I am interested in this post and post on critical thinking. Is critical thinking a skill? Can one teach critical thinking? Stephen has delivered the course on Critical Literacies MOOC in the past....
Robert H. Ennis, Author of The Cornell Critical Thinking Tests “Critical thinking is reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe and do.”
Assuming that critical thinking is reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do, a critical thinker:
1. Is open-minded and mindful of alternatives 2. Tries to be well-informed 3. Judges well the credibility of sources 4. Identifies conclusions, reasons, and assumptions 5. Judges well the quality of an argument, including the acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence 6. Can well develop and defend a reasonable position 7. Asks appropriate clarifying questions 8. Formulates plausible hypotheses; plans experiments well 9. Defines terms in a way appropriate for the context 10. Draws conclusions when warranted, but with caution 11. Integrates all items in this list when deciding what to believe or do
What are the principles of critical thinking?
- Knowledge is acquired only through thinking, reasoning, and questioning. Knowledge is based on facts.
- It is only from learning how to think that you learn what to think.
- Critical thinking is an organized and systematic process used to judge the effectiveness of an argument.
- Critical thinking is a search for meaning.
- Critical thinking is a skill that can be learned.
- Do the above principles hold true and won’t change from one domain to the next?
Gone are the days when planning and thinking were done mainly by pen and paper.Technology have made it pretty much easier to think in different other ways. Free mind mapping , brainstorming and concept mapping applications are ubiquitous online and more and more teachers are using them . The 21st century education is based , on a large part of it, on the visual output.
The benefits of graphic organizers in education
- Teachers can use graphic organizers to engage visual learners and help them organize their thoughts
- Graphic organizers help students make powerful connections between ideas and concepts
- They help students develop their convergent thinking by providing a framework for the development of new ideas through analysis, reflection and display.
- They also help students promote their divergent thinking by using such techniques as brianstorming to generate ideas.
- They can be used for developing vocabulary skills and improve reading, writing and communication skills.
- Students can easily learn new concepts and think in new novel ways using graphic organizers
- They help students focus on connections rather than words
- Finally , graphic organizers can help both teachers and students develop creative and critical thinking skills.
gjmueller: “Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: The interlocking of cognitive processes This great new diagram show the interlocking gears of cognitive thought and every cog-word links directly to an iPad app...
"The results provide evidence that the human executive system favors creativity for compensating its limited monitoring capacity" explained Dr. Koechlin
In a new study, published March 27 in the online, open-access journal PLoS Biology, Anne Collins and Etienne Koechlin of Ecole Normale Supérieure and Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, France, examine frontal lobe function using behavioral experiments and computational models of human decision-making.
===> They find that human frontal function concurrently monitors no more than three/four strategies but favors creativity, i.e. the exploration and creation of new strategies whenever no monitored strategies appear to be reliable enough. <===