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Developing Countries Need to Harness Urbanization to Achieve the MDGs: IMF-World Bank report

Urbanization helps pull people out of poverty and advances progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but, if not managed well, can also lead to burgeoning growth of slums, pollution, and crime, says the Global Monitoring Report...

Via Geoff Riley
Neil Codd's insight:

This article contains some great evaluation to back up our work on the Lewis model

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Geoff Riley's curator insight, April 19, 2013 3:27 AM

Lots of supporting data / evidence here for students who focus on urbanisation as part of their course

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Doing Big Business In Modi's Gujarat

Doing Big Business In Modi's Gujarat | Development Economics | Scoop.it
India's most alluring GDP growth story looks different if you're
Gautam Adani or a villager living off the land.

Via Aman Kanwar
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Aman Kanwar's curator insight, March 15, 8:55 AM

The tragedy of the commons is the reason why the granting of private property rights over common property are seen to produce socially beneficial outcomes. This article shows how the granting of private property rights can produce a different type of tragedy of the commons via negative externalities of production.

The article also shows how the process of granting of private property rights is vulnerable to both "systemic" and "grand" corruption. You can see a two track development story unfold where there is real growth overall but widening inequality.

"Trickle down" economists are not  that worried about widening inequality claiming that this is not a zero sum game where some sections of society gain at the expense of others. They argue that it is more a case of some sections of society growing faster than other sections of society. The section that is growing at  a slower pace is still better off than it was because of the efforts of the faster growing section of society. This article suggests that there is an element of a zero sum game involved in economic growth where some sections of society are actually worse off than they were because of the efforts of the faster growing section.

The key question that we all have to take a view on is that are we prepared to accept this as a phase of development that will correct itself in the long run. Or is it sowing the seeds of unsustainable development that will culminate in a bloody social upheaval like the French or Russian revolutions. Ethically are we prepared to watch the poor suffer so that the rich can enrich themselves further in the short run in the hope that the distribution of income and wealth will improve in the long run. Or like Keynes do we feel the need to act now because in the long run we will be dead.

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The pros and cons of aid to developing economies

The pros and cons of aid to developing economies | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Kenneth Rogoff: A new book by Princeton University's Angus Deaton urges the importance of aid but also caution over western interference
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The trouble with democracy

The trouble with democracy | Development Economics | Scoop.it

Government shutdowns, petty policy squabbles, voter disaffection – democracy doesn't seem to work very well. But what's the alternative? And can we rely on muddling through? By David Runciman

Neil Codd's insight:

Not strictly an Economics article but my year 13 classes were discussing how democracies can lead to poor short termist decision making. We should not forget though that the most productive countries are democracies. Perhaps because even though more mistakes are made in democracies, more mistakes are corrected? We should not get complacent though...

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Reason and the End of Poverty by Kaushik Basu - Project Syndicate

Reason and the End of Poverty by Kaushik Basu - Project Syndicate | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Do the benefits of economic growth trickle down on their own, benefiting all, or do we need targeted redistributive policies to reduce extreme and chronic poverty?
Neil Codd's insight:
Good example to show how evidence can be used to come illogical conclusions.
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Weak States, Poor Countries by Angus Deaton - Project Syndicate

Weak States, Poor Countries by Angus Deaton - Project Syndicate | Development Economics | Scoop.it
The absence of state capacity – that is, of the services and protections that people in rich countries take for granted – is one of the major causes of poverty and deprivation around the world.

Via Lucy Balazs
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Lucy Balazs's curator insight, September 24, 2013 3:52 PM

So by decreasing the amount of foreign aid a poor country receives, you can strengthen it.

Neil Codd's comment, September 25, 2013 2:09 PM
Thanks Lucy. This is exactly the debate we will be having in year 13 lessons. Certainly aid has potential to cause harm. This does not necessarily mean you should argue for less aid, maybe just better aid. Paul Collier argues for governance-conditionality I.e only give aid if government makes itself more accountable to its people. Another economist to search is Dambisa Moyo
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Did living standards improve during the Industrial Revolution?

