Criminology and Economic Theory
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Criminology and Economic Theory
In search of viable criminological theory
Curated by Rob Duke
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Missing: Mental health care providers in the Arctic

Critical among the priorities is promoting wellness for those who live in the Arctic. And specifically, doing more to prevent suicide, which has long had an outsize impact on far-north populations.

"This suicide issue has been around a lot longer than our fuel crisis. We know from statistics that have been coming in from the past two decades that we have a pretty serious health disparity," Cheryl Rosa, the Anchorage-based deputy director of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, said in an interview Wednesday.

"This is a problem that hasn't gone away with what has been done so far," Rosa said.
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Julia Fisher-Salmon's comment, September 16, 7:52 PM
Coming from a rural village I relate to this article on a deeper level. There is a lot of depression among these communities, without enough health care to address it. At any given time there is usually only about one health aide in every community. The one health aide there is is usually chased out of their position because the community doesn't appreciate them, find them inadequate at doing their job, they often scold them, health aides honestly just aren't welcome in the community. It is a shame to see, because if the community weren't so hostile towards them more people would want to work these positions. The training to become a health aide is free and they pay you pretty fairly. The stigma of being a health aide is just so desolate though that no one wants to work as one. A large portion of the village often go through benders during the winter months, and can drink for days or weeks if they have the supply. I see where the lack of hope can come from, you're very isolated surrounded by little opportunity for work and for activity. As a teenager in these communities you get no social interaction among new people unless you leave the village, you can't get a job since the adults barely have jobs so you can't save for college, and if you don't have money for gas you can't go out and practice your traditional customs. Something to consider when looking at the suicide rate in rural communities is the opportunities available, a lot of people in these villages are well below the national poverty line and have an inadequate source of food, especially with the new hunting and fishing regulations. I hope that more research is completed in this area, and more opportunities are provided.
Catherine Ledger's comment, September 17, 9:34 PM
I really appreciated what Julia said. I have worked with many women and children here in Fairbanks that come in for the help they don't get living in the village. I think the Alaska Native community would be the first place to start and asking them their thoughts on what they think the possible solutions might be. I know that it begins in the family unit and the economic challenges that are faced with village life. The desire for help from perceived outsiders is a major obstacle. How can we help without input and participation from the very community that is suffering so much?
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Shelf Help: ‘Our Most Troubling Madness: Case Studies in Schizophrenia Across Cultures’

Shelf Help: ‘Our Most Troubling Madness: Case Studies in Schizophrenia Across Cultures’ | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Dispatches from India, Thailand, Ghana, and other locations.
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Julia Fisher-Salmon's comment, September 15, 8:27 PM
Believe it or not but mental disorders have become a sort of trendy norm among the youth. On social media it is widely acceptable for women to act in a dramatic, very psychotically mannered behavior towards their significant others. It is also become a norm for youth to self-diagnose depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and other forms of mental health. They relate these fairly serious mental health disorders to being trendy for the most part. Anything that effects them is dramatically drawn out as being "depressed", or "anxietal" to the point where they can't differentiate what the disorder actually is and just basic emotions such as being sad or overwhelmed. This behavior could be due to any number of reasons, but I think it's a very disrespectful to treat it as if it's not an actual disorder. They treat it as though, people who actually have these disorders don't need extensive health care and counseling to get through their day in a normal manner.
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Canada has just approved prescription heroin

Canada has just approved prescription heroin | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The Canadian government has quietly approved new drug regulations that will permit doctors to prescribe pharmaceutical-grade heroin to treat severe addicts who have not responded to more conventional approaches.

