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Understanding Transnational Education, Its Growth and Implications

The dynamics of internationalization are changing. Many of the students that traditionally would have traveled overseas to study for an international qualification are now pursuing foreign degrees in their home, or neighboring, countries at local institutions through an array of collaborative arrangements with degree-awarding institutions from major education-exporting countries.

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A selection of recent articles, posts, and other material on CBHE
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Review of UK TNE in UAE

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HEC, British Council Sign LoI for Internationalizing Education Partnership

HEC, British Council Sign LoI for Internationalizing Education Partnership | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it

ISLAMABAD: The Higher Education Commission and the British Council Pakistan on Thursday signed a Letter of Intent (LoI) to further strengthen the existing cooperation between the two organizations...."

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For Some Foreign Students, US Education Is Losing Its Attraction - New York Times

For Some Foreign Students, US Education Is Losing Its Attraction - New York Times | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
For Some Foreign Students, US Education Is Losing Its Attraction New York Times The two countries differ in politics, population and economics, but they share common educational traditions and motivations for sending their students abroad, and...
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Impacts of transnational education on host countries

Impacts of transnational education on host countries | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
AbstractStudy of transnational education focusing on academic, cultural, economic and skills impacts in host countries.
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Curriculum Internationalization at AACSB Schools: Immersive Experiences, Student Placement, and Assessment

Curriculum Internationalization at AACSB Schools: Immersive Experiences, Student Placement, and Assessment | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

This article presents results from a survey of AACSB-accredited business schools’ progress in internationalizing their curricula in view of a recent AACSB report. We present data on the use of immersive experiences, degree of success in student placement in internationally oriented careers, and assessment of internationalization efforts. The results indicate growth of internationalization activities at virtually all schools as expected, but these efforts may not always match AACSB recommendations. For instance, AACSB criticized business programs for not coordinating internationalization activities in a strategic manner to improve courses and develop skills needed by international managers. Our survey finds that many schools do not attempt to tie their international experiences to specific courses, but they report the experiences are used to build skills students need. Most institutions also do not examine job placement as a measure of curriculum internationalization success. We find that many schools do not assess the outcomes of their internationalization efforts in a way that can demonstrate whether or not recent AACSB suggestions are being met.

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To return or not to return: examining the return intentions of mainland Chinese students studying at elite universities in the United States

To return or not to return: examining the return intentions of mainland Chinese students studying at elite universities in the United States | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine the return intention of mainland Chinese students studying at prestigious universities in the Unites States. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants were 90 students from three top-tiered universities on the East Coast of the United States. The results of this study highlighted several aspects relating to these elite students' choice regarding return to China and the factors that influence their choices. First, the findings confirm a long-held concern regarding the low returnability rate of Chinese students studying overseas. Second, academic and economic factors have a greater deterrent effect than political and social cultural factors. Third, the most influential predictors in a student's decision to return were job opportunities in China (r = +0.32), family ties (+0.23), and difficulty in obtaining a job in the United States (r = −0.24). Policy implications are discussed.

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Rethinking the ‘Erasmus Effect’ on European Identity - Mitchell - 2014 - JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies - Wiley Online Library

Rethinking the ‘Erasmus Effect’ on European Identity - Mitchell - 2014 - JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies - Wiley Online Library | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

The Erasmus programme for university student exchange was developed, in part, to foster European identity among its participants, who complete a short-term sojourn studying in another European country. However, two previous panel studies of the impact of Erasmus participation on European identity find no significant ‘Erasmus effect’. This article analyzes new survey data – a novel panel study of 1,729 students from 28 universities in six countries – and finds the opposite: participation in an Erasmus exchange is significantly and positively related to changes in both identification as European and identification with Europe. Furthermore, the data underscore the significance of cross-border interaction and cognitive mobilization for explaining identity change: transnational contact during the exchange is positively related to change in both dimensions of European identity, and increased knowledge of Europe and attention to European news over the course of the exchange is associated with enhanced identification with Europe

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‘I like the people I work with. Maybe I’ll get to meet them in person one day’: teaching and learning practice development with transnational teaching teams