Did living standards improve during the Industrial Revolution? | Development Economics | Scoop.it
AS WE showed in a previous blog post, Europe went through a period of astonishing growth after about 1760. The level of income that Europe has today could not have...
Neil Codd's insight:

As Lewis model shows, we shouldn't expect immediate improvements in living standards as a country industrialises. Use of historical data interesting too

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The Undercover Economist: How to give money away - FT.com

The Undercover Economist: How to give money away - FT.com | Development Economics | Scoop.it

 

"Helping the poor in the most obvious way of all, through direct cash transfer, is starting to look attractive" 


Via Eliza Haydon, Hannah Cowen
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Hannah Cowen's curator insight, September 7, 2013 3:52 PM

listned to a great podcast about this - http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/503/i-was-just-trying-to-help

Neil Codd's comment, September 9, 2013 2:28 PM
It won't be inflationary if you give the Malawi people foreign currency, I.e US dollars. The Malawi people get the rights to a chunk of USA GDP. If the Malawi businesses accept US dollars as payment and it becomes the local currency, if inflation were to go up, US imports would ease the inflationary pressure.
Neil Codd's comment, September 9, 2013 2:30 PM
If firms want to be paid in Malawi currency then the dollars would need to be changed into local currency and the Malawi currency would appreciate, reducing inflationary pressure via imports.
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Africa 'held back' by land disputes

Africa 'held back' by land disputes | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Africa's economic growth is held back by confusion over who owns vast swathes of agricultural land, according to a World Bank report.
Neil Codd's insight:
Poorly defined property rights are a major constraint to development. This short article indicates why. If you fancy reading a book on it, the classic is Mystery of Capital by de Soto.
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UK development bank plans raise fears of loading debt on to poor countries

UK development bank plans raise fears of loading debt on to poor countries | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Critics warn proposals to allocate more UK aid as loans could push funds towards projects that offer high returns at the expense of support for key social sectors
Neil Codd's insight:

A good way to evaluate aid is to examine what form of aid is most effective. This article examines whether loans or grants are best. 

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Report: Africa makes strides towards Millennium Development Goals targets

Report: Africa makes strides towards Millennium Development Goals targets | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Report: Africa makes strides towards Millennium Development Goals targets (Report: Africa makes strides towards Millennium Development Goals targets - CPI Financial: Report: Africa make...
Neil Codd's insight:

Possible unit 4 question: "assess whether MDGs are achievable" or "assess the progress made" or something along those lines. More likely to be in the data response as you do not have to learn what the MDGs are in detail. 

 

Reading this would be useful

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Hannah Cowen's curator insight, September 7, 2013 3:47 PM

In geneva there was a lot of optimism about some of the MDGs (notably extreme poverty) but others clearly needed a lot of work (primary education, gender inequality etc.)

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Developing Countries Need to Harness Urbanization to Achieve the MDGs: IMF-World Bank report

Urbanization helps pull people out of poverty and advances progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but, if not managed well, can also lead to burgeoning growth of slums, pollution, and crime, says the Global Monitoring Report...

Via Geoff Riley
Neil Codd's insight:

This article contains some great evaluation to back up our work on the Lewis model

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Geoff Riley's curator insight, April 19, 2013 3:27 AM

Lots of supporting data / evidence here for students who focus on urbanisation as part of their course

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The Case for Aid

The Case for Aid | Development Economics | Scoop.it
It's become fashionable to argue that foreign aid doesn't make a difference. Here’s why the critics couldn't be more wrong.
Neil Codd's insight:

Thanks to to Mo Tanweer and Tutor2u for bringing this great article to my attention.  Great case study to show how aid can be very successful - malaria reduction. Jeffrey Sachs and Paul Collier and many others have the same message: whether aid is helpful or not is not a yes/no discussion.  It can be helpful, it can be counterproductive, the debate of importance is how to make it effective.

