Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Antifungals: Uncovering new drugs and targets : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Research

Antifungals: Uncovering new drugs and targets : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Research | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

The need for new antifungals is increasing, given the emerging resistance of fungi to current drugs and the toxicity of these drugs to humans. One study now reports the identification of a previously unknown antifungal compound that is produced by ant-associated bacteria, and another study identifies a histone deacetylase as a potential new antifungal target.


Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant & Evolution
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Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Cvi-0 Accession Reveals an Important Role of MPK12 in Guard Cell CO2 Signaling

Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Cvi-0 Accession Reveals an Important Role of MPK12 in Guard Cell CO2 Signaling | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

Plant gas exchange is regulated by guard cells that form stomatal pores. Stomatal adjustments are crucial for plant survival; they regulate uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis, loss of water, and entrance of air pollutants such as ozone. We mapped ozone hypersensitivity, more open stomata, and stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Cvi-0 to a single amino acid substitution in MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN (MAP) KINASE 12 (MPK12). In parallel, we showed that stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of a mutant cis (CO2-insensitive) were caused by a deletion of MPK12. Lack of MPK12 impaired bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels. We demonstrated that MPK12 interacted with the protein kinase HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1 (HT1)—a central node in guard cell CO2 signaling—and that MPK12 functions as an inhibitor of HT1. These data provide a new function for plant MPKs as protein kinase inhibitors and suggest a mechanism through which guard cell CO2 signaling controls plant water management.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Chimie verte et agroécologie
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De Sangosse lance son Puffer® LB

De Sangosse lance son Puffer® LB | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Nous vous en avions déjà parlé dans le magazine Viti : la société DE SANGOSSE lance dès cette campagne 2016-2017 son CheckMate® Puffer® LB un dispositif de diffusion de phéromone fabriquée par la société SUTERRA (USA) permettant de lutter par confusion sexuelle contre Eudémis en vigne. Ce Puffer® de De Sangosse devrait par la suite cibler Cochylis et Eudemis d’ici 2-3 ans nous indiquait il y a quelques mois la société.”
Via Isabelle Pélissié
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Multilocus resistance evolution to azole fungicides in fungal plant pathogen populations

Multilocus resistance evolution to azole fungicides in fungal plant pathogen populations | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Evolution of fungicide resistance is a major threat to food production in agricultural ecosystems. Fungal pathogens rapidly evolved resistance to all classes of fungicides applied to the field. Resistance to the commonly used azole fungicides is thought to be driven mainly by mutations in a gene (CYP51) encoding a protein of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. However, some fungi gained azole resistance independently of CYP51 mutations and the mechanisms leading to CYP51-independent resistance are poorly understood. We used whole-genome sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to perform an unbiased screen of azole resistance loci in Rhynchosporium commune, the causal agent of the barley scald disease. We assayed cyproconazole resistance in 120 isolates collected from nine populations worldwide. We found that mutations in highly conserved genes encoding the vacuolar cation channel YVC1, a transcription activator, and a saccharopine dehydrogenase made significant contributions to fungicide resistance. These three genes were not previously known to confer resistance in plant pathogens. However, YVC1 is involved in a conserved stress response pathway known to respond to azoles in human pathogenic fungi. We also performed GWAS to identify genetic polymorphism linked to fungal growth rates. We found that loci conferring increased fungicide resistance were negatively impacting growth rates, suggesting that fungicide resistance evolution imposed costs. Analyses of population structure showed that resistance mutations were likely introduced into local populations through gene flow. Multilocus resistance evolution to fungicides shows how pathogen populations can evolve a complex genetic architecture for an important phenotypic trait within a short time span. ”
Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Frontiers | MtNF-YA1, A Central Transcriptional Regulator of Symbiotic Nodule Development, Is Also a Determinant of Medicago truncatula Susceptibility toward a Root Pathogen | Plant Biotic Interact...

