Curiosopernatura
170 views | +0 today
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Scientists uncover the key role of a single gene on how groups of animals diverge

Scientists uncover the key role of a single gene on how groups of animals diverge | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

A study by researchers at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics at Oxford University has uncovered the key role played by a single gene in how groups of animals diverge to form new species. The study, published today in the journal Nature, restored fertility to the normally-infertile offspring of two subspecies of mice, by replacing part of the Prdm9 gene with the equivalent human version. Despite the nearly 150 million years of evolution separating mice and humans, these 'humanized' mice were completely fertile.


New animal species form when groups of animals become isolated and as a result, begin to separate through evolution (a process known as speciation). When these isolated populations meet later, they might be able to breed with each other, but the male offspring are often infertile. Horses and donkeys are an example of such speciation: they can interbreed, but their offspring, mules, are infertile.


'Our work studied similar infertility in hybrid house mice, whose two parents come from different subspecies found in Western and Eastern Europe', says Dr Ben Davies from the Nuffield Department of Medicine, the first author on the study. These two sub-species are therefore on the verge of splitting into two entirely different species, since like mules, their offspring are infertile.


Dr Davies and his colleagues studied the Prdm9  gene: this gene is already known to have a role in infertility in mice from different species, and  is in fact the only known speciation gene in mammals. However, how speciation might link up to infertility was unknown.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Raspberry Pi
Scoop.it!

Audio Streaming on the Cheap With an RPi Zero

Audio Streaming on the Cheap With an RPi Zero | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

The minuscule size of the Raspberry Pi Zero makes it perfect for hacks where size is a factor. For example, a small, standalone device for getting streaming audio into your speakers. The RPi Zero doe...


Via F. Thunus
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Bioinformatics is not something you are taught, it's a way of life

Clearly I'm going to have to clarify this title - because of course you can teach bioinformatics and you can teach it well - but I want to make it clear that being taught bioinformatics is not the ...

Via Chris Upton + helpers
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

'Sonogenetics' allows brain cells to be controlled by sound waves

'Sonogenetics' allows brain cells to be controlled by sound waves | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

Scientists have bred worms with genetically modified nervous systems that can be controlled by bursts of sound waves. The tiny nematodes change direction the moment they are blasted with sonic pulses that are too high-pitched for humans to hear.

The pulses work by switching on motor neuron cells that are genetically modified to carry membrane channels that respond to ultrasonic waves.

 

Researchers said the worms demonstrate the power of a new procedure, dubbed sonogenetics, in which ultrasound can be used to activate a range of brain, heart and muscle cells from outside the body.

Sreekanth Chalasani, a researcher at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, told the Guardian that the procedure could one day replace deep-brain stimulation, an invasive procedure that delivers electrical pulses into people’s brains to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. 


Nematode worms do not usually react to ultrasound, but Chalasani found that they did when they were surrounded by a fluid containing microscopic bubbles. The bubbles, he found, amplify the ultrasonic waves which then pass inside the worms. The amplified ultrasound waves act on structures called TRP-4 ion channels, found in the membranes of some of the worms’ cells. The sound waves make these ion channels open up and activate the cells they are attached to, according to a report in Nature Communications.


To make ultrasound-controlled nematodes, Chalasani genetically modified the worms so that some of their motor neurons carried TRP-4 ion channels. When he applied ultrasound to the modified creatures, the sound waves were amplified by the microbubbles and transmitted into the worms, where they switched on the modified motor neurons.


The procedure has some similarities with optogenetics, a groundbreaking tool that allows scientists to switch neurons on and off with pulses of light. But Chalasani said that sonogenetics could have some advantages over that technique. Unlike light, which has to be sent down an optic fibre to the desired location inside the brain, low frequency ultrasound waves can pass through tissue unhindered, and so can be sent into the brain from on top of the skull.