‘I like the people I work with. Maybe I’ll get to meet them in person one day’: teaching and learning practice development with transnational teaching teams | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

Significant changes have occurred in the international education landscape driven by the need for access to higher education in developing countries. One response to this situation has been the provision of higher education in the developing country via partnership arrangements with overseas institutions. Rapid growth in transnational programmes has resulted in many opportunities for nations seeking to build their capacity, for institutions and for staff and student learning, as well as significant challenges. This research contributes to addressing some of these challenges by focusing attention on teaching and learning practice development with transnational teaching teams. This paper is grounded empirically in an international collaboration between three Australian, one Malaysian and one Vietnamese university. Employing a practice-based approach using multi-site participatory action research, the researchers investigated the professional development needs of transnational teaching teams and their experience working in transnational programmes. The study suggests that for professional development to be effective in transnational education it needs to be collaboratively designed and negotiated, context-sensitive and specific, practice-based and involve teams engaging and learning together in their daily work contexts. Such an approach harnesses the diversity of transnational teaching teams and enhances dialogue and relationships amongst team members.

 full text http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02607476.2014.903024#.U0kU4VV_uM0 ;
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A very useful work which considers an overlooked subject. 

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Exploring the diverse motivations of transnational higher education in China: complexities and contradictions

Exploring the diverse motivations of transnational higher education in China: complexities and contradictions | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

This article analyses the current situation of transnational higher education (TNE) in China by conducting a comprehensive documentary analysis. It first situates the phenomenon in global transnational mobility in higher education and then explores the diverse motivations of importing and exporting countries taking China and the UK as linked examples. The documentary analysis carried out for this research suggests that China has stated aims to promote TNE as a public good, whereas UK motivations for transnational education are ostensibly more driven by financial reasons. The article also identifies three features of the current situation in China: first showing that the distribution of the TNE in China is imbalanced; second, partner institutions are based in 21 economically developed countries or regions; third, the prominent cooperative arrangements are strongly focused in particular disciplines. The article argues that these features have led to unfair competition in some areas. Therefore, it appears that there are some inconsistencies and tensions between the stated aims of Chinese TNE policy and the way in which TNE is spreading and developing in practice.

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Conceptualizing international educatio From international student to international study

Abstract

In a rapidly changing transnational eduscape, it is timely to consider how best to conceptualize international education. Here we argue for a conceptual relocation from international student to international study as a means to bridge the diverse literatures on international education. International study also enables recognition of the multiple contributions (and resistances) of international students as agents of knowledge formation; it facilitates consideration of the mobility of students in terms of circulations of knowledge; and it is a means to acknowledge the complex spatialities of international education, in which students and educators are emotionally and politically networked together through knowledge contributions.

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The West's global HE hegemony - Nothing lasts forever - University World News

Since World War II international higher education has been led by English-speaking countries, especially the United States. The near hegemony of the Atlantic countries in the university sector has exceeded their role in the trading and financial economies. But nothing lasts forever.  full article here http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20140326123556985  

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An excellent contribution by Prof Marginson. 

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Determinants of the international mobility of students

Abstract

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, we identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, we assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. We find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. We also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, we do not find an important role for registration fees.

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Reconsidering regionalisation in global higher education: student mobility spaces of the European Higher Education Area

Reconsidering regionalisation in global higher education: student mobility spaces of the European Higher Education Area | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

This paper examines international student mobility between member states of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), a group of 47 countries that committed to reforming their higher education systems to improve the comparability and compatibility of degrees. While increased student mobility is a key goal in its official documents, little research has empirically investigated student mobility patterns in respect to the EHEA. The analysis employs multivariate techniques to identify trends in student mobility between 1999 and 2009, using a spatial approach to visualise the relationships between member states as constituted through student mobility flows. Results show that within the analysis timeframe student flows in the EHEA became more even in their distribution, but that in terms of the relationships between states, the EHEA became more centralised and segmented, meaning that key actors mediated exchanges between peripheral states and the region was more easily divided into self-contained clusters. These trends indicate a need to critically reconsider the nature of the EHEA and its role in the globalisation of higher education.