The move means that Crosstown, a trail-blazing clinic in Vancouver, will be able to expand its special heroin-maintenance program, in which addicts come in as many as three times a day and receive prescribed injections of legally obtained heroin from a nurse free. The program is the only one of its kind in Canada and the United States but is similar to the approach taken in eight European countries.
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Julia Fisher-Salmon's comment, September 15, 8:50 PM
Personally- I am against all drug use, I think it's disgusting and goes against all of my values. This article makes a lot of sense though. I see where he's coming from, "they're going to do it anyways", so why don't we make it safer for the user and for the public. I'm sure this also reduces the amount of diseases spread through unsterilized needles. The drug situation in our world currently is a tough situation, there is no right way to approach it, we need to experiment to see what works monetarily, safely, and reduces usage. I don't see this happening in America anytime soon, we struggle with the idea of marijuana being legalized let alone an institution where addicts can safely use their drug of choice. I think as a nation we don't adapt to new things very well, gay marriage for example or the abolition of slavery. For new situations you need to consider new solutions. I agree with Canada on this one.
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Mapping gentrification in Toronto | Metro News

Mapping gentrification in Toronto | Metro News | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A Dutch design firm is asking Toronto residents to help them chart where gentrification is happening in the city.
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What China wants

What China wants | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Let the dragon in
Why should China be satisfied with a bit more engagement when primacy is what it seeks? There is no guarantee that it will be. Just now the rhetoric coming out of Beijing is full of cold-war, Manichean imagery. Yet sensible Chinese understand that their country faces constraints—China needs Western markets, its neighbours are unwilling to accept its regional writ and for many more years the United States will be strong enough militarily and diplomatically to block it. And in the longer run, the hope is that the Chinese system will of itself adapt from one-party rule to some more liberal polity that, by its nature, is more comfortable with the world as it now is.

Drawing China into a strengthened regional framework would not be to cede primacy to it. Nor would it be to abandon a liberal order that has served Asia—and America—so well. It may, in the end, not work. But given the huge dangers of rivalry, it is essential now to try.
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California poised to add ransomware law that carries sentence of up to four years

California poised to add ransomware law that carries sentence of up to four years | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
California is about to pass a new law that will classify ransomware as extortion and could jail culprits for up to four years.
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Young man blamed for 3 arson deaths in Alaska village gets traditional justice: Banishment

Three Western Alaska villages aren't waiting to find out what sentence Derek Adams gets in court.
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Howard Cameron's comment, September 16, 2:39 PM
This is the application of indigenous law by Nunam Iqua Traditional Council (officially a tribal government.) in southeast Alaska, a village on the Yukon River.The explanation for banishment is that the local government council tried everything to help Adams (the perpetrator of the crimes) before he committed arson, but it didn’t work. I assume that many years ago before Western law came to North America the expulsion of a person from a community was a very drastic measure and was determined necessary for the benefit of the whole community. This is an example of indigenous law. A banished person was on his own in the wilderness and how would a person survive in the bush. The threat of banishment could be a severe deterrent. If banishment wasn’t done, the whole community could suffer, better to eliminate one bad apple then ruin the whole community. The banishment helped the native community but not Adams, as he had no place to live. The comments posted after the article indicated that some people did not understand the difference between the tribal community taking action and state of Alaska criminal justice. I heard of tribal justice on the Lac Courte Oreilles reservation (LCO) in northern Wisconsin when Tribal Judge Ernie St. Germain sentenced a poacher on the LCO reservation to one year of helping elders with cutting firewood and doing chores for them. At the end of the year the poacher, who was a LCO tribal member, had earned the respect of the elders for helping them. Judge Germain told me this story about 1995. The punishment was not punitive but was rehabilitative and the proper application of punishment could be effective.
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The “strategic triangle” that would allow Beijing to control the South China Sea

The “strategic triangle” that would allow Beijing to control the South China Sea | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Of all the potential flashpoints in the contested South China Sea, none is more nervously watched today than Scarborough Shoal, a large coral atoll with a reef-rimmed lagoon. It encompasses 58 sq mi (150 sq km) and lies less than 150 miles (241 km) from the Philippines' coast. Observers have long suspected that China wants to build a militarize
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France's Sarkozy outlines measures to get tough on militants- report

France's Sarkozy outlines measures to get tough on militants- report | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
France needs to get tough on militants by creating special courts and detention facilities to boost security, the country's former President Nicolas Sarkozy said in a interview published in Sunday newspaper Le Journal du Dimanche (JDD).

