO Protocol on S. endobioticum is under revision. 

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Assessment of PCR-based tools for the specific identification of some temperate Meloidogyne species including M. chitwoodi, M. fallax and M. minor Gamel et al. 2014

Assessment of PCR-based tools for the specific identification of some temperate Meloidogyne species including M. chitwoodi, M. fallax and M. minor Gamel et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

 This study evaluated the performance criteria of three conventional PCR tests recommended by the consensus diagnostic protocol for Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Meloidogyne fallax published by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO): a species-specific PCR (IGS target), a SCAR PCR, and a rDNA ITS PCR-RFLP. 

Petter Françoise's insight:

PM 7/041 (diagnostic protocol for Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Meloidogyne fallax ) was published in 2003 and revised i 2008. A new revision is in preparation.

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Molecular Detection of the Laurel Wilt Fungus, Raffaelea lauricola

Molecular Detection of the Laurel Wilt Fungus, Raffaelea lauricola | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
Plant Disease, Volume 98, Issue 4, Page 559-564, April 2014.
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Q-collect an EU funded FP 7 framework project on collections

Q-collect an EU funded FP 7 framework project on collections | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
Q-collect
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Learn more about the Q-collect project by visiting it's website.

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Molecular characterisation and diagnostics of some Longidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Russia and other countries using rRNA genes - Subbotin et al. 2014

Molecular characterisation and diagnostics of some Longidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Russia and other countries using rRNA genes - Subbotin et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

The needle nematodes of the genus Longidorus can cause diseases of various crops and trees, and are comprised of more than 150 valid species. Eleven valid and six unidentified species of the genusLongidorus collected in different regions of Russia, two states of USA, Germany, New Zealand and Ukraine were molecularly characterized using analysis of the partial 18S rRNA and the D2–D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene sequences. 

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International Plant Protection Convention Expert Consultation on Draft Diagnostic Protocols (ECDP)

The IPPC has initiated an Expert Consultation on several draft  Diagnostic Protocols

Please contribute!

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The expert consultation  aims at ensuring improvement on quality for the development of a draft diagnostic protocol (DP), through inputs and feedback, in a scientific basis, from a wider number of experts worldwide not part of the DP drafting group. A wider consultation of experts on draft protocols in earlier stages of development is crucial to ensure the quality of the protocol and to facilitate the adoption process. 

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Longicorn ID: Tool for Diagnosing Cerambycoid Families, Subfamilies, and Tribes

Longicorn ID: Tool for Diagnosing Cerambycoid Families, Subfamilies, and Tribes | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
Check out APHIS’ new online tool to help non-experts identify large, tree-killing beetles (Cerambycids)! http://t.co/SgUT7DGgU4
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Detection of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in imported tomato fruit in northern Europe

Imported tomato fruits infected with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were identified on the market in northern Europe using paper-based FTA Classic Cards (Whatman), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial DNA sequence analyses.

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An EPPO diagnostic protocol PM 7/50(1) Tomato yellow leaf curl and Tomato mottle begomoviruses was adopted in 

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Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3′-UTR region

A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3′-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182 bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts.

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An EPPO DP PM 7/49(1)Tomato ringspot nepovirus was adopted in 2004 and is under revision

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Molecular and morphological characterisation of Scutellonema bradys from yam in Costa Rica and development of specific primers for its detection  » Humphreys-Pereira et al 2014

Molecular and morphological characterisation of Scutellonema bradys from yam in Costa Rica and development of specific primers for its detection  » Humphreys-Pereira et al 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it
The yam nematode, Scutellonema bradys, which can cause dry rot disease of yam (Dioscorea spp.), was recorded for the first time from Costa Rica in four species of yam occurring in the Atlantic and north regions. Morphometric measurements from two populations from each region using ten female and 11 male characters corresponded with previous descriptions of this species. Canonical discriminant analysis of the female morphometric data separated the populations by region, whereas no separation by region was evident using the male data. Analysis of DNA sequences from the ITS region indicated that populations from Costa Rica were monophyletic with S. bradys from West Africa and clearly distinct from other Scutellonema species. No genetic separation by geographic region or Dioscorea species host was observed between Costa Rica populations. Species-specific primers were developed from the ITS region and supported the identity of 17 populations from 15 locations in Costa Rica as S. bradys: 14 populations from D. alata (greater or water yam) and one each from D. trifida (white yampee), D. cayenensis (yellow yam) and D. rotundata (white yam). Yam production in Costa Rica began in the Atlantic region, where the yam nematode was likely introduced from the Caribbean, progressively spreading to other locations through the use of infected vegetative planting material.
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The EUPHRESCO Network Secretariat will be hosted by EPPO from the 1st of April 2014

The EUPHRESCO Network Secretariat will be hosted by EPPO from the 1st of April 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

Martin Ward Director General of EPPO receiving the modus operandi of EUPHRESCO from Silke Steinmöller from the Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI)

Petter Françoise's insight:

EUPHRESCO is a European Research Area Network (ERA-NET) project for research policy development and implementation in the field of statutory and emerging plant pests which was launched in 2006. One of the benefits of EUPHRESCO is to optimize the use of the limited resources in the region. EUPHRESCO Partners represent all of the key national phytosanitary research funders from European countries. EUPHRESCO 1 ended in 2010 and EUPHRESCO 2 was launched in January 2011 (and has been enlarged to include more non-EU countries). One of the objectives of EUPHRESCO II was that the network should continue as a self-sustainable long-term network of European phytosanitary research funders after 2013. 