“We believe that, using gene therapy and a therapeutic virus, it may be possible to make target human neurons temporarily susceptible to the ultrasound signal in a clinical setting for certain neurological treatments,” said Chalasani. Other applications could focus on muscle cells and insulin-producing cells, he added.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

PLOS Computational Biology: How to Grow a Computational Biology Lab

PLOS Computational Biology: How to Grow a Computational Biology Lab | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

Via Chris Upton + helpers
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Raspberry Pi
Scoop.it!

Fingerprint Based door lock system (Advanced keyless entry with Bio metric device) Arduino

Advanced Keyless entry system for automobiles with personalization. which is using the biometric device as fingerprint. using Arduino programming all the ...


Via F. Thunus
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

This Radio Bug Can Steal Laptop Crypto Keys, Fits Inside a Pita Bread

This Radio Bug Can Steal Laptop Crypto Keys, Fits Inside a Pita Bread | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

The list of paranoia-inducing threats to your computer’s security grows daily: Keyloggers, trojans, infected USB sticks, ransomware…and now the rogue falafel sandwich.


Researchers at Tel Aviv University and Israel’s Technion research institute have developed a new palm-sized device that can wirelessly steal data from a nearby laptop based on the radio waves leaked by its processor’s power use. Their spy bug, built for less than $300, is designed to allow anyone to “listen” to the accidental radio emanations of a computer’s electronics from 19 inches away and derive the user’s secret decryption keys, enabling the attacker to read their encrypted communications. And that device, described in a paper they’re presenting at the Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems in September, is both cheaper and more compact than similar attacks from the past—so small, in fact, that the Israeli researchers demonstrated it can fit inside a piece of pita bread.


“The result is that a computer that holds secrets can be readily tapped with such cheap and compact items without the user even knowing he or she is being monitored,” says Eran Tomer, a senior lecturer in computer science at Tel Aviv University. “We showed it’s not just possible, it’s easy to do with components you can find on eBay or even in your kitchen.”


Their key-stealing device, which they call the Portable Instrument for Trace Acquisition (yes, that spells PITA) consists of a loop of wire to act as an antenna, a Rikomagic controller chip, a Funcube software defined radio, and batteries. It can be configured to either collect its cache of stolen data on an SD storage card or to transmit it via Wifi to a remote eavesdropper. The idea to actually cloak the device in a pita—and name it as such—was a last minute addition, Tomer says. The researchers found a piece of the bread in their lab on the night before their deadline and discovered that all their electronics could fit inside it.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

A Viral Time Machine: Blood Test That Can Detect Every Virus You've Ever Had

A Viral Time Machine: Blood Test That Can Detect Every Virus You've Ever Had | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

With a drop of blood, a new technology called VirScan can identify all of the viruses that a person has been exposed to over the course of their life.

 

Viral infections come and go countless times over our lives. Some, like mononucleosis, might knock you flat for weeks, while others never produce any symptoms at all. And some may impact your immune system in subtle ways for years after the infection.


Soon, it could be possible to get a full history of every viral infection you’ve ever had, using just a drop of blood. Researchers have developed a blood test that detects the remnants of more than 1,000 strains of 206 virus species. The test could someday help doctors diagnose current ailments and reveal more about how viruses impact our long-term health.


Currently, if doctors think you might have a viral infection, they test your blood for antibodies to that virus. Today’s blood tests can only test for a single virus at a time, and doctors have to know which virus they’re looking for, so they can look for a specific set of antibodies.


Now, researchers at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute say that their new technique, which they’ve dubbed VirScan, will allow doctors to scan a patient’s blood for antibodies to every known human virus at the same time. “This means that you can look at viral exposures in an unbiased way without having to suspect a particular infection ahead of time,” researcher Tomasz Kula told Discover. “Our approach could be useful for patients with undiagnosed diseases where it is unclear which viruses to test for.”


To build VirScan, lead author George J. Xu and his team essentially created a library of mock viruses. They used a common bacteria-eating virus called a bacteriophage as their starting material. Then they added DNA for external proteins called peptides to make the viruses look, to the immune system, like one of over 1,000 different human viruses.


