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Rescooped by Arjen ten Have from Cooperation Theory & Practice
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Social Ties, Reciprocity, Cooperation Studied

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Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintaincooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity,whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknownhow the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here weuse a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach
from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties"


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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, November 15, 2013 1:04 PM

I think there will always be things we cannot explain, but make sense. Too much stimulus is not good and too little is not good either.

Peter C. Newton-Evans's curator insight, November 22, 2013 5:51 PM

One more piece in the puzzle that Cooperation Theory is putting together to bring science closer to a real human need of our time: learning to restructure society as a win-win proposition.

Inteligência coletiva's curator insight, February 6, 2014 3:59 PM

Um estudo relevante acerca do estabelecimento de laços sociais, reciprocidade e cooperação.

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Why Can't We All Just Get Along? The Uncertain Biological Basis of Morality

Why Can't We All Just Get Along? The Uncertain Biological Basis of Morality | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
Squaring recent research suggesting we're "naturally moral" with all the strife in the world
Arjen ten Have's insight:

Really interesting essay about moral, making reference to two recently published books. Highly recommended to all that are interested in the origin of moral

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Genetic Variations Found In The Brain - Science News - redOrbit

Genetic Variations Found In The Brain - Science News - redOrbit | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
From an evolutionary point of view, it would not make a lot of sense if such patchy genome shuffling wouldn t occur, it simply provides plasticity!
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Why are apes more genetically diverse than we are?

Why are apes more genetically diverse than we are? | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
New research points the finger at molecular parasites called transposons.
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» How Does Flow of Information Change in Unconscious Brain? - Psych Central News

» How Does Flow of Information Change in Unconscious Brain? - Psych Central News | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
What happens in the human brain when it slips into unconsciousness? UCLA psychologists have been investigating this question through the use of brain-imaging
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Researchers rewrite an entire genome — and add a healthy twist

Researchers rewrite an entire genome — and add a healthy twist | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
Scientists from Yale and Harvard have recoded the entire genome of an organism and improved a bacterium’s ability to resist viruses, a dramatic demonstration of the potential of rewriting an organism’...
Arjen ten Have's insight:

Brilliant! This is creation. Now wait for the people that claim this is dangerous!

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Is 'Convergence' the Next Revolution in Science?

Is 'Convergence' the Next Revolution in Science? | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
convergence here should be understood as shifting from multidisciplinary to interdisciplinary research. if we really want to proceed that will be required.
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Social Factors in Epidemiology

Despite the invention of control measures like vaccines, infectious diseases remain part of human existence. Ideas, sentiments, or information can also be contagious. Such social contagion is akin to biological contagion: Both spread through a replication process that is blind to the consequences for the individual or population, and if each person transmits to more than one person, the explosive power of exponential growth creates an epidemic. Social contagions may cause irrational “fever.” Isaac Newton, having lost £20,000 in the speculative South Sea Bubble, commented that he could “calculate the movement of the stars, but not the madness of men”. Systems in which both contagion types are coupled to one another—an infectious disease spreading by biological contagion and a social contagion concerning the disease—offer unique scientific challenges and are increasingly important for public health.

 

Social Factors in Epidemiology

Chris T. Bauch, Alison P. Galvani

Science 4 October 2013:
Vol. 342 no. 6154 pp. 47-49
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1244492


Via Complexity Digest, Ashish Umre
Arjen ten Have's insight:

likely a better model of how ideas spread thru society than memes as genes

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War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies

How did human societies evolve from small groups, integrated by face-to-face cooperation, to huge anonymous societies of today? Why is there so much variation in the ability of different human populations to construct viable states? We developed a model that uses cultural evolution mechanisms to predict where and when the largest-scale complex societies should have arisen in human history. The model was simulated within a realistic landscape of the Afroeurasian landmass, and its predictions were tested against real data. Overall, the model did an excellent job predicting empirical patterns. Our results suggest a possible explanation as to why a long history of statehood is positively correlated with political stability, institutional quality, and income per capita.

 

War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies
Peter Turchin, Thomas E. Currie, Edward A. L. Turner, and Sergey Gavrilets

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1308825110
PNAS September 23, 2013


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Yannis Corovesis's curator insight, October 4, 2013 10:01 AM

Peter Turchin is the son of Valentin Fiodorovitch

Thomas Owens's curator insight, January 25, 2014 12:47 AM

I wish I had more time to study this so I'm going to mark it.

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Why Didn't ETs, Or Self Replicating Machines, Colonise Our Solar System ... - Science 2.0 (blog)

Why Didn't ETs, Or Self Replicating Machines, Colonise Our Solar System ...
Arjen ten Have's insight:

The piece is a bit open, as such that it makes a lot of assumptions which you need to accept. Maybe small differences in many of the calculations that the writer simply accept might result in a different picture. But the point is interesting and I agree. Often it is claimed that we would be screwed when ETs would turn up since they are technologically more advanced. My point was always, if they are so adavancedm why would they come here and bother us, (there is always a certan risk). Like the series V. The aliens want water. But then why such a ridiculous scheme if space contains a lot of freee water. It is only when space and its resources become scarce when the competition will start. And, maybe, just maybe, most intelligent species do understand what the word sustainable means.