Frontiers | MtNF-YA1, A Central Transcriptional Regulator of Symbiotic Nodule Development, Is Also a Determinant of Medicago truncatula Susceptibility toward a Root Pathogen | Plant Biotic Interact... | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Plant NF-Y transcription factors control a wide array of biological functions enabling appropriate reproductive and developmental processes as well as adaptation to various abiotic and biotic environments. In Medicago truncatula, MtNF-YA1 was previously identified as a key determinant for nodule development and establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. Here, we highlight a new role for this protein in compatibility to Aphanomyces euteiches, a root pathogenic oomycete. The Mtnf-ya1-1 mutant plants showed better survival rate, reduced symptoms, and increased development of their root apparatus as compared to their wild-type (WT) background A17. MtNF-YA-1 was specifically up-regulated by A. euteiches in F83005.5, a highly susceptible natural accession of M. truncatula while transcript level remained stable in A17, which is partially resistant. The role of MtNF-YA1 in F83005.5 susceptibility was further documented by reducing MtNF-YA1 expression either by overexpression of the miR169q, a microRNA targeting MtNF-YA1, or by RNAi approaches leading to a strong enhancement in the resistance of this susceptible line. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome of WT and Mtnf-ya1-1 led to the identification of 1509 differentially expressed genes. Among those, almost 36 defense-related genes were constitutively expressed in Mtnf-ya1-1, while 20 genes linked to hormonal pathways were repressed. In summary, we revealed an unexpected dual role for this symbiotic transcription factor as a key player in the compatibility mechanisms to a pathogen. ”

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Interaction, and more...
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Intracellular innate immune surveillance devices in plants and animals

Intracellular innate immune surveillance devices in plants and animals | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Multicellular eukaryotes coevolve with microbial pathogens, which exert strong selective pressure on the immune systems of their hosts. Plants and animals use intracellular proteins of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) superfamily to detect many types of microbial pathogens. The NLR domain architecture likely evolved independently and convergently in each kingdom, and the molecular mechanisms of pathogen detection by plant and animal NLRs have long been considered to be distinct. However, microbial recognition mechanisms overlap, and it is now possible to discern important key trans-kingdom principles of NLR-dependent immune function. Here, we attempt to articulate these principles. We propose that the NLR architecture has evolved for pathogen-sensing in diverse organisms because of its utility as a tightly folded “hair trigger” device into which a virtually limitless number of microbial detection platforms can be integrated. Recent findings suggest means to rationally design novel recognition capabilities to counter disease.”
Via Ryohei Thomas Nakano
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Plasmodesmata enable multicellularity: new insights into their evolution, biogenesis, and functions in development and immunity

Plasmodesmata enable multicellularity: new insights into their evolution, biogenesis, and functions in development and immunity | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
Highlights
• Recent phylogenies reveal that plasmodesmata evolved independently in land plants.
• Plasmodesmatal biogenesis is controlled by several cellular signaling pathways.
• Spatiotemporal control of PD coordinates signals that impact immunity.
Plant cells are connected by plasmodesmata (PD), cytosolic bridges that allow molecules to freely move across the cell wall. Recently resolved relationships among land plants and their algal relatives reveal that land plants evolved PD independently from algae. Proteomic and genetic screens illuminate new dimensions of the structural and regulatory pathways that control PD biogenesis. Biochemical studies demonstrate that immunological signals induce systemic defenses by moving from diseased cells through PD; subsequently, PD transport is restricted to quarantine diseased cells. Here, we review our expanding knowledge of the roles of PD in plant development, physiology, and immunity.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux, Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Opportunistic Sampling of Roadkill as an Entry Point to Accessing Natural Products Assembled by Bacteria Associated with Non-anthropoidal Mammalian Microbiomes 

Opportunistic Sampling of Roadkill as an Entry Point to Accessing Natural Products Assembled by Bacteria Associated with Non-anthropoidal Mammalian Microbiomes  | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