When the researchers put the mock viruses into a drop of blood, the antibodies in that person’s blood would bind to the peptide of whichever virus he or she had previously been exposed to, either through infection or vaccination.


Xu and his colleagues tested VirScan on a group of 569 volunteers from Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the U.S. Most people had antibodies in their blood for about ten different viruses, but some people had dozens. Two members of the study had antibodies to 84 different viruses, the researchers report today in Science.


In addition to diagnostics, VirScan could also help researchers understand the connection between viral infection and diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. The causes of these ailments aren’t completely understood but researchers believe they are linked to past infections. “We can look comprehensively for viral exposures that correlate with these kinds of diseases in a way that would be infeasible if you had to test for each virus separately,” said Kula. “We hope that VirScan can be used to generate new hypotheses about what role specific viral infections may play in complex diseases.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

How the Herpes Virus Can Kill Cancer - US News

How the Herpes Virus Can Kill Cancer - US News | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
The genetically modified virus could stop the progression of melanoma.

Via Kathleen McLeod
more...
Kathleen McLeod's curator insight, June 1, 2015 2:41 PM

A link to the associated paper so you can see what you think of the results ----> http://www.immunotherapyofcancer.org/content/2/S3/P91

Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Articles Published by CIP Staff
Scoop.it!

The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

Via International Potato Center (CIP)
more...
International Potato Center (CIP)'s curator insight, April 23, 2015 9:10 AM

Smedley, D.; Haider, S.;  Durinck, S.; Pandini, L.; Provero, P.; Allen, J.; Arnaiz, O.; Hamza Awedh, M.; Baldock, R.; Barbiera, R.; Bardou, P.; Beck, T.; Blake, A.; Bonierbale, M.;  Brookes, A.J.; Bucci, G.; Buetti, I.; Burge, S.; Cabau, C.; Carlson, J.W.; Chelala, C.; Chrysostomou, C.; Cittaro, D.; Collin, O.; Cordova, R.;. Cutts, R.J.; Dassi, E.; Di Genova, A.; Djari, A.; Esposito, A.; Estrella, H.; Eyras, E.;Fernandez-Banet, J.; Forbes, Robert C. Free, Takatomo Fujisawa, Emanuela Gadaleta, Jose M. Garcia-Manteiga, David Goodstein, S.;Gray, K.; Guerra-Assunção, J.A.; Haggarty, B.; Han, D.J.; Han, B.W. Harris,T.; Harshbarger, J.; Hastings, R.K.; Hayes, R.D.; Hoede, C.; Hu, S.; Hu, Z.L.; Hutchins, L.; Kan, Z.; Kawaji, H.; Keliet, A.;Kerhornou, A.; Kim, S.; Kinsella, R.; Klopp, C.; Kong, L.; Lawson, D.; Lazarevic, D.; Lee, J.H.; Letellier, T.; Li, C.Y.; Lio, P.; Liu, C.J.; Luo, J.; Maass, A.; Mariette, J.; Maurel, T.; Merella, S.;Mohamed, A.M.; Moreews, F.; Nabihoudine, I.; Ndegwa, N.; Noirot, C.; Perez-Llamas, C.; Primig, M.; Quattrone, A.; Quesneville, H.; Rambaldi, D.; Reecy, J.; Riba, M.; Rosanoff, S.; Ali Saddiq, A.; Salas, E.; Sallou, O.; Shepherd, R.; Simon, R.; Sperling, L.; Spooner, W.; Staines, D.M.; Steinbach, D.; Stone, K.; Stupka, E.; Teague,  J.W.; Dayem Ullah, A.Z.; Wang, J.;Ware, D.;Wong-Erasmus, M.; Youens-Clark, K.; Zadissa, A.;Zhang, S.J.; Kasprzyk , A. 2015. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories. Nucleic Acids Research  [Open Access]doi:10.1093/nar/gkv350

The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is
a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface
to biomedical databases that are distributed
worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous
database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations.

Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Digital Media Literacy + Cyber Arts + Performance Centers Connected to Fiber Networks
Scoop.it!