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The Arrow of Evolution

The Arrow of Evolution | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
The grand procession of human evolution has delivered us to a pivotal moment—a crisis that contains both creative and destructive potential. In fact, you can't have one without the other. At the height of any evolutionary crisis, ...
Arjen ten Have's insight:

Not that I really agree with this. It is all a bit mysterious (and the goal of science is to remove mysterys, not to accept them) but still I found it interesting reading. I am not so positive regarding the revolution. Even don't want it. Lets put some carefull steps towards positive personal development.

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The detection of intermediate-level emergent structures and patterns

Artificial life is largely concerned with systems that exhibit different emergent phenomena; yet, the identification of emergent structures is frequently a difficult challenge. In this paper we introduced a system to identify candidate emergent mesolevel dynamical structures in dynamical networks. This method is based on an extension of a measure introduced for detecting clusters in biological neural networks; its main novelty in comparison to previous application of similar measures is that we used it to consider truly dynamical networks, and not only fluctuations around stable asymptotic states. The identified structures are clusters of elements that behave in a coherent and coordinated way and that loosely interact with the remainder of the system. We have evidence that our approach is able to identify these "emerging things" in some artificial network models and in more complex data coming from catalytic reaction networks and biological gene regulatory systems (A.thaliana). We think that this system could suggest interesting new ways in dealing with artificial and biological systems.

 

The detection of intermediate-level emergent structures and patterns Marco Villani, Alessandro Filisetti, Stefano Benedettini, Andrea Roli, David Avra Lane, Roberto Serrae

http://dx.doi.org/10.7551/978-0-262-31709-2-ch054 ;

ECAL 2013 Best Paper Award


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Mind Wandering: A New Personal Intelligence Perspective

Mind Wandering: A New Personal Intelligence Perspective | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it

Most recent studies depict mind wandering as a costly cognitive failure with relatively few benefits (Mooneyham and Schooler, 2013). This perspective makes sense when mind wandering is observed by a third party and when costs are measured against externally imposed standards such as speed or accuracy of processing, reading fluency or comprehension, sustained attention, and other external metrics.

 

There is, however, another way of looking at mind wandering, a personal perspective, if you will. For the individual, mind wandering offers the possibility of very real, personal reward, some immediate, some more distant.

 


Via Ashish Umre
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knob sleeveless's comment, September 27, 2013 12:16 PM
nicee
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Music Training May Boost Young Brains, Studies Suggest

Music Training May Boost Young Brains, Studies Suggest | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
Effects appear strongest when kids start lessons before age 7
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Some of the Most Plausible Scenarios for Alien Civilizations

Some of the Most Plausible Scenarios for Alien Civilizations | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
nice essay but let me comment on what is lacking. The authors are a bit anthropomorphic, they appear only interested in technology. Maybe because that will be required for first contact but still. They miss the boat of looking onfo other social systems on earth? Three insects orders (Or whatever they are called) do have strong social structures, much stronger than the human social structure, as the hint correctly that pur political system is still not decided upon. Well, I am not so sure if aliens will have a similar trajectory here since it will largely depend on their social stru cture. Scifi movies have worked this out a bit (The Borg, The wraith.....). A last aspect, related tdjo the lack of signs, I am not so sure that aliens would be inteeested in us. I fail to see the point. Many people with an interest in Scifi believe that aliens will come we are doomed and we zhould nuke them ASAP. Basically since they are technologically more advanced. I completely disagree. Why would the want to hurt us if there are so many habitable planets? And so many inhabitzble ones for mining?
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The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think

The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
Instead of an index of how "genetic" an IQ test is, it's more likely that in Western society-- where learning opportunities differ so drastically from each other-- heritability is telling you just how much the test is influenced by culture.
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Research shows 'endowment effect' is not present in hunter-gather societies

Research shows 'endowment effect' is not present in hunter-gather societies | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
(Phys.org) —Centuries of economic theory have been based on one simple premise: when given a choice between two items, people make the rational decision and select the one they value more.
Arjen ten Have's insight:

This is absolutely stunning, The endowment effect basically is overvalueing things for trade, and this papers shows is caused by learning behaviour when exposed to capitalism or, as the authors offer as alternative, inhibited by by a communal way of living. IMO two things that are related.

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The Network City - biourbanism.org

The Network City - biourbanism.org | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
“Only connect,” the writer E. M. Forster said famously — and modern scientists working with network structures are learning how right he was.
Arjen ten Have's insight:

The city as a living organism, why not? And then, obviously complexity does apply and you can study it and also improve the networks.

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MOOCs: Can They Produce the Next Einstein?

