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The Secret Language of Plants | Simons Foundation

The Secret Language of Plants | Simons Foundation | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

Striking evidence that plants warn each other of environmental dangers is reviving a once ridiculed field.
...The evidence for plant communication is only a few decades old, but in that short time it has leapfrogged from electrifying discovery to decisive debunking to resurrection. "


Via Eve Emshwiller
Christian Allié's insight:

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Secret Lives

Karban started off as a cicada researcher, studying how trees cope with the plague of sap-sucking bugs that descends upon them every 17 years. Back then, the assumption was that plants survived by being tenacious, adapting their physiology to hunker down and suffer through droughts, infestations and other abuse. But in the early 1980s, the University of Washington zoologist David Rhoades was finding evidence that plants actively defend themselves against insects. Masters of synthetic biochemistry, they manufacture and deploy chemical and other weapons that make their foliage less palatable or nutritious, so that hungry bugs go elsewhere. For Karban, this idea was a thrilling surprise — a clue that plants were capable of much more than passive endurance.

 

[ ...... ]

 

.......   Plants can communicate with insects as well, sending airborne messages that act as distress signals to predatory insects that kill herbivores. Maize attacked by beet armyworms releases a cloud of volatile chemicals that attracts wasps to lay eggs in the caterpillars’ bodies. The emerging picture is that plant-eating bugs, and the insects that feed on them, live in a world we can barely imagine, perfumed by clouds of chemicals rich in information. Ants, microbes, moths, even hummingbirds and tortoises (Farmer checked) all detect and react to these blasts.......

 

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Eve Emshwiller's curator insight, December 23, 2013 10:58 PM

Plant indiced defenses.

Subhabrata Panda's curator insight, December 27, 2013 5:47 AM

it's a very much interesting investigation.

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A carnivorous plant's prized genetic treasures, unveiled

A carnivorous plant's prized genetic treasures, unveiled | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
The carnivorous humped bladderwort plant, Utricularia gibba, is a sophisticated predator. It uses vacuum pressure to suck prey into tiny traps at speeds less than a millisecond. A new genomic analysis shows that, over millions of years, it repeatedly retained and enhanced genetic material associated with its carnivorous nature. These include genes that facilitate the trapping of prey, the digestion of proteins, and the transport of small bits of protein from one cell to another.

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Scientists have worked out how dung beetles use the Milky Way to hold their course

Scientists have worked out how dung beetles use the Milky Way to hold their course | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Insects navigate in much the same way that ancient humans did: using the sky.

Via Mariaschnee
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Extinction of Alpine plants may remain undetectable for a long time

Extinction of Alpine plants may remain undetectable for a long time | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
How do alpine plants react to warmer climatic conditions? Due to their longevity, the plants may survive longer than expected in their habitats, but produce offspring that are increasingly maladapted. Population size may decrease faster than the contraction of the species range, as UZH researchers show using computer models. Scientists who wish to track the precise extinction risk of plant species must not only measure their dispersal, but also the densities of the local populations.

For alpine plant species, climate change presents a special challenge: To escape increased greenhouse warming, the species have to move to a higher-altitude habitat. Due to the pyramidal structure of mountains, however, little surface area is available for this endeavor. To estimate the extinction risk of these plants, scientists have previously resorted to static models that insufficiently mapped the dynamic responses of flora to climate change.

Via Mariaschnee
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New butterfly species discovered in Israel for the first time in 109 years

New butterfly species discovered in Israel for the first time in 109 years | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Little does a scientist expect to discover a new species of easy-to-see and well-studied animal, especially if it inhabits thoroughly explored areas. However, Vladimir Lukhtanov, a biologist at the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, made a startling discovery: a new, beautiful butterfly named Acentria's fritillary, which was spotted as it flew over the slopes of the popular Mount Hermon ski resort in northern Israel. It is described in the open access journal Comparative Cytogenetics.

Via Mariaschnee
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The Earth sank twice, flooding the Eastern Amazon: Team finds shark tooth in northwest Amazon basin

The Earth sank twice, flooding the Eastern Amazon: Team finds shark tooth in northwest Amazon basin | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
A tiny shark tooth, part of a mantis shrimp and other microscopic marine organisms reveal that as the Andes rose, the Eastern Amazon sank twice, each time for less than a million years. Water from the Caribbean flooded the region from Venezuela to northwestern Brazil. These new findings by Smithsonian scientists and colleagues, published this week in Science Advances, fuel an ongoing controversy regarding the geologic history of the region.