10 stunning images show the beauty hidden in pi | Ana Swanson | WashPost.com

10 stunning images show the beauty hidden in pi | Ana Swanson | WashPost.com | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

Saturday -- March 14, 2015, or 3/14/15 -- marks an extremely nerdy holiday. It is the official celebration of π, the magical, mathematical and infinite constant that is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.

For any circle you can imagine, if you divide the distance around the circle by the distance across it, you will get pi, or 3.1415926535897932384626433832795028841971693993751058209749445923078164062862089986280348253421170679821480865132823066470938446095505822317253594081284811174502841027019385…

We could keep going, but you get the picture.

Some people will celebrate the holiday by making and eating pies (Washington restaurants are offering specials on everything from pizza to banana cream). Others will run a Pi-K race of 3.14 kilometers. And some data tinkerers are making art that visualize pi’s infinite and random digits.

One of the best known of these data tinkerers is Martin Krzywinski, a scientist who specializes in bioinformatics, or using computer science and statistics to understand biological data. Krzywinski started publishing his pi art in 2013, beginning with this visualization:

 

Click headline to read more and view the pi art--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
more...
Israel George's curator insight, March 15, 2015 4:46 PM

What does Bioinformatics and a Mathematical
Holiday have in common? A Visual Look at Pi.

Matt Rollins's curator insight, March 16, 2015 8:25 PM

Mmmmm, pretty.

Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Why Some Patients Resist Ebola Infection on Their Own

Why Some Patients Resist Ebola Infection on Their Own | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
“ While the Ebola virus has a well-deserved lethal reputation, genes may explain why some people resist death or illness.”
Via Kenzibit
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from healthcare technology
Scoop.it!

Should we diagnose rare diseases with smartphones?

Should we diagnose rare diseases with smartphones? | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

An object in your pocket could help diagnose rare diseases like Ebola, finds David Robson – and one day it might even replace the doctor’s surgery too.

 

As fear of the Ebola virus escalates, Eric Topol thinks that we’re missing an important weapon. And you just need to reach into your pocket to find it. “Most communicable diseases can be diagnosed with a smartphone,” he says. “Rather than putting people into quarantine for three weeks – how about seeing if they harbour it in their blood?” A quicker response could also help prevent mistakes, such as the patient in Dallas who was sent home from hospital with a high fever, only to later die from the infection.

 

It’s a provocative claim, but Topol is not shy about calling for a revolution in the way we deal with Ebola – or any other health issue for that matter. A professor of genomics at the Scripps Research Institute in California, his last book heralded “the creative destruction of medicine” through new technology. Smartphones are already helping to do away with many of the least pleasant aspects of sickness – including the long hospital visits and agonising wait for treatment. An easier way to diagnose Ebola is just one example of these sweeping changes.

 

So far, however, few doctors have embraced these possibilities.  “The medical cocoon has not allowed a digital invasion,” says Topol, “while the rest of the world has already assimilated the digital revolution into its day-to-day life.” That’s not due to lack of demand: many patients are already monitoring their health through their phone, with apps that check your skin for cancer from a selfie, for example. These programs are not alwaysdesigned with the accuracy most doctors would require, however – and some fear that by missing a diagnosis and offering a false sense of security, they could cost lives. “The slower the healthcare system is in exploring these things, the more people are at risk by doing the exploration on their own,” says Estrin.

 

 

more at : http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20141017-the-ebola-detector-in-your-pocket

 


Via nrip
more...
nrip's curator insight, October 17, 2014 4:35 PM

My associates and I have built a mobile Ebola diagnosis and data collection prototype. If interested in exploring possible uses of the same for your organization, please drop me a message.

Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Systems biology and bioinformatics
Scoop.it!

Network-based in silico drug efficacy screening : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Network-based in silico drug efficacy screening : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

Via Dmitry Alexeev
more...
Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, February 27, 3:38 AM

if you missed that one - gives a good thought on complexity

Babara Lopez's curator insight, March 4, 8:45 PM
drug efficacy screening
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from leapmind
Scoop.it!