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Copy but Not Paste: A Literature Review of Crossborder Curriculum Partnerships

Abstract

Crossborder curriculum partnerships, entailing the transposition of an entire curriculum and the related degree(s) from “home” to “host” institution, are a rather new phenomenon in internationalization in education. The literature describes successful and unsuccessful partnerships, but critical factors for the success or failure of sustainable partnerships remain to be identified. We conducted a narrative literature review to find such factors. Using an iterative approach, we analyzed 39 articles retrieved from Web of Science, Google Scholar, ERIC, PubMed, and PsycInfo and meeting the inclusion criteria. We developed a framework of 13 factors in four domains: students, teachers, curriculum, and soft and hard project management. Simply copy-pasting a curriculum is generally considered to be destined for failure. To overcome challenges, partners should take preventive and affirmative measures across multiple domains. The findings may provide guidance to those considering or engaged in designing, developing, managing, and reviewing a crossborder partnership.

full text http://jsi.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/06/01/1028315314533608.abstract

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International branch campuses: over-exposed?

International branch campuses: over-exposed? | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it

 Are there too many branch campus headlines? Not quite. 

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Globalisation means greater business school collaboration - Financial Times

Globalisation means greater business school collaboration - Financial Times | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Globalisation means greater business school collaboration
Financial Times
Business schools need help.
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Internationalization of Higher Educatio Implications for Policy Making

Abstract

During the last decade education worldwide has experienced massive changes ranging from domestic market inauguration to the internationalization. In due course of time, there has been a great urge for restructuring the education system to make it internationally comparable ensuring economic benefit. The developed countries have dominated through the process and have been able to reap the benefit of internationalization of higher education. It is to be noted that the developing countries are forced to accept the negotiation of the developed countries to get support in turn. At the same time it may also be noted that there exists an inverse relationship between domestic gross enrolment ratio (GER) and outward mobility ratio (OMR) and the other developing countries have resorted to importing education services to supplement their domestic capacity. The present paper articulates the current nature of the internationalization of higher education through analyzing the indicators related to it. The paper establishes the inverse relationship between GER and OMR. It also attempts to provide policy implication by highlighting facts related to the process.

Full text here: http://hef.sagepub.com/content/1/1/99

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European management and European business schools: Insights from the history of business schools

Abstract

This article looks at the history of business schools and identifies specific characteristics that are common to European management schools. On the basis of these characteristics, European management is subsequently defined as a cross-cultural, societal management approach based on interdisciplinary principles. In a final step, a closer look is taken at how European business schools should prepare their students for the unique European management context. It is suggested that such schools should provide courses on cross-cultural management and courses explaining the interdependencies between the private and public sector, offer students opportunities to experience other cultures over the course of their studies, and teach management from an interdisciplinary and practically-oriented perspective.

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International academic franchises: Identifying the benefits of international academic franchise provision

Abstract:

This paper is an exploratory study of the benefits that institutions of higher education can gain when entering into partnerships of academic franchising, an international activity which has been increasing in popularity over the past few decades. The paper looks at the current literature on academic franchising and then goes on to study, through case studies and direct observation, franchising from the perspective of four different institutions in four different countries. The paper reveals that very often there are multiple benefits to be gained which are not necessarily sought when the institutions enter such partnerships. Contrary to previous academic literature the study also reveals that there is a much greater flow of these benefits from one institution to another and thus provides a new richer model that has changed from the 'parent child' model to that of a more evenly balanced model where both partners are benefiting from mutual cooperation. 