Click hFew secondary metabolites have been reported from mammalian microbiome bacteria despite the large numbers of diverse taxa that inhabit warm-blooded higher vertebrates. As a means to investigate natural products from these microorganisms, an opportunistic sampling protocol was developed, which focused on exploring bacteria isolated from roadkill mammals. This initiative was made possible through the establishment of a newly created discovery pipeline, which couples laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESIMS) with bioassay testing, to target biologically active metabolites from microbiome-associated bacteria. To illustrate this process, this report focuses on samples obtained from the ear of a roadkill opossum (Dideiphis virginiana) as the source of two bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas sp. and Serratia sp.) that produced several new and known cyclic lipodepsipeptides (viscosin and serrawettins, respectively). These natural products inhibited biofilm formation by the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans at concentrations well below those required to inhibit yeast viability. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries revealed the presence of diverse microbial communities associated with different sites throughout the opossum carcass. A putative biosynthetic pathway responsible for the production of the new serrawettin analogues was identified by sequencing the genome of the Serratia sp. isolate. This study provides a functional roadmap to carrying out the systematic investigation of the genomic, microbiological, and chemical parameters related to the production of natural products made by bacteria associated with non-anthropoidal mammalian microbiomes. Discoveries emerging from these studies are anticipated to provide a working framework for efforts aimed at augmenting microbiomes to deliver beneficial natural products to a host.ere to edit the content


Via NatProdChem
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NatProdChem's curator insight, November 27, 10:15 AM

Weirdest sampling pipeline !

Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Chitin receptor CERK1 links salt stress and chitin‐triggered innate immunity in Arabidopsis

Chitin receptor CERK1 links salt stress and chitin‐triggered innate immunity in Arabidopsis | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ In nature, plants need to respond to multiple environmental stresses that require involvement and fine-tuning of different stress signaling pathways. Cross-tolerance in which plants pre-treated with chitin (a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern) have improved salt tolerance was observed in Arabidopsis but is not well understood. Here, we show a unique link between chitin and salt signaling mediated by the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1). Transcriptome analysis revealed that salt stress-induced genes are highly correlated with chitin-induced genes, while this was not observed with other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) or with other abiotic stresses. The cerk1 mutant was more susceptible to NaCl than wild type. cerk1 plants had an irregular increase of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) after NaCl treatment. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that CERK1 physically interacts with ANNEXIN 1 (ANN1), which was reported to form a calcium-permeable channel that contributes to the NaCl-induced [Ca2+]cyt signal. In turn, ann1 mutants showed elevated chitin-induced rapid responses. In short, molecular components previously shown to function in chitin or salt signaling physically interact and intimately link the downstream responses to fungal attack and salt stress.”
Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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PSTha5a23, a candidate effector from the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is involved in plant defense suppression and rust pathogenicity

PSTha5a23, a candidate effector from the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is involved in plant defense suppression and rust pathogenicity | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ During the infection of host plants, pathogens can deliver virulence-associated “effector” proteins to promote plant susceptibility. However, little is known about effector function in the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) that is an important fungal pathogen in wheat production worldwide. Here, we report our findings on an in planta highly induced candidate effector from Pst, PSTha5a23. The PSTha5a23 gene is unique to Pst and shows a low level of intra-species polymorphism. It has a functional N-terminal signal peptide and is translocated to the host cytoplasm after infection. Overexpression of PSTha5a23 in Nicotiana benthamiana was found to suppress the programmed cell death triggered by BAX, PAMP-INF1, and two resistance-related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MKK1 and NPK1). Overexpression of PSTha5a23 in wheat also suppressed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-associated callose deposition. In addition, silencing of PSTha5a23 did not change Pst virulence phenotypes; however, overexpression of PSTha5a23 significantly enhanced Pst virulence in wheat. These results indicate that the Pst candidate effector PSTha5a23 plays an important role in plant defense suppression and rust pathogenicity, and also highlight the utility of gene overexpression in plants as a tool for studying effectors from obligate biotrophic pathogens.”
Via Francis Martin, IPM Lab
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Infection assays in Arabidopsis reveal candidate effectors from the poplar rust fungus that promote susceptibility to bacteria and oomycete pathogens - Germain - 2016 - Molecular Plant Pathology - ...

