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Its founder was Karl Marx , helped largely by Frederic desu work
Engels. Marx was a German Jew who by his ideas will exile most of his life. His major works lasescribió together with his friend and protector Engels. They '' The Communist Manifesto '' ( February 1848 ) and especially '' Capital '' . Marx conceived their ideas in the nineteenth century , when the bourgeoisie is finishing implement the capitalist system and the parliamentary model in Europe. The main points of his doctrine are:
- Dialectical Materialism
. Will the new system of philosophy to justify their political views. It attacks the spiritual world ( atheism ) , arguing that only matter exists (nature) who is in training perpetuatrans ( dialectical ) . His philosophy is not only to explain the world but to change it .
- Historical Materialism . The essence of man is his work , so the motor of history is the
economy (infrastructure ) , which is based on the relationship between the
force production (workers) and the means of production ( land , tools , factories ... ) . Depending on how these relationships so will the economic system of a society which Marx called "
Production Mode " . All in a society depends on the mode of production: The social system , religion , politics, etc. . So Marxa this set of things called "
superstructure " . Accordingly, social groups depend on the economic system , but it has always been dominant unaclase , owner of the means of production and a dominated class , which are the production force .
- The class struggle . The history of mankind is the history of class struggle. Always the ruling class has tried to impose on the dominated helping of super structure ( morality , religion , are considered state ... instruments at the service of the oppressors ) and in turn it has tried to break free from their yoke . At present, the ruling class would be the capitalist bourgeoisie and dominated the proletariat (industrial workers and peasants ) . - Communist society . Mankind will evolve toward an ideal society where
no school . The means of production belong to us all , therefore there will be neither oppressor nor oppressed , so that humanity will be happy. For that time comes sooner the revolution necessary starring the proletariat , which will remove the factories and the land to the capitalists to give them to the revolutionary state . The estadoadministrará all goods and educate the population to allow communist society the planet become a "paradise , home of mankind "
Socialism is defined as a mode of production where the criterion for economic production is the use value, and is based directly as in the production for use through coordinated economic planning, where the law of value no longer directed to the activity economic and monetary relations therefore as exchange value, Gain, Interests and Wage Labour no longer work. Revenues are distributed according to each individual's contribution. Social relations of socialism is characterized by the working class in control of the media production and livelihoods through cooperatives, publicly owned and self-managed, so the Socialrepercute Surplus in the working class or the society at large. Socialism is a system of commercial post- production , which means that production is oriented to the use value ( to directly satisfy human needs and economic demands ) rather produce exclusively to generate a profit (to maximize the value of change). The stage of the build was viable and effective becomes insufficient in the socialist stage of economic and social development , leading to the situation where production is carried out independently of the accumulation of capital in a supposedly planned . " Palnificación " has been interpreted as decentralized planning and participatory democracy based on the job or as a central planning.
In contrast to capitalism, which is based on market forces coercive to force capitalists to produce use values as a byproduct of the pursuit of profit , socialist production is based on the rational planning of the use values and decisions coordinated investment to achieve the objectives económicos.4 according to this theory , through this planning, cyclical fluctuations , which according to Marxist theory are inherent in the capitalist market economy , will not be present in a socialist economy . The value of a good in socialism is its physical utility instead of built work , cost of production and exchange value as in a capitalist system .
The final stage of socialism , called " pure communism " in the "Critique of the Gotha Program " , is based on socialist production model , but unlike socialism initial stage itself in fundamental ways , while Socialism means public ownership ( the state apparatus ) or cooperative ( of groups of workers) of the means of production , communism would be based on common ownership of the means of production. Class differences based on capital ownership desaparerían , along with the need to state. Automated production ensures a superabundance of goods and services , and this allows goods to be distributed based on need and not merit criteria