"Pollen records from oil wells in eastern Colombia and outcrops in northwestern brazil clearly shows two short-lived events in which ocean water from the Caribbean flooded what is now the northwest part of the Amazon basin," said Carlos Jaramillo, staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and lead author of the study.

"Geologists disagree about the origins of the sediments in this area, but we provide clear evidence that they are of marine origin, and that the flooding events were fairly brief," Jaramillo said. His team dated the two flooding events to between 17 to18 million years ago and between 16 to 12 million years ago.

Several controversial interpretations of the history of the region include the existence of a large, shallow sea covering the Amazon for millions of years, a freshwater megalake, shifting lowland rivers occasionally flooded by seawater, frequent seawater incusions, and a long-lived "para-marine metalake," which has no modern analog.

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200,000 year old soil found at mysterious crater, a 'gate to the subterranean world'

200,000 year old soil found at mysterious crater, a 'gate to the subterranean world' | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Locals hear 'booms from the underworld' in giant ravine but now scientists say it holds secrets of the planet's past.

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NASA:  Light Pillars over Alaska

NASA:  Light Pillars over Alaska | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

What's happening behind those houses? Pictured here are not auroras but nearby light pillars, a nearby phenomenon that can appear as a distant one. In most places on Earth, a lucky viewer can see a Sun-pillar, a column of light appearing to extend up from the Sun caused by flat fluttering ice-crystals reflecting sunlight from the upper atmosphere. Usually these ice crystals evaporate before reaching the ground. During freezing temperatures, however, flat fluttering ice crystals may form near the ground in a form of light snow, sometimes known as a crystal fog. These ice crystals may then reflect ground lights in columns not unlike a Sun-pillar. The featured image was taken in FortWainwright near Fairbanks in central Alaska.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Christopher Chilvers's curator insight, May 21, 2:25 AM
How ice crystals refract light generating unusual optical effects.
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La nature au cinéma : quatre paysages pour grand écran

La nature au cinéma : quatre paysages pour grand écran | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Tour à tour enchanteresse ou menaçante, la nature, matériau cinématographique par excellence, offre aux cinéastes une multitude de paysages dont certains sont devenus iconiques.

 

Par Eve Lamendour. The Conversation, 27.04.2017

 

"... Film emblématique de Hayao Miyazaki, Princesse Mononoké (1997) dont l’action se passe au XVe siècle montre comment la forêt menacée du fait de l’action des hommes est synonyme d’un risque pour l’humanité. La destruction des êtres de la forêt (esprits et animaux) laisse les êtres humains amoindris.

 

Fable futuriste réalisée en 1984 par Miyazaki, avant la constitution du studio Ghibli, Nausicaä de la vallée du vent décrit l’expansion d’une forêt toxique, seul moyen qu’a la nature pour se protéger des hommes dévastateurs. Dix ans plus tard, Pompoko d’Isao Takahata décrit les luttes des animaux de la forêt contre l’urbanisation et la dégradation inexorable de leur territoire par les humains. Il n’est pas neutre que ces films au message écologique explicite émane d’un territoire paradoxal, sensibilisé aux questions liées à l’environnement (forte densité de population, célébrations ritualisées de la nature, bombardements atomiques, accident nucléaire…)."

 

[Image] « Princesse Mononoké » : la nature comme réservoir de la pensée magique. DR

 


Via Bernadette Cassel
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Elephants' 'body awareness' adds to increasing evidence of their intelligence

Elephants' 'body awareness' adds to increasing evidence of their intelligence | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Asian elephants are able to recognise their bodies as obstacles to success in problem-solving, further strengthening evidence of their intelligence and self-awareness, according to a new study from the University of Cambridge.

Self-awareness in both animals and young children is usually tested using the 'mirror self-recognition test' to see if they understand that the reflection in front of them is actually their own. Only a few species have so far shown themselves capable of self-recognition - great apes, dolphins, magpies and elephants. It is thought to be linked to more complex forms of perspective taking and empathy.

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Photosynthèse des plantes terrestres: +30% au 20ème siècle

Photosynthèse des plantes terrestres: +30% au 20ème siècle | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Quand l'évolution atmosphérique d'un composé soufré nous renseigne sur la capacité des plantes à capter le dioxyde de carbone libéré par les êtres humains.