Quantum revolution: China set to launch 'hack proof' quantum communications network

Quantum revolution: China set to launch 'hack proof' quantum communications network | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

China is set to complete the installation of the world's longest quantum communication network stretching 2,000km (1,240miles) from Beijing to Shanghai by 2016, say scientists leading the project.


Via LeapMind
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Truvada prevents HIV infection in high-risk individuals! A clinical success built on animal research | Speaking of Research

Truvada prevents HIV infection in high-risk individuals! A clinical success built on animal research | Speaking of Research | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
In the past two weeks we've learned of a major advance in ongoing efforts to halt the spread of  HIV, two separate clinical studies have reported that a daily regimen of a pill called Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing infection in high risk groups. This success is a result…

Via Kenzibit
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Bioinformatics Companies and Biotech Companies

That's a pretty long list... sorted by location!


Via Chris Upton + helpers
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Scoop.it!

Scientists discover new system for human genome editing: Game-changing technology could disrupt both scientific, commercial landscape -- ScienceDaily

Scientists discover new system for human genome editing: Game-changing technology could disrupt both scientific, commercial landscape -- ScienceDaily | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
A team including the scientist who first harnessed the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas9 system for mammalian genome editing has now identified a different CRISPR system with the potential for even simpler and more precise genome engineering.

Via Kenzibit
more...
Kenzibit's curator insight, September 28, 2015 1:08 AM

Keeps getting better doesn't it?

Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Broad Institute, Google Genomics combine bioinformatics and computing expertise

Broad Institute, Google Genomics combine bioinformatics and computing expertise | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard is teaming up with Google Genomics to explore how to break down major technical barriers that increasingly hinder biomedical research by addressing the need for computing infrastructure to store and process enormous datasets, and by creating tools to analyze such data and unravel long-standing mysteries about human health.

As a first step, Broad Institute’s Genome Analysis Toolkit, or GATK, will be offered as a service on the Google Cloud Platform, as part of Google Genomics. The goal is to enable any genomic researcher to upload, store, and analyze data in a cloud-based environment that combines the Broad Institute’s best-in-class genomic analysis tools with the scale and computing power of Google.

GATK is a software package developed at the Broad Institute to analyze high-throughput genomic sequencing data. GATK offers a wide variety of analysis tools, with a primary focus on genetic variant discovery and genotyping as well as a strong emphasis on data quality assurance. Its robust architecture, powerful processing engine, and high-performance computing features make it capable of taking on projects of any size.

GATK is already available for download at no cost to academic and non-profit users. In addition, business users can license GATK from the Broad. To date, more than 20,000 users have processed genomic data using GATK.

The Google Genomics service will provide researchers with a powerful, additional way to use GATK. Researchers will be able to upload genetic data and run GATK-powered analyses on Google Cloud Platform, and may use GATK to analyze genetic data already available for research via Google Genomics. GATK as a service will make best-practice genomic analysis readily available to researchers who don’t have access to the dedicated compute infrastructure and engineering teams required for analyzing genomic data at scale. An initial alpha release of the GATK service will be made available to a limited set of users.

“Large-scale genomic information is accelerating scientific progress in cancer, diabetes, psychiatric disorders, and many other diseases,” said Eric Lander, President and Director of Broad Institute. “Storing, analyzing, and managing these data is becoming a critical challenge for biomedical researchers. We are excited to work with Google’s talented and experienced engineers to develop ways to empower researchers around the world by making it easier to access and use genomic information.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from The science toolbox
Scoop.it!

The Web Will Either Kill Science Journals or Save Them | WIRED

The Web Will Either Kill Science Journals or Save Them | WIRED | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
More than 50 percent of academic papers published are owned by five major publishers.

Via Niklaus Grunwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from healthcare technology
Scoop.it!