At the EPPO Council Session in 2011 a request that the EPPO Secretariat could provide the structures for a long-term sustainable network of EUPHRESCO was made The EPPO Council in 2013 agreed that the EUPHRESCO Network Secretariat would be established within EPPO for a first two year period.

As EUPHRESCO II will come to an end on the 31st of March 2014 a final dissemination Conference took place in Chessy (France) on 2014-03-26. Prior to the conference a EUPHRESCO II final Governing Board and the EUPHRESCO Network first Governing Board met.  The Network Management Group were reappointed, with a few changes of membership.   A handover of baton and modus operandi from EUPHRESCO II to the EPPO hosted long term EUPHRESCO network took place.

All information on EUPHRESCO I and II are being transferred to a new website hosted by EPPO which will be operational on the 1st of April 2014.

The coordinator of the EUPHRESCO network has been recruited and will join the EPPO Secretariat on the 13th of June. The Network Management Group will revise the EUPHRESCO Research Agenda and a new call for topic should be organized by the end of 2014. More information will be made available on the EUPHRESCO website (the link will be provided soon!).

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JKI Phytophthora datasheets

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More datasheets from JKI on Phytophthora species 

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Phytophthora austrocedrae Gresl. & E. M. Hansen | Werres | JKI Data sheets - Plant Diseases and Diagnosis

Phytophthora austrocedrae Gresl. & E. M. Hansen
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A datasheet that includes information for the diagnosis of P. austrocedrae. 

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EPPO Workshop on Accreditation for plant pest diagnostic laboratorie York, GB, 2014-02-18/20

EPPO Workshop on Accreditation for plant pest diagnostic laboratorie  York, GB, 2014-02-18/20 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

EPPO Organized a thrid Workshop on Accreditation for plant pest diagnostic laboratories in York GB 2014-02-18/20

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Read a short summary and recommendations. 

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Development and evaluation of Taqman assays for the differentiation of Dickeya (sub)species - van der Wolf et al. 2014

Development and evaluation of Taqman assays for the differentiation of Dickeya (sub)species - van der Wolf et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

TaqMan assays were developed for the detection of seven Dickeya species, namely D. dianthicola, D. dadantii, D. paradisiaca, D. chrysanthemi, D. zeae, D. dieffenbachiae and D. solani. 

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The organization of proficiency testing in plant pathology (qualitative methods of analysis) according to the ISO/IEC 17043: example of the French national reference laboratory - Chabirand et al 2014

The organization of proficiency testing in plant pathology (qualitative methods of analysis) according to the ISO/IEC 17043: example of the French national reference laboratory - Chabirand et al 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

The article presents the experience of the French National Reference laboratories with proficiency testing for qualitative tests. 

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EPPO is about to approve a new standard Guidelines for the organization of interlaboratory comparisons by plant pest diagnostic laboratories whyihc includes both test performance studies and proficiency testing.

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Survival and Transmission of Potato Virus Y, Pepino Mosaic Virus, and Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid in Water Mehle et al 2014

Hydroponic systems and intensive irrigation are used widely in horticulture and thus have the potential for rapid spread of water-transmissible plant pathogens.

This artcile presents the role of water as a source of plant infection for three mechanically transmissible plant pathogens that constitute a serious threat to tomato and potato production: pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), potato virus Y (PVY), and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). It concludes that water should be taken into account in future epidemiology and risk assessment studies.

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Article on the margin of diagnostics

Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV),and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) are pest recommended for regulation by EPO and diagnostic protcols have been developped

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Improved PCR for identification of members of the genus Xanthomonas Adriko et al. 2014

Improved PCR for identification of members of the genus Xanthomonas Adriko et al. 2014 | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

This article presents a PCR based approach that can reliably and effectively differentiate xanthomonads from non-xanthomonads as well as separating the strains belonging to the two described groups of the genus Xanthomonas. The study thus offers valuable tools for disease surveillance and management. It can effectively be applied in rapid assessment of new disease occurrences, for which no specific detection tools could be in place.

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Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3′-UTR region

A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts.

Petter Françoise's insight:

An EPPO Diagnostic protocol PM 7/49 was adopted for this pest in 2004

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Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: Tomato necrotic stunt virus

Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: Tomato necrotic stunt virus | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to that of conventional RT-PCR, with detection of ToNStV in a reaction containing only 8 pg of total tomato RNA or with 1:20,000 dilution of crude tissue extract. This assay was able to detect ToNStV in a broad range of solanaceous plant species. The RT-LAMP for ToNStV was specific with no cross-reactivity to other potyviruses (i.e. Potato virus Y and Tobacco etch virus), as well as several other common tomato viruses. RT-LAMP should complement RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays reported previously, with a potential to provide a simple, rapid, and sensitive field diagnostic method for ToNStV.

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Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to infected tomato plants.

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A Multiplex-PCR Method for Strain Identification and Detailed Phylogenetic Analysis of AY-Group Phytoplasmas

A Multiplex-PCR Method for Strain Identification and Detailed Phylogenetic Analysis of AY-Group Phytoplasmas | Diagnostic activities for plant pests | Scoop.it

this multiplex-PCR system is useful for rapid strain identification and detailed phylogenetic analysis of phytoplasmas.

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Aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI) phytoplasmas are associated with over 100 economically important diseases worldwide and represent the most diverse and widespread phytoplasma group.

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