Le dioxyde de carbone (CO2) atmosphérique est un substrat essentiel qui permet aux plantes terrestres de croître, la photosynthèse étant le mécanisme biochimique via lequel ce gaz est assimilé par les plantes. En s'appuyant sur des simulations informatiques et des mesures, dans les glaces de l'Antarctique, de l'évolution atmosphérique d'un composé soufré (OCS) analogue au CO2, une équipe de scientifiques américains et européens, coordonnée par un chercheur de l'Université de Californie à Merced, a mis en évidence un aspect méconnu de l'action à grande échelle de l'être humain sur la nature puisque l'assimilation du CO2 par les plantes a cru d'environ 30% au cours du XXème siècle. Leurs travaux ont été publiés dans Nature, le 6 avril 2017.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
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VIDEO. Les habitudes alimentaires des baleines à bosse révélées par des caméras fixées sur leur peau

VIDEO. Les habitudes alimentaires des baleines à bosse révélées par des caméras fixées sur leur peau | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Les chercheurs pourraient ainsi comprendre comment ces mammifères s'adaptent à l'évolution de la population de krill liée au réchauffement climatique

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
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No more 'superbugs'? Maple syrup extract enhances antibiotic action

No more 'superbugs'? Maple syrup extract enhances antibiotic action | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Antibiotics save lives every day, but there is a downside to their ubiquity. High doses can kill healthy cells along with infection-causing bacteria, while also spurring the creation of "superbugs" that no longer respond to known antibiotics. Now, researchers may have found a natural way to cut down on antibiotic use without sacrificing health: a maple syrup extract that dramatically increases the potency of these medicines.

The researchers will present their work today at the 253rd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS).

"Native populations in Canada have long used maple syrup to fight infections," says Nathalie Tufenkji, Ph.D. "I've always been interested in the science behind these folk medicines."

The idea for the project really gelled when Tufenkji, who had been studying the antimicrobial effects of cranberry extracts, learned of the anti-cancer properties of a phenolic maple syrup extract. "That gave me the idea to check its antimicrobial activity," Tufenkji says. "So, I sent my postdoc to the store to buy some syrup."

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Powers of attraction could decimate deadly starfish

Powers of attraction could decimate deadly starfish | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
An American who fell in love with both the Great Barrier Reef and his wife via The University of Queensland has led a breakthrough discovery that could protect one of the Seven Natural Wonders.
Husband-and-wife Professor Bernard Degnan and Associate Professor Sandie Degnan, believe they, along with research colleagues, can use the powers of attraction to decimate one of the reef's fiercest enemies.

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Lazarus species: Five cool animals we wrongly believed extinct

Lazarus species: Five cool animals we wrongly believed extinct | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
A mysterious elephant, a fungal-apocalypse-surviving frog and a plump, ground-dwelling, nocturnal budgie were all written off before coming back from the dead

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Science Makes Plant Discovery That Could Push Complex Life Back By 400 Million Years

Science Makes Plant Discovery That Could Push Complex Life Back By 400 Million Years | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Once you get past your own frame of reference, history seems impossibly vast. A century is a long time, but at least it's somewhat easy to get your head around. Now consider the fact that our planet has been around for more than 45 million centuries—that's 4.5 billion years—and it gets a bit mind-boggling. A team of Swedish researchers has just made a discovery with major implications for the history of life on Earth.

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Hear a whale calf speak to its mother

Hear a whale calf speak to its mother | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Professor Peter Teglberg Madsen from Aarhus University, Denmark, stands on a motor boat in Exmouth Gulf, West Australia. He is holding a nine metre-long stick, which he aims at a humpback whale calf, which is swimming just beneath the surface of the water with its mother.

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Earliest relative of Brachiosaurus dinosaur found in France

Earliest relative of Brachiosaurus dinosaur found in France | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Scientists have re-examined an overlooked museum fossil and discovered that it is the earliest known member of the titanosauriform family of dinosaurs.

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Researchers map the evolution of dog breeds

Researchers map the evolution of dog breeds | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
When people migrate, Canis familiaris travels with them. Piecing together the details of those migrations has proved difficult because the clues are scattered across the genomes of hundreds of dog breeds. However, in Cell Reports, researchers have used gene sequences from 161 modern breeds to assemble an evolutionary tree of dogs. The map of dog breeds, which is the largest to date, unearths new evidence that dogs traveled with humans across the Bering land bridge.

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44 Colorful Landscapes Highlighting the Unbelievably Natural Beauty of Earth

44 Colorful Landscapes Highlighting the Unbelievably Natural Beauty of Earth | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Every color is naturally represented on this extraordinary planet we all have the privilege of sharing our lives on, so let's take a visual walk through the rainbow of our world and remember to cherish it.