MOOCs: Can They Produce the Next Einstein? | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
Bit of a presumptuous title, I also do not fully agree but it is worthwhile reading. Why does web based teaching improve teaching? Simply thought, it does not make a lot sense. So what could be the reasons? One of the statements indicate the real problem. MOOCs are faster than textbook but profeszors can still be faster when they have their students in front of them! And this indicates that the real problem is that many teachers do not update their classes to the current state of the art. The advantage od web based reaching is that it forces teachers to be more up to date. That is sad but true. Another more positive reason is that it forces teachers to think about they should teach since web based teaching is less interactive. And thinking will lead to new ways of teaching, obviously combinations of instruments!
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We've Gotten The Pursuit Of Happiness All Wrong, Until Now - Huffington Post

We've Gotten The Pursuit Of Happiness All Wrong, Until Now - Huffington Post | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
We've Gotten The Pursuit Of Happiness All Wrong, Until Now
Huffington Post
In short, the brain's computation is all about foresight and prediction -- using our memories and recollections to plan for the future.
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Are Our Political Beliefs Encoded in Our DNA?

Are Our Political Beliefs Encoded in Our DNA? | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
The nature vs. nurture debate comes to political science.
Arjen ten Have's insight:

This is a rather solid piece of work, indeed Nature vs Nurture comes to political science. The work is solid since the author invested time in getting the opinions of many people in the field. So are our political ideas encoded inour DNA? But of course they are but you need to understand how it works. It is always how social factors affect a human being, encoded by its DNA. Always. So the FACT that they are coded does not mean that there is a gene for socialism. I would even not think of complex assoiciative trait studies. Why not? Well since political beliefs do already on itseld form a complex. Several, on itself complex traits, attribute to it. So do you really think you can identify QTLs of a trait that is a complex of complex characters? 

That is just the kind of reductionism that results in that reductionism has such a bad image.

On the other hand these " absurdly high estimates of heritability of behavior" might be an emergent property.

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How Our Stone Age Bodies Struggle To Stay Healthy In Modern Times - wmra

How Our Stone Age Bodies Struggle To Stay Healthy In Modern Times - wmra | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
How Our Stone Age Bodies Struggle To Stay Healthy In Modern Times wmra But Daniel Lieberman, professor of evolutionary biology at Harvard University, says that his field can help you understand why you got sick, and make you more aware of healthy...
Arjen ten Have's insight:

A bit obvious but also a bit of an aha-erlebnis. I wouldn t say that cancer is like evolution gone wrong, it is a disadvantageous side effect of selection at the celukar level. It also has nothing to do with the historical constraint.

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Caveman Syndrome: Today's Killer Diseases Stem From Evolutionary Mismatch - WBUR

Caveman Syndrome: Today's Killer Diseases Stem From Evolutionary Mismatch - WBUR | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
Caveman Syndrome: Today's Killer Diseases Stem From Evolutionary Mismatch
WBUR
Lieberman bases his arguments on his more than 20 years of studying and teaching evolutionary biology. When he first ...
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Computing cooperative solution concepts in coalitional skill games

We consider a simple model of cooperation among agents called Coalitional Skill Games (CSGs). This is a restricted form of coalitional games, where each agent has a set of skills that are required to complete various tasks. Each task requires a set of skills in order to be completed, and a coalition can accomplish the task only if the coalitionʼs agents cover the set of required skills for the task. The gain for a coalition depends only on the subset of tasks it can complete.

 

We consider the computational complexity of several problems in CSGs, such as testing if an agent is a dummy or veto agent, computing the core and core-related solution concepts, and computing power indices such as the Shapley value and Banzhaf power index.


Via Ashish Umre
Arjen ten Have's insight:

Without having read the original source, two things. First, I believe this is an important next step towards understanding how altruism has been evolving in a social species. Next step, as compared to the wide variety of games based on the prisoners dilema. So hail! Second, although cooperation obviously does affect the evolution of altruism in a social species, it forms an extremely complex matter. So, I believe that first we should understand this in terms of cultural evolution (in order NOT to include an additional complexity of looking at the mix of cultural and gene evolution). In addition, and that is just an idea, could we approximate this as cooption (or exaptation?)

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Arjen ten Have's comment, October 1, 2013 8:52 AM
Very nice! Without having read the original source, two things. First, I believe this is an important next step towards understanding how altruism has been evolving in a social species. Next step, as compared to the wide variety of games based on the prisoners dilema. So hail! Second, although cooperation obviously does affect the evolution of altruism in a social species, it forms an extremely complex matter. So, I believe that first we should understand this in terms of cultural evolution (in order NOT to include an additional complexity of looking at the mix of cultural and gene evolution). In addition, and that is just an idea, could we approximate this as cooption (or exaptation?)
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Why Fish Don't Need to Be "Schooled" in Swimming: Scientific American

Why Fish Don't Need to Be "Schooled" in Swimming: Scientific American | Darwinian Ascension | Scoop.it
The answer lies in the fish genome, suggesting that complex social behavior in other animals, including humans, is also genetically ingrained
Arjen ten Have's insight:

Not surprisingly schooling has a strong genetic factor. Now they appear to have identified the locus they have important work to do. But I miss a bit the point of the Scientific American paper.  Any kind of social behaviour is genetically ingrained. The fact that one group can and another cannot merely means that the first is better adapted to the trait than the second. O do I miss the point?

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