The French capital was once again put on high alert last Sunday after a car loaded with gas cylinders was found near Notre Dame cathedral in an incident that could have been an attack on a Paris railway station.

Security is a key topic in the presidential elections in 2017, as more than 230 people have been killed in militant Islamist attacks on French soil since January 2015.
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Bad robots

Bad robots | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

IN 1927 an industrialist named Isidore Schlesinger installed Johannesburg’s first traffic light. It drew crowds of onlookers, but was short-lived: an errant motorist soon knocked it down. Today the city’s “robots” (as they are called in South African English) are still unreliable, especially when it rains. Traffic updates on talk radio include a rundown on which robots are out. Drivers must get used to dodging other cars at malfunctioning eight-lane intersections.

The Johannesburg Roads Agency (JRA), which manages the robots, blames ageing infrastructure and technology that is easily damaged by summer thunderstorms. Frequent power cuts don’t help. “Pole-overs” (vehicles crashing into traffic lights) are a big headache, too. On average, Johannesburg drivers damage 81 robots a month.


But the biggest problem is robot robbers. Like power lines and manhole covers, traffic lights attract thieves who sell the metal for scrap. Some will cut down the entire pole to get a bit of copper wire. In one theft, caught on video, a man hacks away at a robot’s cables with a pickaxe while two others stand guard, scrambling into the bushes whenever a car goes by. Damage to robots has cost the city 12.7m rand ($900,000) in the past three years, says the JRA.

To deter thieves, some metal parts have been replaced with nylon and plastic. Cables are being made with thinner (and so less valuable) copper wire. The 70 most frequently vandalised traffic lights have been fitted with CCTV cameras and vibration detection, “so we can tell when someone’s trying to cut down a pole”, explains Darryl Thomas, head of the JRA’s department for mobility and freight. But technology can also attract thieves. A remote monitoring system, using SIM cards, proved a disaster. Within months, thieves had stripped them all and run up huge phone bills using them. Also stolen, in 2013, were 200 back-up batteries installed in robots to keep them on during power cuts.

The city is taking drastic action. New legislation, which came into effect in June, makes infrastructure theft a major crime. In some cases jail sentences can be as long as for murder.

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Inspectors knock

Inspectors knock | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

TO BECOME a Japanese citizen, a foreigner must display “good conduct”, among other things. The rules do not specify what that means, and make no mention of living wafu (Japanese-style). But for one candidate, at least, it involved officials looking in his fridge and inspecting his children’s toys to see if he was Japanese enough (he was).

Bureaucratic discretion is the main reason why it is hard to get Japanese nationality. The ministry of justice, which handles the process, says officials may visit applicants’ homes and talk to their neighbours. It does not help that wannabe Watanabes must renounce any other passport: Japan does not allow dual nationality. And applicants must have lived in Japan for a minimum of ten years. Other requirements—speaking Japanese, holding sufficient assets—are similar to those in many countries, but still daunting.

Small wonder that so few people naturalise. Last year the government received just 12,442 applications, which take 18 months or so to process; it granted citizenship to 9,469 people, compared with almost 730,000 in America. But that at least suggests most applicants are successful. Koreans and Chinese make up the vast bulk of them. New citizens are no longer obliged to adopt a Japanese-sounding name. And there is no fee to apply, in contrast with a charge of $595 in America and £1,236 ($1,613) in Britain.

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Police Officer Stabbed in Paris Terrorism Sweep

Police Officer Stabbed in Paris Terrorism Sweep | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A French police officer was stabbed and a suspect shot as authorities detained three women Thursday in connection with a terrorism investigation into a car found Sunday near Notre Dame Cathedral that was loaded with cooking gas canisters.

The three women, one of whom was the car owner’s daughter, were taken into custody in the southern Paris suburb of Boussy-Saint-Antoine, authorities said. One stabbed a police officer before being shot and severely wounded, according to a police officer familiar with the investigation.