OPEN ACCESS here http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ioep/clre/2014/00000012/00000001/art00010 ;

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Why place matters: imaginative geography and international student mobility - Beech - 2014 - Area - Wiley Online Library

Why place matters: imaginative geography and international student mobility - Beech - 2014 - Area - Wiley Online Library | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it

This paper develops and extends the recent work on international student mobility by expanding beyond the traditional push–pull factors of migration to show that students are influenced by more than the economic in their decision of where to study. It uses original data collected through interviews and focus groups with 38 higher education international students at three UK universities located in Aberdeen, Belfast and Nottingham to show that when students choose to study overseas they are influenced by diverse perceptions of place that they have constructed over long periods of time. These imaginative geographies are the direct result of exposure to a range of different media, as well as stories relayed to them from members of their social networks. This paper demonstrates that students studying in Scotland and Northern Ireland appear to have highly developed imaginative geographies in relation to their chosen study sites. By contrast, international students studying in England tended to have little conception of their chosen place of study. In this case the powerful imaginative geographies that had been instilled within them focused on London, overshadowing their understanding of their chosen study site.

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Factors affecting university image formation among prospective higher education students: the case of international branch campuses

Factors affecting university image formation among prospective higher education students: the case of international branch campuses | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Previous research has found that the images of universities formed by prospective students greatly influence their choices. With the advent of international branch campuses in several higher education hubs worldwide, many international students now
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Another good study by Stephen Wilkins on IBCs.

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Best practices of international double degree programmes. Case of Russian and European universities

The purpose of the Master’s thesis research is to study and disseminate the best practices of international double Master’s degree programmes organization, implementation and development. The given research is focused on two main areas: motivation of higher education institutions to start double degree programmes and best practices of double degree programme design and implementation from the perspective of building joint curriculum and organizing balanced mobility and development of existing programmes in terms of increasing their quality and attractiveness. This is a case study of the double degree programmes between Russian and European universities. 
The study findings reveal good developments in the field of double degree cooperation between Russian and European universities and a high motivation from both parties. The research depicts different models of building a joint curriculum and organizing academic mobility. The following areas could be outlined as development points for double degree programmes: 
- Personal interest and commitment of organizers of double degree programmes; 
- Comprehensive agreement between partners on different aspects and practicalities of the double degree programme implementation; 
- Promotion towards more balanced student participation and two-way mobility; 
- Foreign language skills improvement for students and university staff; 
- Joint strategy and actions in marketing and quality assurance; 
- Involvement of international companies; 
- Wider usage of e-learning technology.

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Chinese Students’ Choice of Transnational Higher Education in a Globalized Higher Education Market

Abstract

This research studies Chinese students’ choice of transnational higher education in the context of the higher education market. Through a case study of the students in the transnational higher education programs of W University, the research finds that Chinese students’ choice of transnational higher education is a complicated decision-making that is influenced by push factors related to domestic higher education and overseas higher education, pull factors related to transnational higher education and student’s characteristics such as economic condition, academic aptitude, and future plans. Compared with domestic higher education and overseas higher education, transnational higher education is a second choice. It is being used by the majority of students as a tool to regain access to high-quality domestic higher education institutions and to gain access to overseas higher education. Currently, there exist information gaps between students and transnational higher education programs, which prevent students from making an informed decision when they choose a particular program.

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Trading quality across borders: colonial discourse and international quality assurance policies in higher education

Trading quality across borders: colonial discourse and international quality assurance policies in higher education | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

Accountability and quality assurance have become central discourses in higher education policy throughout the world. However, accountability and quality assurance involve power and control. Practices and ideas about quality developed in the Global North are spreading rapidly across the Global South, leading to increased uniformity in the approaches to quality assurance. Given the significant asymmetries that divide the Global North and Global South, this article maps interdiscursive relations among key texts that influence policy development on international quality in higher education, and explores the applicability of colonial discourse as a perspective for understanding this increasing international convergence.

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A new indicator for higher education student performance - Online First - Springer

A new indicator for higher education student performance - Online First - Springer | Cross Border Higher Education | Scoop.it
Abstract

The debate on academic achievement is a heated issue that involves all the higher education contexts. This paper attempts to provide an indicator that can make the measurement of university student performance easier and that can be easily applied to different systems, making comparisons more fair. The Italian University System is used as a starting point to make several considerations on the current measures and to build up a new performance indicator. Then, a generalization for other marking systems is shown and finally a quantile regression is performed to investigate some determinants of the new performance indicator, also with respect to the current one.

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