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Identification des Arthropodes vecteurs et caractérisation des pathogènes transmis par les vecteurs chez l’homme et les animaux

L'équipe du Pr Ali Bouattour (vecteurs, maladies vectorielles et environnement), du laboratoire d'Epidémiologie et microbiologie vétérinaire a réalisé une brochure sur les arthropodes vecteurs de pathogènes en Tunisie. Découvrez les spécificités des moustiques et des tiques, vecteurs de maladies telles que le West Nile, les rickettsioses, les bartonelloses, la fièvre Q.


Via Institut Pasteur de Tunis - معهد باستور تونس‎, Daniela Freitas
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Comment les plantes choisissent leurs bactéries

Comment les plantes choisissent leurs bactéries | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Le microbiote n’est pas l’apanage des animaux. Les plantes, elles aussi, vivent au contact de nombreux micro-organismes, principalement des bactéries. Chez l’humain, ces microbes sont sur la peau, dans la bouche, le vagin ou constituent la flore intestinale. Chez la plante, ils colonisent en particulier le sol proche de ses racines – la rhizosphère. L’ensemble des microbes associés à un organisme – son microbiote – lui est propre. Un fait étonnant, chez les plantes, est que bien qu’elles poussent dans un sol riche d’une immense variété de communautés bactériennes, les quelque 1010 cellules par gramme de sol qui colonisent leur rhizosphère ne représentent qu’une infime portion de cette diversité. Comment la plante « choisit-elle » ses bactéries ? Une équipe américaine vient de découvrir un mécanisme en jeu : la plante enverrait un signal depuis ses feuilles sous la forme d’acide salicylique (le principe actif de l’aspirine).

Via plantsci-UT3
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Two new species of orchids discovered in Okinawa

Two new species of orchids discovered in Okinawa | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Two new species of parasitic plants have been discovered on the main island of Okinawa, Japan, and named Gastrodia nipponicoides and Gastrodia okinawensis. Details of these findings were published online in Phytotaxa on April 7.

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Primates: l'odorat pour échapper aux parasites

Primates: l'odorat pour échapper aux parasites | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Des chercheurs du CNRS ont découvert que les mandrills évitaient de rentrer en contact avec leurs congénères infectés par des amibes gastro-intestinales grâce à leur odorat, afin d'échapper à toute contamination. Ces travaux, publiés dans la revue Science Advances du 7 avril 2017, montrent que les parasites influencent les comportements sociaux des primates qui développent une stratégie d'évitement parasitaire grâce à un mécanisme olfactif.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
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Il se fait violemment percuter par un cerf, personne ne l'aurait cru sans cette vidéo

Il se fait violemment percuter par un cerf, personne ne l'aurait cru sans cette vidéo | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Actualités INSOLITE : PAS DE CHANCE - Alors qu'il rentrait tranquillement à son hôtel, Cary McCook, un Canadien de 25 ans, s'est violemment fait percuter par un cerf le 1er avril dernier. Son histoire aurait pu finir en queue de poisson, ses proches croyant à une farce. Ils n'ont pu que le croire lorsque les images impressionnantes de la scène ont été diffusées.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
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Is Zealandia the eighth continent?

"A group of geologists say they've enough evidence to confirm the existence of a new continent. Writing in the journal of the Geological Society of America, the group named the eighth continent 'Zealandia.' Scientists argue for an 8th continent, Zealandia, in the Geological Society of America."


Via Seth Dixon
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Seth Dixon's curator insight, March 8, 3:29 PM

What makes a continent a continent? There is no set definition of a continent. Some consider cultural groupings and would consider Europe as a separate continent from Asia as a consequence. Geologists consider continental shelves as the defining characteristics of a continent and thus consider Eurasia to be just one continent. We are so accustomed to seeing the coastlines, but if the ocean were drained, we'd see Zealandia and it's ancient confidential shelf--but don't expect all the continental maps in elementary schools to change anytime soon.

 

Questions to Ponder: Does human geography or physical geography determine what you consider a continent?  How come?       

 

Tags: physical, tectonics, geologyregions, Oceania.

Jeremy Hansen's curator insight, April 4, 4:08 PM
Seth Dixon's insight: What makes a continent a continent? There is no set definition of a continent. Some consider cultural groupings and would consider Europe as a separate continent from Asia as a consequence. Geologists consider continental shelves as the defining characteristics of a continent and thus consider Eurasia to be just one continent. We are so accustomed to seeing the coastlines, but if the ocean were drained, we'd see Zealandia and it's ancient confidential shelf--but don't expect all the continental maps in elementary schools to change anytime soon. Questions to Ponder: Does human geography or physical geography determine what you consider a continent? How come?
Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, April 13, 10:59 AM
unit 1