“These young women, ages 39, 23 and 19, were radicalized and fanatical,” Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said. “They were likely preparing new violent and imminent actions.”

France is on high alert after a spate of terror attacks that have killed more than 200 people over the past year.

On Sunday, police discovered the car with its hazard lights blinking. The vehicle, which didn’t have a license plate, was parked in the shadow of the famous cathedral near police headquarters.
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Slavery’s legacies

Slavery’s legacies | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
ALEXANDRA LORAS has lived in eight countries and visited 50-odd more. In most, any racism she might have experienced because of her black skin was deflected by her status as a diplomat’s wife. Not in Brazil, where her white husband acted as French consul in São Paulo for four years. At consular events, Ms Loras would be handed coats by guests who mistook her for a maid. She was often taken for a nanny to her fair-haired son. “Brazil is the most racist country I know,” she says.

Many Brazilians would bristle at this characterisation—and not just whites. Plenty of preto (black) and pardo (mixed-race) Brazilians, who together make up just over half of the country’s 208m people, proudly contrast its cordial race relations with America’s interracial strife. They see Brazil as a “racial democracy”, following the ideas of Gilberto Freyre, a Brazilian sociologist who argued in the 1930s that race did not divide Brazil as it did other post-slavery societies. Yet the gulf between white Brazilians and their black and mixed-race compatriots is huge.
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London teen who 'plotted nail-bomb attack researched Elton John gig'

London teen who 'plotted nail-bomb attack researched Elton John gig' | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A young Muslim man is accused of attempting to buy guns and a suicide vest for an Islamic State-inspired massacre at Buckingham Palace.

Haroon Ali-Syed, 19, was arrested by counter-terrorism officers amid fears he was on the brink of committing an atrocity.

The IT student is also suspected of trying to contact a bombmaker to build a nail bomb, and researching an Elton John concert in Hyde Park which took place on Sunday to mark the anniversary of the September 11 attacks.
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Suspect who rammed 3 Phoenix officers with car booked into jail; video of attack released

Suspect who rammed 3 Phoenix officers with car booked into jail; video of attack released | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Three Phoenix police officers are recovering after a car plowed into them at a QuikTrip near 25th Avenue and Camelback Road early Tuesday morning.
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Catherine Ledger's comment, September 17, 10:06 PM
After watching the video of the suspect who rammed the 3 Phoenix police officers I agree that it was intentional. In his arraignment hearing he could barely stand up straight. Whatever his condition there is no rational explanation for his actions. I am not saying he is suffering from a disorder except perhaps extreme hatred for authority which is perpetrated, in this case, on 3 police officers. This lawless culture that our country experiencing is unsettling and unacceptable.
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China’s netizens love sharing live video of themselves

China’s netizens love sharing live video of themselves | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The authorities wish they wouldn’t
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1 dead in shooting 2 blocks from Valley of the Moon Park; suspect in custody

A person police called a suspect appeared to have posted a Facebook Live video after the shooting. Central Middle and Chugach Optional schools were closed for the day as police investigate.
Rob Duke's insight:
Anchorage breaking case....may be related to unsolved killings of two men in this park two weeks ago...
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Linnea Deisher's curator insight, September 21, 5:25 AM
Coming from Anchorage, it's very scary all the homicides there have been lately.  It definitely seemed to be the summer of murder.  There are rumors that a serial killer is in Anchorage and that the FBI are helping with the investigation.  I guess time will tell.
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North Dakota's Bloody Saturday, Prayer and Judicial Relief for the Sioux Nation - LA Progressive

North Dakota's Bloody Saturday, Prayer and Judicial Relief for the Sioux Nation - LA Progressive | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
No Artifacts, No Graves, No Problem
Energy Transfer made a very bad calculation when, less than a week before the rulings, it took court documents showing the exact locations of historic graves, including stone representation of the constellations, and brazenly used them as a map to identify and destroy cultural sites. Graves of ancestral chiefs essential to tribal history and beliefs were scattered and buried under eight feet of earth in some places. They are irretrievable.
Rob Duke's insight:
Capitalism is terrible sometimes, but fortunately Civil Society can restrain it.