Infection assays in Arabidopsis reveal candidate effectors from the poplar rust fungus that promote susceptibility to bacteria and oomycete pathogens - Germain - 2016 - Molecular Plant Pathology - ... | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

Fungi of the Pucciniales order cause rust diseases, which altogether affect thousands of plant species worldwide and pose major threat to several crops. How rust effectors - virulence proteins delivered into infected tissues to modulate host functions - contribute to pathogen virulence remains poorly understood. Melampsora larici-populina is a devastating and widespread rust pathogen of poplars and its genome encodes 1,184 identified small secreted proteins that could potentially act as effectors. Here, following specific criteria we selected 16 candidate effector proteins and characterized their virulence activities and subcellular localizations in the leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Infection assays using bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae) and oomycete (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis) pathogens revealed subsets of candidate effectors that enhanced or decreased pathogen leaf colonization. Confocal imaging of GFP-tagged candidate effectors constitutively expressed in stable transgenic plants revealed that some protein fusions specifically accumulate in nuclei, chloroplasts, plasmodesmata and punctate cytosolic structures. Altogether, our analysis suggests that rust fungal candidate effectors target distinct cellular components in host cells to promote parasitic growth.


Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant & Evolution
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Quantitative modelling of legume root nodule primordium induction by a diffusive signal of epidermal origin that inhibits auxin efflux

Quantitative modelling of legume root nodule primordium induction by a diffusive signal of epidermal origin that inhibits auxin efflux | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

Background

Rhizobium nitrogen fixation in legumes takes place in specialized organs called root nodules. The initiation of these symbiotic organs has two important components. First, symbiotic rhizobium bacteria are recognized at the epidermis through specific bacterially secreted lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs). Second, signaling processes culminate in the formation of a local auxin maximum marking the site of cell divisions. Both processes are spatially separated. This separation is most pronounced in legumes forming indeterminate nodules, such as model organism Medicago truncatula, in which the nodule primordium is formed from pericycle to most inner cortical cell layers.

Results

We used computer simulations of a simplified root of a legume that can form indeterminate nodules. A diffusive signal that inhibits auxin transport is produced in the epidermis, the site of rhizobium contact. In our model, all cells have the same response characteristics to the diffusive signal. Nevertheless, we observed the fastest and strongest auxin accumulation in the pericycle and inner cortex. The location of these auxin maxima correlates with the first dividing cells of future nodule primordia in M. truncatula. The model also predicts a transient reduction of the vascular auxin concentration rootward of the induction site as is experimentally observed. We use our model to investigate how competition for the vascular auxin source could contribute to the regulation of nodule number and spacing.

Conclusion

Our simulations show that the diffusive signal may invoke the strongest auxin accumulation response in the inner root layers, although the signal itself is strongest close to its production site.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute
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StrigoQuant: A genetically encoded biosensor for quantifying strigolactone activity and specificity

“Strigolactones are key regulators of plant development and interaction with symbiotic fungi; however, quantitative tools for strigolactone signaling analysis are lacking. We introduce a genetically encoded hormone biosensor used to analyze strigolactone-mediated processes, including the study of the components involved in the hormone perception/signaling complex and the structural specificity and sensitivity of natural and synthetic strigolactones in Arabidopsis, providing quantitative insights into the stereoselectivity of strigolactone perception. Given the high specificity, sensitivity, dynamic range of activity, modular construction, ease of implementation, and wide applicability, the biosensor StrigoQuant will be useful in unraveling multiple levels of strigolactone metabolic and signaling networks.”
Via Gerd Moe-Behrens
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Rice Blast
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Frontiers | Characterization and Genetic Analysis of Rice Mutant crr1 Exhibiting Compromised Non-host Resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) | Plant Biotic Interactions

