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New Research reveals how climate change impacts economic growth.

New Research reveals how climate change impacts economic growth. | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

'Climate & Limits To Growth' blog post by Lars Moratis.

 

The effects of climate change on modern society have by now become huge and oftentimes disastrous. And they are quickly becoming an imminent threat to economies, human wellbeing and democracy...

In 1972 the global think tank, the Club of Rome, reported on the findings of its computer simulations on unbridled economic and population growth and their effects on resource depletion in the book The Limits to Growth.

Investigating the consequences of interactions between the Earth's and human systems, the findings of the research team at MIT led by Dennis Meadows mainly prognosticated a “state overshoot and collapse” of the global system forty years from now.... http://www.csrwire.com/blog/posts/600-climate-limits-to-growth

 

NOTE FROM @PDJMOO

How do we bow to the power of our natural world that sustains all life on the planet and which without we do not exist? In the final analysis we cannot eat money or drink oil.


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Développement durable et efficacité énergétique
Pour un développement durable et pour l'efficacité énergétique. «Pour ce qui est de l’avenir, il ne s’agit pas de le prévoir mais de le rendre possible. »  Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
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Energy Efficiency: Why? How? | Groupe Enerstat Inc.

Energy Efficiency: Why? How? | Groupe Enerstat Inc. | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Efficacité énergétique. Pourquoi ? Comment ?
Pour faire la différence dans votre organisation, économiser et faire un geste concret pour l'environnement, tout en réduisant le gaspillage et les excès.
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Vincent Ruf's comment, August 20, 2012 8:47 AM
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Economics Has Math Problem

Economics Has Math Problem | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
The field begins to look like others that rely on data.

A lot of people complain about the math in economics. Economists tend to quietly dismiss such complaints as the sour-grapes protests of literary types who lack the talent or training to hack their way through systems of equations. But it isn't just the mathematically illiterate who grouse. New York University economist Paul Romer -- hardly a lightweight when it comes to equations -- recentlycomplained about how economists use math as a tool of rhetoric instead of a tool to understand the world. 


Via SustainOurEarth
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Another economist who has looked at the potential of machine learning is Hal Varian, a highly successful former professor who now serves as the chief economist at Google. In a 2013 paper, Varian released a paper discussing how new machine learning techniques developed by data scientists can help economists improve their understanding of reality. For example, he discusses how machine learning can help choose between different models (something economists often ignore), cope with uncertainty about which model is correct and avoid overfitting (overly complex explanations that can’t predict anything). In a set of slides released in early 2014, Varian tied machine learning techniques to the recent rise of quasi-experimental methods in economics. This represents a fusion between traditional econometrics and new data science techniques. 

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Le Moyen-Orient menacé de pénurie d’eau dans le prochain quart de siècle

Le Moyen-Orient menacé de pénurie d’eau dans le prochain quart de siècle | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Une étude américaine souligne les risques de « déstabilisation » liés à la raréfaction des ressources hydriques de la région.
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

"En regard des conflits qui déchirent le Moyen-Orient, la question de l’eau peut sembler « secondaire », ajoutent-ils. Mais, observent les auteurs, la sécheresse inédite qui a frappé la Syrie entre 2006 et 2010, conjuguée à la « mauvaise gestion chronique » des nappes phréatiques, a « forcé 1,5 million de personnes, principalement des paysans et des éleveurs, à quitter leurs terres et à migrer vers les zones urbaines ». Ce qui a « amplifié la déstabilisation générale de la Syrie » et « probablement contribué aux troubles qui ont alimenté la guerre civile »."

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The Earth Is Now "Locked In" To A 3 Foot Sea Level Rise, NASA Says | Jim Dalrymple II | BuzzFeed.com

The Earth Is Now "Locked In" To A 3 Foot Sea Level Rise, NASA Says | Jim Dalrymple II | BuzzFeed.com | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

Steve Nerem, a geophysicist at NASA and the University of Colorado, Boulder, said the world is all but certain to see a three foot sea level rise due to the concentration of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere.