96% of Consumers Say Mobile Health Industry Improves Life

96% of Consumers Say Mobile Health Industry Improves Life | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
The mobile health industry has been revolutionizing the way both doctors and patients approach medicine today. When it comes to addressing health issues, mobile health consumers are moving toward preventing disease and increasing fitness and wellness. Through fitness trackers and wearable devices, more patients are now focused on exercise and diet.

The company Research Now conducted a survey that looked at how mobile health applications and the mobile health industry is affecting patient care and physician workflow. Research Now polled a total of 1,000 mHealth app users and 500 medical professionals. The results show that 86 percent of healthcare professionals believe mobile health apps increase their knowledge on a patient’s medical condition.


Additionally, nearly half of surveyed providers – 46 percent – felt that mHealth apps actually strengthen their relationship with their patients. Three out of four polled medical care professionals – 76 percent – have suggested that mobile health tools assist patients with managing chronic medical conditions.

Additionally, three out of five surveyed physicians and medical staff help patients who are at high risk of developing serious health problems. As previously stated, fitness trackers can help patients exercise more regularly and lose weight, which would reduce their risk of heart disease.

Additionally, more than half of those surveyed believe that mHealth applications can help consumers who are healthy remain at an optimal level of health. Also, nearly half – 48 percent – of survey takers think that the technologies within the mobile health industry may be able to help patients who were recently discharged from a hospital make a better transition to home-based care.

Most importantly, nearly all survey takers – 96 percent – believe that mobile health apps “improve their quality of life.” In addition, the survey illustrates that users of mHealth tools already improve their wellness and lifestyle through these technologies. For example, 60 percent use the tools to monitor their workouts while nearly half – 49 percent – use apps to record their calorie intake.

 

more at : http://mhealthintelligence.com/news/96-of-consumers-say-mobile-health-industry-improves-life

 


Via nrip
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Scientists Have Found A Way To Kill HIV

Scientists Have Found A Way To Kill HIV | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it
A newly created "can opener" molecule is capable of opening HIV and allowing the body's own immune system to kill the infection.

Via Kenzibit
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Long-standing mystery in membrane traffic finally solved

Long-standing mystery in membrane traffic finally solved | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

SNARE proteins are known as the minimal machinery for membrane fusion. To induce membrane fusion, the proteins combine to form a SNARE complex in a four helical bundle, and NSF and α-SNAP disassemble the SNARE complex for reuse. In particular, NSF can bind an energy source molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the ATP-bound NSF develops internal tension via cleavage of ATP. This process is used to exert great force on SNARE complexes, eventually pulling them apart. However, although about 30 years have passed since the Nobel Prize winners' discovery, how NSF/α-SNAP disassembled the SNARE complex remained a mystery to scientists due to a lack in methodology.


In a recent issue of Science, published on March 27, 2015, a research team, led by Tae-Young Yoon of the Department of Physics at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Reinhard Jahn of the Department of Neurobiology of the Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, reports that NSF/α-SNAP disassemble a single SNARE complex using various single-molecule biophysical methods that allow them to monitor and manipulate individual protein complexes. "We have learned that NSF releases energy in a burst within 20 milliseconds to "tear" the SNARE complex apart in a one-step global unfolding reaction, which is immediately followed by the release of SNARE proteins," said Yoon.


Previously, it was believed that NSF disassembled a SNARE complex by unwinding it in a processive manner. Also, largely unexplained was how many cycles of ATP hydrolysis were required and how these cycles were connected to the disassembly of the SNARE complex.


Yoon added, "From our research, we found that NSF requires hydrolysis of ATPs that were already bound before it attached to the SNAREs--which means that only one round of an ATP turnover is sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly. Moreover, this is possible because NSF pulls a SNARE complex apart by building up the energy from individual ATPs and releasing it at once, yielding a "spring-loaded" mechanism."


NSF is a member of the ATPases associated with various cellular activities family (AAA+ ATPase), which is essential for many cellular functions such as DNA replication and protein degradation, membrane fusion, microtubule severing, peroxisome biogenesis, signal transduction, and the regulation of gene expression. This research has added valuable new insights and hints for studying AAA+ ATPase proteins, which are crucial for various living beings.

