To examine longitudinally the effect of diabetes on bone structure and metabolism, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover markers in 26 type 1 (mean age 49 years) and 27 type 2 (mean age 65 years) diabetic patients without known osteoporosis from a community-based sample at baseline and 5 years later. In the 17 type 1 men, BMD fell at the femoral neck (0.804 ± 0.145 vs. 0.769 ± 0.129 g/cm2; P = 0.003) with no change at lumbar spine or forearm. In the 11 type 2 women, BMD decreased at all sites except spine (femoral neck 0.779 ± 0.119 vs. 0.742 ± 0.090 g/cm2; P = 0.019). BMD did not fall at any site in type 1 women or type 2 men. There was an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and trend to higher serum beta carboxyl-terminal type I collagen telopeptide concentrations in the type 1 patients, and a decrease in free testosterone in the type 1 men. These data show that the rate of demineralization at the femoral neck in type 1 men is similar to that in older post-menopausal type 2 women. Changes in biochemical markers suggest that, in type 1 men, there is ineffective bone formation associated with accelerated bone resorption and lower sex steroid bioavailability. These findings may have implications for the clinical management of young male adults with diabetes.
|Scooped by Ellen H Ullman, MSW|