Frontiers | Characterization and Genetic Analysis of Rice Mutant crr1 Exhibiting Compromised Non-host Resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) | Plant Biotic Interactions | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat in China. Rapid change to virulence following release of resistant cultivars necessitates ongoing discovery and exploitation of new resistance resources. Considerable effort has been directed at non-host resistance (NHR) which is believed to be durable. In the present study we identified rice mutant crr1 (compromised resistance to rust 1) that exhibited compromised NHR to Pst. Compared with wild type rice variety Nipponbare, crr1 mutant displayed a threefold increase in penetration rate by Pst, and enhanced hyphal growth. The pathogen also developed haustoria in crr1 mesophyll cells, but failed to sporulate. The response to the adapted rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae was unchanged in crr1 relative to the wild type. Several defense-related genes involved in the SA- and JA-mediated defense pathways response and in phytoalexin synthesis (such as OsPR1a, OsLOX1, and OsCPS4) were more rapidly and strongly induced in infected crr1 leaves than in the wild type, suggesting that other layers of defense are still in effect. Genetic analysis and mapping located the mutant loci at a region between markers ID14 and RM25792, which cover about 290 kb genome sequence on chromosome 10. Further fine mapping and cloning of the locus should provide further insights into NHR to rust fungi in rice, and may reveal new strategies for improving rust resistance in wheat.”
Via Philip Carella, Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture.
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Emergence of plant vascular system: roles of hormonal and non-hormonal regulatory networks

The divergence of land plants followed by vascular plants has entirely changed the terrestrial ecology. The vascular system is a prerequisite for this evolutionary event, providing upright stature and communication for sink demand–source capacity and facilitating the development of plants and colonization over a wide range of environmental habitats. Various hormonal and non-hormonal regulatory networks have been identified and reviewed as key processes for vascular formation; however, how these factors have evolutionarily emerged and interconnected to trigger the emergence of the vascular system still remains elusive. Here, to understand the intricacy of cross-talks among these factors, we highlight how core hormonal signaling and transcriptional networks are coalesced into the appearance of vascular plants during evolution.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux, Agriculture Nouvelle
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plants and Microbes
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eLife: A complete toolset for the study of Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. as a fungal-temperate grass pathosystem (2016)

eLife: A complete toolset for the study of Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. as a fungal-temperate grass pathosystem (2016) | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

Due to their economic relevance, the study of plant pathogen interactions is of importance. However, elucidating these interactions and their underlying molecular mechanisms remains challenging since both host and pathogen need to be fully genetically accessible organisms. Here we present milestones in the establishment of a new biotrophic model pathosystem: Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. We provide a complete toolset, including an annotated fungal genome and methods for genetic manipulation of the fungus and its host plant. This toolset will enable researchers to easily study biotrophic interactions at the molecular level on both the pathogen and the host side. Moreover, our research on the fungal life cycle revealed a mating type bias phenomenon. U. bromivora harbors a haplo-lethal allele that is linked to one mating type region. As a result, the identified mating type bias strongly promotes inbreeding, which we consider to be a potential speciation driver.


Via Ronny Kellner, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Frontiers | Volatile-Mediated Effects Predominate in Paraburkholderia phytofirmans Growth Promotion and Salt Stress Tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant Biotic Interactions

Frontiers | Volatile-Mediated Effects Predominate in Paraburkholderia phytofirmans Growth Promotion and Salt Stress Tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant Biotic Interactions | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity. This work investigated bacterial determinants involved in PsJN stimulation of growth and salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, showing bacteria enable plants to survive long-term salinity treatment, accumulating less sodium within leaf tissues relative to non-inoculated controls. Inactivation of specific bacterial genes encoding ACC deaminase, auxin catabolism, N-acyl-homoserine-lactone production, and flagellin synthesis showed these functions have little influence on bacterial induction of salinity tolerance. Volatile organic compound emission from strain PsJN was shown to reproduce the effects of direct bacterial inoculation of roots, increasing plant growth rate and tolerance to salinity evaluated both in vitro and in soil. Furthermore, early exposure to VOCs from P. phytofirmans was sufficient to stimulate long-term effects observed in Arabidopsis growth in the presence and absence of salinity. Organic compounds were analyzed in the headspace of PsJN cultures, showing production of 2-undecanone, 7-hexanol, 3-methylbutanol and dimethyl disulfide. Exposure of A. thaliana to different quantities of these molecules showed that they are able to influence growth in a wide range of added amounts. Exposure to a blend of the first three compounds was found to mimic the effects of PsJN on both general growth promotion and salinity tolerance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on volatile compound-mediated induction of plant abiotic stress tolerance by a Paraburkholderia species.”
Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Plenty Is No Plague: Streptomyces Symbiosis with Crops