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Unspeakable horrors in a country on the verge of genocide

Unspeakable horrors in a country on the verge of genocide | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Militias in the Central African Republic are slitting children's throats, razing villages and throwing young men to the crocodiles. What needs to happen before the world intervenes?
Neil Codd's insight:
Development Economics is more tied up with Political Science than other parts of Economics. A failed state like CAR leads to terrible lives for its inhabitants. Without increased wealth it is hard to see how a government can operate effectively; without an effective state it is hard to see how CAR can get richer. It is trapped. All four of Collier's four traps in The Bottom Billion plus the "poverty trap". International financial and military intervention seems its only hope.
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Pennies from heaven

Pennies from heaven | Development Economics | Scoop.it
SOME unlikely things combined to change Gabriel Otieno Anoche’s life. A satellite passing over east Africa took pictures of his roof. Some keen-eyed people in the...
Neil Codd's insight:

An impressive comparison between giving aid in the form of cash with conditions and giving it unconditionally.

 

If the cause of poverty is more than access to finance then conditional is better but unconditional payments have their advantages.

 

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Of waffle and remittances

Of waffle and remittances | Development Economics | Scoop.it
YET another in a long line of international conferences on Somalia concluded on September 16th with a "new deal" for the world's most failed state. Aid pledges, both...

Via Manya Eversley
Neil Codd's insight:

Which is most likely to be badly spent? Remittances or aid? Thanks Manya, good case study

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Researchers find one-fifth of foreign aid never leaves donor countries

Researchers find one-fifth of foreign aid never leaves donor countries | Development Economics | Scoop.it
New study estimates $22bn of official development assistance reported in 2011 was not transferred to developing countries
Neil Codd's insight:

NB the official definition of aid. Does it matter that lots of the aid money does not actually go abroad? Cancelling debt still means more wealth for poor governments to spend. Looking after refugees counts as aid - news to me! 

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The World Bank : Mailing List Signup

Neil Codd's insight:

Students interested in development economics might want to sign up to this blog

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Multimedia library | The Economist

Multimedia library | The Economist | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Authoritative weekly newspaper focusing on international politics and business news and opinion.

Via Emily Riddell
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Emily Riddell's curator insight, July 24, 2013 8:17 AM

A video from The Economist about the economic change in Cuba. The Cuban government have been, and are continuing to introduce reforms. They aim to reduce the size of the public sector, while enlarging the private sector, to make the economy more efficient. Under these reforms, enterprises will be able to keep 50% of post-tax profits rather than the previous 30%, which will give firms more of an incentive.

Neil Codd's comment, July 27, 2013 3:00 AM
Thanks Emily, a good case study for one of the A2 topics - merits of private v public sector in Economic Development. This link takes you straight to the video http://youtu.be/UcK73F6kdRM your one to a range of videos which keeps getting updated
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Amartya Sen: India's dirty fighter

Amartya Sen: India's dirty fighter | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Neil Codd's insight:

"India's overriding preoccupation with economic growth makes no sense without recognising that human development depends on how that wealth is used and distributed." India v. Bangladesh. 

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Can Trade Reduce Poverty in Africa? World Bank report

Neil Codd's insight:

This could be a unit 4 essay but the report is a little more detailed than an average A-level essay! The report is academic but understandable. It argues that free trade reduces poverty but only if other pro-development features are in place such as promotion of human capital and access to finance.  Without them there is a danger the poor could suffer. Great evaluation!

Also the graphs for global trade figures are useful, you should know how global patterns of trade have changed (growth of Asia).

 

I discovered the article in a link in this easier/shorter article http://www.economonitor.com/blog/2013/06/what-it-takes-for-trade-to-reduce-poverty-in-africa/ via @economonitor on Twitter

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Why Turkey is Thriving by Jeffrey D. Sachs - Project Syndicate

Why Turkey is Thriving by Jeffrey D. Sachs - Project Syndicate | Development Economics | Scoop.it
Turkey's economy grew by 5% per year on average from 2002 to 2012.
Neil Codd's insight:
This could be a good case study of a country that has had some success in terms of economic development. Long termist government spending, prudent fiscal and monetary policy are important.
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