Nerem told BuzzFeed News Thursday even if global emissions stopped immediately, the effects of CO2 already in the atmosphere would lead to rising sea levels, in a sort of “inertia” effect. The ocean rise could hit three feet by 2100 or later, Nerem said.

“Eventually we’re going to get to 3 feet,” he added. “Is that going to happen in 2100 or 2200, or somewhere in between? It really depends on what we do with our CO2.”

 

Click headline to read more, access hot links, view pix and watch video clip--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

For places with large populations living in low lying coastal areas, rising sea levels pose a dual threat, Nerem said. Not only will the ocean slowly creep high and higher, but storms and heavy surf will reach further inland and cause more damage.

“The first time you get inundated it’s not going to be from the slow rise,” Nerem explained, “it’s going to be from the storm surge on top of that rise.”

The new NASA findings consequently mean difficult times ahead, but Gleick pointed out that there is time to prepare because “this isn’t going to happen tomorrow.”

“If we reduce greenhouse gas emissions pretty dramatically in the next couple of decades,” he said, “these sea level increases will be slower and ultimately lower than they would otherwise be.”

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Wind And Solar Are Already A Better Value Than Fossil Fuels

Wind And Solar Are Already A Better Value Than Fossil Fuels | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Originally published on RenewEconomy.

When radio shock jock Alan Jones got the cost of wind energy so horribly wrong in front of a million or so viewers on ABC TV last month, he did more than misplace a decimal point. He repeated an often-made misunderstanding about the costs of energy, and why renewables are already better
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Indeed, the capital cost of wind and solar – for the equipment, account for around 60 per cent of their total costs. Half of the remainder comes in financing, and this is falling rapidly as new vehicles such as YieldCos bring down the cost of debt and equity.

On other hand, fuel costs can account for 80 per cent of the cost of gas-fired generation, and more than half the cost of coal. And gas costs vary dramatically, from $US3 a unit in the US, to $US8 a unit in Europe (and now in Australia), to up to $US15 a unit in importing countries such as Japan.

Citigroup says it is “dangerous” to rely on assumptions of capital expenditure when the pace of change in an industry is so rapid, and the rate of evolution so fast. “Examining capex on a standalone basis runs the risk of overstating the cost of renewables, and understating the total cost of conventional generation technologies,” Citigroup noted.

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NREL: Wind Research - New Study Reveals Potential 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar for the Eastern Interconnection

NREL: Wind Research - New Study Reveals Potential 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar for the Eastern Interconnection | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

Using high-performance computing capabilities and new methodologies to model operations of the Eastern Interconnection—arguably the largest power system in the world—at unprecedented fidelity, NREL found that the power system can reliably support up to 30% penetration of wind and solar power.

Wind is one of the fastest growing electricity resources in the United States and in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection, as is solar. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned NREL to study the operational impacts of higher percentages—up to 30% penetration on an annual energy basis—of combined wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation.

The result was the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS), a scenario-based study of four potential wind and PV futures and associated operational impacts (forthcoming).

Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Here are five key conclusions of the study.

Simulated levels of wind and PV generation can be balanced across the entire Eastern Interconnection, including Canada, during normal operations—at the nodal level and 5-minute resolution.Multiple pathways lead to 30% penetrations of wind and PV in the Eastern Interconnection.Efficient utilization of available wind and PV depends upon transmission availability and characteristics of the generation fleet.Annual wind and PV penetrations of 30% decrease production costs and emissions by approximately 30%. Evaluation of capital costs associated with the generation or transmission expansion was beyond the scope of ERGIS. Further economic analysis is necessary to determine the total cost of achieving these reductions.Wind and PV significantly impact the operation of traditional generation sources in the Eastern Interconnection.
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Un réchauffement global de quelques degrés, c'est quoi ? - YouTube

Nouvelle série de vidéos par +Florence Porcel sur le réchauffement climatique.

Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Florence Porcel fait une très bonne synthèse de la situation, ce  qui remet bien les choses en perspective.  Quelques degrés Celsius de réchauffement semblent peu, mais au niveau du globe, c'est catastrophique.

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The Tough Love of ‘Austerity’ | Jennifer Szalai | New York Times Magazine

The Tough Love of ‘Austerity’ | Jennifer Szalai | New York Times Magazine | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

Austerity, diet of our lives, girder of our loins. At the moment, the word brings to mind the continuing crisis in Greece and, by extension, the power of the Germans holding the purse strings.

 

‘‘Austerity’’ has become the catchall word for the cost-cutting a government enacts in order to balance its books: Cut pensions, cut the public payroll, cut social services — cut whatever and wherever. Shrink spending, shrink debt, shrink deficits. The idea is to inspire confidence and make the place more attractive to investors, who prefer a government that’s tough and lean to one that’s marbled and tender.

That, at least, is the theory. Germany has been a big proponent of austerity measures, but German officials avoid invoking Austerität, preferring instead Sparpolitik, or ‘‘savings policy.’’ Chancellor Angela Merkel has made her distaste for the A-word well known. ‘‘I call it balancing the budget,’’ she said at an event a couple of years ago.

 

‘‘Everyone else is using this term ‘austerity.’ That makes it sound like something truly evil.’’ Austerity implies deprivation, undertaken under duress, to be suffered through or endured; a ‘‘savings policy,’’ by contrast, sounds practical and prudent, a solid foundation for a sensible way of life.

As it happens, the word ‘‘austerity’’ owes its roots to the ancient Greeks, for whom austeros meant ‘‘harsh,’’ ‘‘rough,’’ ‘‘bitter.’’

 

Click headline to read more--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

"Austerity programs have historically been enacted in reaction to a banking crisis: A government goes into debt in order to rescue the banks, and so private debt is transferred onto the public balance sheet. Public spending is slashed as a result.

Given that the poor benefit more from the kind of government spending that is cut, Blyth writes in his book, austerity ‘‘relies on the poor paying for the mistakes of the rich.’’ Greece’s people are becoming poorer: Last year, Unicef calculated that more than 40 percent of Greek children were living in poverty, a doubling from four years earlier. The conversations about Greece sound depressingly familiar, mimicking the ones we have here about the poor, the rich and who ‘‘deserves’’ what. The setting might change, but the moral stays the same: Those with less are expected to be the ones to do without."

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Pourquoi des températures record en juillet ?

Pourquoi des températures record en juillet ? | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Ce mois a été exceptionnellement chaud : record absolu à l’échelle mondiale et troisième mois de juillet le plus chaud en France. Et pourtant, il a aussi fait froid par moments ! L’analyse de François Jobard, prévisionniste à Météo France.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Juillet 2015 : ce mois deviendra-t-il une référence de chaleur ?

Oui, c’est un mois exceptionnel. D’après la NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, l’agence météorologique américaine) et l’Agence météorologique japonaise, ce fut le mois le plus chaud, tous mois confondus, à l’échelle mondiale depuis qu’existent les mesures [et les sept premiers mois de l'années ont été également les plus chauds jamais enregistrés, NDLR]. En France, c’est le troisième plus chaud après 2006 et 1983. En Espagne, ce fut le mois le plus chaud jamais enregistré, tous mois confondus. En Italie, ce fut le mois de juillet le plus chaud de l’histoire, et le deuxième mois le plus chaud, tous mois confondus, juste derrière août 2003.

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Le saviez-vous ? L’océan est une super-pompe à carbone - National Geographic

Le saviez-vous ? L’océan est une super-pompe à carbone - National Geographic | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

L’océan limite le changement climatique en séquestrant le carbone (CO2) dans ses profondeurs. Quels sont les mécanismes de ce phénomène ? Explications de Laurent Bopp, directeur de recherche au CNRS.



Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Entre 2004 et 2013, l’océan a absorbé 2,6 milliards de tonnes de carbone par an, soit 30 % des émissions anthropiques (produites par l’homme). Le “trop-plein” de CO2 dissous dans l’océan diminue la formation des ions bicarbonate, des molécules qui aident à la dissolution du CO2. « C’est un cercle vicieux. Résultat : la pompe à carbone est moins efficace.” Avec autant de carbone, l’océan arrive à saturation. Le même processus conduit, au bout du compte, à l’acidification des océans. 

 

Le réchauffement des eaux océaniques empêche aussi la dissolution du CO2. Les scientifiques craignent qu’un réchauffement trop important ne modifie les courants marins. “Et si les eaux froides ne vont plus vers le fond, elles ne pourront plus y transporter le carbone.”

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Climate change forces scientists to speak up

Climate change forces scientists to speak up | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
A decade ago, whenever the topic of climate change would come up, Northeastern's Brian Helmuth would focus solely on the scientific facts while deliberately ignoring the potential long-term societal implications.
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"Since my kids are going to inherit this planet, I decided that I have to talk about the implications and not just the scientific facts," said Helmuth, a professor of environmental science and public policy with joint appointments in the College of Science and the School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs. "I am careful that if I say something is true, I make sure it can be backed up by science. But I'm not afraid now to also say 'Here is what is going to happen if we don't act on that information.'" Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-08-climate-scientists.html#jCp
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Ressources mondiales: Ce jeudi 13 août, l’humanité entame une 2ème planète

Ressources mondiales: Ce jeudi 13 août, l’humanité entame une 2ème planète | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Il aura fallu 225 jours aux habitants de la planète pour consommer toutes les ressources que la Terre peut fournir en un an.
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Countries Big and Small Are Connecting Economic Growth to Renewable Energy, and It's Working

Countries Big and Small Are Connecting Economic Growth to Renewable Energy, and It's Working | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Costa Rica and the U.K. are prospering even as they decrease coal-fired power, suggesting that dirty energy isn't required for healthy economies.

Via SustainOurEarth
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Like the U.K., Costa Rica saw economic growth at the same time its energy-based greenhouse emissions decreased. The 3.6 percent increase in the country’s 2014 gross domestic product is just the latest in a five-year streak in economic growth. The Central American country and its 5 million citizens have a goal of being carbon-neutral by 2021. Mixing new geothermal energy projects in with its existing hydropower plants will make it even less reliant on fossil fuels.

 

Countries able to limit emissions while growing economically is good news and a “welcome surprise,” said Fatih Birol, International Energy Agency executive director—especially ahead of climate treaty talks in Paris later this year. Negotiators at those talks will be seeking to finalize the next formal international agreement on cutting carbon pollution to limit climate change.

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Even Wall Street Asks: 'Why Would You Not?' Take Action on Climate Change

Even Wall Street Asks: 'Why Would You Not?' Take Action on Climate Change | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

Given the economic, environmental and public health benefits of transitioning to a low-carbon future, a new report from Citigroup asks: When presented with the opportunity to take action on climate change, “Why would you not?”

Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

“The incremental costs of following a low carbon path are in context limited and seem affordable, the ‘return’ on that investment is acceptable and moreover the likely avoided liabilities are enormous,” reads the introduction to Energy Darwinism II: Why a Low Carbon Future Doesn’t Have to Cost the Earth, issued this month by the Citi Global Perspectives & Solutions division. “Given that all things being equal cleaner air has to be preferable to pollution, a very strong ‘Why would you not?’ argument begins to develop.”

To be sure, the implications of such a paradigm shift are not rosy for everyone. As the report authors note, “[s]witching to a low carbon energy future means that significant fossil fuels that would otherwise have been burnt will be left underground.”

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Warehouse Energy Savings: Boosting Your Bottom Line

Warehouse Energy Savings: Boosting Your Bottom Line | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

Going green in the warehouse is no longer an afterthought, but a necessity to boost the bottom line. With the US Green Building Council reporting nearly 172,000 gross square meters being certified LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) every day in the U.S., it speaks volumes about the widespread industry acceptance of sustainable design.