Plenty Is No Plague: Streptomyces Symbiosis with Crops | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Streptomyces spp. constitute a major clade of the phylum Actinobacteria. These Gram-positive, filamentous prokaryotes are ubiquitous in soils and marine sediments, and are commonly found in the rhizosphere or inside plant roots. Plant-interacting Streptomyces have received limited attention, in contrast to Streptomyces spp. extensively investigated for decades in medicine given their rich potential for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Recent genomic, metabolomic, and biotechnological advances have produced key insights into Streptomyces spp., paving the way to the use of their metabolites in agriculture. In this Opinion article we propose how Streptomyces spp. could dominate future aspects of crop nutrition and protection. Risks and benefits of the use of these microorganisms in agriculture are also discussed.”
Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Arabidopsis thaliana root colonization by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is modulated by jasmonate signaling and leads to accelerated flowering and improved yield

Arabidopsis thaliana root colonization by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is modulated by jasmonate signaling and leads to accelerated flowering and improved yield | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Pochonia chlamydosporia has been intensively studied in nematode control of different crops. We have investigated the interaction between P. chlamydosporia and the model system Arabidopsis thaliana under laboratory conditions in the absence of nematodes. This study demonstrates that P. chlamydosporia colonizes A. thaliana. Root colonization monitored with green fluorescent protein-tagged P. chlamydosporia and quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantitation methods revealed root cell invasion. Fungal inoculation reduced flowering time and stimulated plant growth, as determined by total FW increase, faster development of inflorescences and siliques, and a higher yield in terms of seed production per plant. Precocious flowering was associated with significant expression changes in key flowering-time genes. In addition, we also provided molecular and genetic evidence that point towards jasmonate signaling as an important factor to modulate progression of plant colonization by the fungus. Our results indicate that P. chlamydosporia provides benefits to the plant in addition to its nematophagous activity. This report highlights the potential of P. chlamydosporia to improve yield in economically important crops.”
Via Christophe Jacquet, Stéphane Hacquard, Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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High-throughput gene-expression quantification of grapevine defense responses in the field using microfluidic dynamic arrays

High-throughput gene-expression quantification of grapevine defense responses in the field using microfluidic dynamic arrays | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ The fight against grapevine diseases due to biotrophic pathogens usually requires the massive use of chemical fungicides with harmful environmental effects. An alternative strategy could be the use of compounds able to stimulate plant immune responses which significantly limit the development of pathogens in laboratory conditions. However, the efficiency of this strategy in natura is still insufficient to be included in pest management programs. To understand and to improve the mode of action of plant defense stimulators in the field, it is essential to develop reliable tools that describe the resistance status of the plant upon treatment. We have developed a pioneering tool (“NeoViGen96” chip) based on a microfluidic dynamic array platform allowing the expression profiling of 85 defense-related grapevine genes in 90 cDNA preparations in a 4 h single run. Two defense inducers, benzothiadiazole (BTH) and fosetyl-aluminum (FOS), have been tested in natura using the “NeoViGen96” chip as well as their efficacy against downy mildew. BTH-induced grapevine resistance is accompanied by the induction of PR protein genes (PR1, PR2 and PR3), genes coding key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (PAL and STS), a GST gene coding an enzyme involved in the redox status and an ACC gene involved in the ethylene pathway. FOS, a phosphonate known to possess a toxic activity against pathogens and an inducing effect on defense genes provided a better grapevine protection than BTH. Its mode of action was probably strictly due to its fungicide effect at high concentrations because treatment did not induce significant change in the expression level of selected defense-related genes. The NeoViGen96” chip assesses the effectiveness of plant defense inducers on grapevine in vineyard with an excellent reproducibility. A single run with this system (4 h and 1,500 €), corresponds to 180 qPCR plates with conventional Q-PCR assays (Stragene system, 270 h and 9,000 €) thus a throughput 60–70 times higher and 6 times cheaper. Grapevine responses after BTH elicitation in the vineyard were similar to those obtained in laboratory conditions, whereas our results suggest that the protective effect of FOS against downy mildew in the vineyard was only due to its fungicide activity since no activity on plant defense genes was observed. This tool provides better understanding of how the grapevine replies to elicitation in its natural environment and how the elicitor potential can be used to reduce chemical fungicide inputs.”
Via IPM Lab
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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SPLASH, a hashed identifier for mass spectra  