 

Reference: "Spring-loaded unraveling of a single SNARE complex by NSF in one round of ATP turnover." (DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa5267)

 

Youtube Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqTSYHtyHWE&feature=youtu.be


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
Risto Suoknuuti's curator insight, March 29, 2015 6:28 PM

Back to the roots.

Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from 21st Century Innovative Technologies and Developments as also discoveries, curiosity ( insolite)...
Scoop.it!

Tiny robotic scallops can swim through blood and eyeball fluid to fix you up

Tiny robotic scallops can swim through blood and eyeball fluid to fix you up | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

For years now, scientists have been trying to develop microscopic robots that can swim through bodily fluids and repair damaged cells or deliver medicine. Now, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Germany believe they've got the perfect design -- in the form of scallops so small, they can barely be seen by the naked eye. These micro-robo-scallops move back and forth to swim through blood, eyeball fluids and other liquids inside our body. The scientists believe mimicking the way a true scallop swims is ideal, due to a number of reasons.



Via Gust MEES
more...
Gust MEES's curator insight, November 7, 2014 6:34 PM

For years now, scientists have been trying to develop microscopic robots that can swim through bodily fluids and repair damaged cells or deliver medicine. Now, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Germany believe they've got the perfect design -- in the form of scallops so small, they can barely be seen by the naked eye. These micro-robo-scallops move back and forth to swim through blood, eyeball fluids and other liquids inside our body. The scientists believe mimicking the way a true scallop swims is ideal, due to a number of reasons.



Rescooped by Alberto Goldoni from healthcare technology
Scoop.it!

Where Will Healthcare's Data Scientists Find The Rich Phenotypic Data They Need?

Where Will Healthcare's Data Scientists Find The Rich Phenotypic Data They Need? | Curiosopernatura | Scoop.it

The big hairy audacious goal of most every data scientist I know in healthcare is what you might call the Integrated Medical Record, or IMR, a dataset that combines detailed genetic data and rich phenotypic information, including both clinical and “real-world” (or, perhaps, “dynamic”) phenotypic data (the sort you might get from wearables).

 

The gold standard for clinical phenotyping are academic clinical studies (like ALLHAT and the Dallas Heart Study).  These studies are typically focused on a disease category (e.g. cardiovascular), and the clinical phenotyping on these subjects – at least around the areas of scientific interest — is generally superb.  The studies themselves can be enormous, are often multi-institutional, and typically create a database that’s independent of the hospital’s medical record.

 

 

Inevitably, large, prospective studies can take many years to complete.  In addition, there’s generally not much real world/dynamic measurement.

 

 

The other obvious source for phenotypic data is the electronic medical record (EMR).  The logic is simple: every patient has a medical record, and increasingly, especially in hospital systems, this is electronic – i.e. an EMR.  EMRs (examples include Epic and Cerner) generally contain lab values, test reports, provider notes, and medication and problem lists.  In theory, this should offer a broad, rich, and immediately available source of data for medical discovery.

 

 

DIY (enabled by companies such as PatientsLikeMe) represents another approach to phenotyping, and allows patients to share data with other members of the community.  The obvious advantages here include the breadth and richness of data associated with what can be an unfiltered patient perspective – to say nothing of the benefit of patient empowerment.  An important limitation is that the quality and consistency of the data is obviously highly dependent upon the individuals posting the information.

 

Pharma clinical trials would seem to represent another useful opportunity for phenotyping, given the focus on specific conditions and the rigorous attention to process and detail characteristic of pharmaceutical studies.  However, pharma studies tend to be extremely focused, and companies are typically reluctant to expand protocols to pursue exploratory endpoints if there’s any chance this will diminish recruitment or adversely impact the development of the drug.

 more at http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidshaywitz/2014/10/10/where-will-healthcares-data-scientists-find-the-rich-phenotypic-data-they-need/ 
Via nrip
more...
No comment yet.