Via ecoInsight
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

"Once an afterthought, the “greening” of warehouses and distribution centers has emerged as one of the most effective tools to boost the bottom line. With so many external pressures on profit margins, energy savings have the potential to provide that much sought-after way out. Needless to say, we have moved well beyond simply dimming or turning off the lights (although not to be neglected).

 

If you have not considered such increasingly common green features such as white roofs to reflect sun light, prismatic lenses for skylights, solar panels, and high-efficiency lighting, you should know others are moving ahead."

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Lord Stern hits out at claims about cost of climate cuts

Lord Stern hits out at claims about cost of climate cuts | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
There is no conflict between economic growth and action on climate change, ambassadors told in Paris
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

But speaking to an audience of ambassadors in Paris, Professor Stern, the chair of the Grantham research institute on climate change and the environment, said that it was a false dichotomy to posit growth against climate action.

 

“To portray them as in conflict is to misunderstand economic development and the opportunities that we now have to move to the low-carbon economy,” he said. “To pretend otherwise is diversionary and indeed creates an ‘artificial horse race’ which can cause real damage to the prospects for agreement.”

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How Much the World Has Changed Since 2000

How Much the World Has Changed Since 2000 | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
As decision-makers meet to discuss new SDGs to replace MDGs agreed on in 2000, a look at how the 15 years have changed the debate on development.
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US Navy to battle climate change with new 210MW solar farm | James Phillips | BusinessGreen.com

US Navy to battle climate change with new 210MW solar farm | James Phillips | BusinessGreen.com | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

The US navy is seeking to boost its energy security and save at least $90m with a new 210MW solar farm in the Arizona desert to power its facilities.

The Department of the Navy (DON) announced late last week that it had signed a 20-year deal with Western Area Power Administration and Sempra US Gas & Power to buy power from the Mesquite Solar 3 solar farm in the Arizona desert.

The solar farm, which will comprise more than 650,000 solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, is set to be completed by the end of 2016 and is estimated to provide enough energy to power a third of the DON's 14 navy and marine corps installations.

Ray Mabus, secretary of the US navy, said the development was a "triumph of innovative problem solving".

 

Click headline to read more--


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"Le changement climatique est le plus grand défi que connaît aujourd’hui l’humanité" - Kofi Annan - YouTube

Le changement climatique est le plus grand défi que connaît aujourd’hui l’humanité. 

Il produit des effets dans le monde entier, à des degrés différents selon les régions.
En Afrique, des millions de personnes subissent déjà les conséquences du réchauffement climatique.
Ils sont aussi des millions à ne jamais avoir profité des privilèges que les citoyens vivant dans des économies à forte intensité de carbone tiennent pour acquis depuis longtemps.
Au nom de la justice climatique, le monde devrait saisir l’opportunité que représente le changement climatique....

Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Kofi Annan rappelle que le changement climatique est le plus grand défi l'humanité et en particulier l'Afrique.  Et qu'il est temps de faire preuve de solidarité.

Le rapport 2015 de l’Africa Progress Panel (http://bit.ly/1ANzaki)

expose les mesures ambitieuses que doivent prendre les dirigeants dans le monde et en Afrique. Il demande également des comptes aux partenaires de l’Afrique sur les promesses qu’ils n’ont pas encore tenues.

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Renewables and energy efficiency will reduce planet's energy bill by $1.8trn

Renewables and energy efficiency will reduce planet's energy bill by $1.8trn | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it

Switching to a low-carbon energy system immediately could save the planet $1.8trn by 2040, global investment bank Citi has claimed. 


Via ecoInsight
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

The bank this week released a report, Energy Darwinism II: Why a Low Carbon Future Doesn’t Have to Cost the Earth, comparing a business-as-usual scenario to one where the planet invests heavily in renewables and energy efficiency in the short-term.

The total spend on energy over the next 25 years is found to be “remarkably similar” in both scenarios with the ‘Action’ scenario implying a total spend of $190.2trn compared to $192trn for inaction.