SPLASH, a hashed identifier for mass spectra   | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

Over the past few years, as the use of mass spectrometry (MS) has increased, multiple spectral libraries, databases and software frameworks have been created to enable sharing and searching of MS data. However, finding all the spectra that correspond to a specific compound across different databases continues to…


Via NatProdChem
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NatProdChem's curator insight, November 27, 10:33 AM

Standardizing MS spectral data

Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Fédération de Recherche Agrobiosciences, Interactions et Biodiversité
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EDB - Prix « Le Monde » de la recherche 2016 pour Elvire Bestion

EDB - Prix « Le Monde » de la recherche 2016 pour Elvire Bestion | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
Ce prix distingue les thèses de huit jeunes chercheurs français. Les travaux sur « les animaux à sang froid qui ont un coup de chaud » ont valu à Elvire cette prestigieuse récompense. Bravo.

Via Marie Aizpuru
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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NIN Is Involved in the Regulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

NIN Is Involved in the Regulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is an intimate and ancient symbiosis found between most of terrestrial plants and fungi from the Glomeromycota family. Later during evolution, the establishment of the nodulation between legume plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, involved several genes of the signaling pathway previously implicated for AM symbiosis. For the past years, the identification of the genes belonging to this Common Symbiotic Signaling Pathway have been mostly done on nodulation. Among the different genes already well identified as required for nodulation, we focused our attention on the involvement of Nodule Inception (NIN) in AM symbiosis. We show here that NIN expression is induced during AM symbiosis, and that the Medicago truncatula nin mutant is less colonized than the wild-type M. truncatula strain. Moreover, nin mutant displays a defect in the ability to be infected by the fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. This work brings a new evidence of the common genes involved in overlapping signaling pathways of both nodulation and in AM symbiosis. ”
Via Jean-Michel Ané, Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Plant pathogenic fungi
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New Phytologist: Convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards evasion of glycan-triggered immunity (2016)

New Phytologist: Convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards evasion of glycan-triggered immunity (2016) | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it

All filamentous microbes produce and release a wide range of glycans, which are essential determinants of microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions. Major cell wall constituents, such as chitin and β-glucans, are elicitors of host immune responses. The widespread capacity for glycan perception in plants has driven the evolution of various strategies that help filamentous microbes to evade detection. Common strategies include structural and chemical modifications of cell wall components as well as the secretion of effector proteins that suppress chitin- and β-glucan-triggered immune responses. Thus, the necessity to avoid glycan-triggered immunity represents a driving force in the convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards its suppression.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Rey Thomas from Rice Blast
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Effects of blast on components of wheat physiology and grain yield as influenced by fungicide treatment and host resistance

Effects of blast on components of wheat physiology and grain yield as influenced by fungicide treatment and host resistance | Crosstalks in Plant-microbes interactions | Scoop.it
“ Two field experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to assess the physiological performance and grain yield of wheat cultivars BR-18 (moderately resistant) and Guamirim (susceptible) inoculated with Pyricularia oryzae in Ópera (fungicide 13.3% epoxiconazole + 5% pyraclostrobin) treated or un-treated plots. Results from regression analyses indicated that spike and leaf blast severity at 10 to 14 dai were associated with greater yield losses (highest negative slope) than severity at 18 to 22 dai. Relative to non-treated Guamirim, there were 0.3 and 16% increases in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, for non-treated BR-18 (resistance alone). For fungicide treatment alone, the mean yield increased by 20 and 61% in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, whereas for the treated BR-18, the mean yield increased by 26 and 83% in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, relative to the non-treated fungicide control. Fungicide application and cultivar resistance resulted in higher measures of leaf health (mean HAD, HLAI, HAA and HRI) and photosynthetic performance (based on Fv/Fm, Fm, Y(II), and Y(NPQ)) in both spikes and leaves than in the non-treated susceptible reference treatment. The results from this study may be useful in future efforts to develop crop loss models and management guidelines for wheat blast.”
Via Elsa Ballini
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