In the greener scenario, the initial spend on renewables and efficiency is gradually paid for over time. Citi suggests that the cost of this initial action will only be an extra 0.1% of global GDP.

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TED : A visual history of human knowledge

TED : A visual history of human knowledge | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
How does knowledge grow? Sometimes it begins with one insight and grows into many branches. Infographics expert Manuel Lima explores the thousand-year history of mapping data -- from languages to dynasties -- using trees of information. It's a fascinating history of visualizations, and a look into humanity's urge to map what we know.

Via Karen Bastien
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Very interesting.  Manuel Lima studies how information is organized - connected — into diagrams that illustrate the many unexpected twists of big data.

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Maybe Charles Koch isn't worried about climate change because he doesn't get the science

Maybe Charles Koch isn't worried about climate change because he doesn't get the science | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Scientists review rare climate science statement by petrochemical billionaire and Republican activist Charles Koch
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

Charles Koch (CK): "Well, I mean I believe it’s been warming some. There’s a big debate on that, because it depends on whether you use satellite measurements, balloon, or you use ground ones that have been adjusted. But there has been warming."

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A Bright Spot in US-China Relations: Renewable Energy

A Bright Spot in US-China Relations: Renewable Energy | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
By cooperating on renewable energy, the U.S. and China could help each other — and the world. Chinese President Xi Jinping’s upcoming visit to Washington in September comes on the heels of cyber ac...
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:
"According to Melanie Hart of the Center for American Progress, moving toward a clean energy economy in the United States will require more than $1 trillion of investment in the electricity grid, new fuels, mass transit, power generation, and manufacturing. The United States is a relatively secure investment destination, home of leading solar technology, and has a strong domestic market for clean energy. With Obama’s new regulatory planunder the EPA, establishing first-ever national standards to limit carbon pollution from power plants, demand for clean energy is expected to increase. Meanwhile, China, with about $3.8 trillion in foreign exchange reserves, is increasingly employing its money towards outward investment and has strong incentives to invest in clean energy. In China, coal accounts for about 60 percent of China’s CO2 emissions, which are causing massive health problems because of the smog they generate as well as social discontent. In June, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang submitted a carbon-curbing plan to the UN, pledging to cut China’s greenhouse gas emissions per unit of gross domestic product by 60-65 percent from 2005 levels."
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Chine : comment la pollution tue 4 000 personnes par jour

Chine : comment la pollution tue 4 000 personnes par jour | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Une étude américaine révèle que la pollution atmosphérique est la cause de près d'un décès prématuré sur six, notamment à cause de l'exploitation du charbon.
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Decoding the alphabet soup of climate change

Decoding the alphabet soup of climate change | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
Join any conversation on climate change this year and you’re likely to hear a host of confusing terms and acronyms: INDCs, NAPs, NAMAs, the GCF, COP21.
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La fonte de la banquise en Arctique, "le plus grand changement" dans l'atlas du "National Geographic" depuis la chute de l'URSS - France TV Info

La fonte de la banquise en Arctique, "le plus grand changement" dans l'atlas du "National Geographic" depuis la chute de l'URSS - France TV Info | Développement durable et efficacité énergétique | Scoop.it
C'est Barack Obama qui l'a expliqué, à l'occasion de la présentation de son grand plan pour le climat. Vrai, répond le magazine, illustration à l'appui.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter, Laurent Samuel
Stephane Bilodeau's insight:

La modification de la carte de l'Arctique dans la 10e édition du National Geographic Atlas of The World, paru en septembre 2014, est "l'un des changements les plus saisissants de l'histoire de la publication". Pour s'en convaincre, le magazine a réalisé une image animée, qui montre l'évolution de ses cartes de la région depuis 1999

https://pbs.twimg.com/tweet_video/CL1OszEWcAE_eTB.mp4


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Dominique Martin- Ferrari's curator insight, August 10, 6:42 AM

voir mon papier dans Options futurs de Mai sur le sujet (mediapeps.org) et renvoi également aux échanges sur les tipping points au cours de la rencontre "our common futur " de Juin à l'UNESCO