1. We need strong government divided by level (local, state, Federal) and divided by function (executive, legislature, courts);
2. We need a rule of law; and
3. We need oversight (Free Press, a Public Administration that refuses to implement unequal policy).
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Howard Cameron's comment, September 15, 11:07 AM
After reading this I contacted a friend of mine who lives in Wisconsin who is an enrolled member of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. He called the actions of the pipeline company as horrible and it showed the extent of racism in this country. I have known him for over 20 years and this is the first time I have heard him express these thoughts in those words. He also mentioned that the Tribe is a legal entity with rights. I look at it from a legal background and find it deplorable the the pipeline company used newly filed court documents to destroy the Indian artifacts. I am not knowledgable of the applicable law but believe that the destruction of the artifacts could be a criminal act versus a civil act. The other disappointing action is the governor and the local government officials making this a political event and by blaming the action on outsiders but make no mention of the dustrucdto of the artifacts. That shows a lack of cultural awareness and the pain the actions caused all Indians. Time will tell if capitalism and the so called need for oil overrides the culture of a group people.
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The Crime-Fighting Fence and the Future

The Crime-Fighting Fence and the Future | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
DTLA - Last week, Los Angeles Downtown News reported on one of the most unlikely crime-fighting tools ever to hit the community: a five-foot-high, black metal fence that in July
Rob Duke's insight:
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
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Open doors but different laws

Open doors but different laws | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Another paper, by Glen Weyl of Microsoft Research and Yale University, finds that by letting in so many migrants the GCC countries do more (per head) to reduce global income inequality than richer OECD countries, which send loads of aid but keep their borders relatively closed. Were the OECD countries to open their borders to the same extent as Kuwait, which has two migrants for every native, global inequality could be cut by a quarter. That is politically impossible in the West. So why is it possible in the Gulf?

Mr Weyl argues that it is the kafala system itself that makes Gulf citizens tolerate ultra-high levels of immigration. Precisely because it grants migrants so few rights—they can never become citizens, nor share in the generous local welfare state—Gulf nationals do not feel threatened by them. On the contrary, they like having other people to mop their floors and sweat on their building sites.

Some Gulf states are trying to curb the most coercive elements of the system. Bahrain and the UAE have scrapped exit visas and allowed migrants to switch jobs. The Saudis are trying to crack down on exploitative middle men. Human Rights Watch, a watchdog, urges construction firms to treat workers better than the law requires. But the basic deal that Gulf states offer to migrants—you can work, but you will never be one of us—remains unchanged.
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Woman charged over ISIS Notre Dame plot

Woman charged over ISIS Notre Dame plot | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
French authorities have charged a woman in relation to an alleged ISIS plot to attack this city's famous Notre Dame Cathedral last week, the Paris prosecutor's office said.

The woman, whose name was given as Ornella G., was charged Saturday night with "terrorist criminal association to commit crimes against people" and "attempted assassinations as an organized gang in connection with a terrorist enterprise," the office said.
The prosecutor, Francois Molins, whose office handles terrorism investigations, said Friday that the woman's fingerprints were found last Sunday in a car containing a half-dozen gas cylinders and left parked in front of Notre Dame, in the heart of Paris. Five of the cylinders were reportedly full. No detonator or firing device was found.
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Unwanted model

Unwanted model | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Villagers in China often stage protests over land rights; local authorities usually deal with them either with force, or by promising concessions and then rounding up the ringleaders. Restoring calm to Wukan will be tougher. Because of its fame, journalists have poured in, especially from nearby Hong Kong. Local officials may be reluctant to resort to the usual thuggish tactics in front of such an audience.

In an effort to undermine support for Mr Lin, the government has tried blackening his name. On June 21st officials released a video showing him confessing to bribe-taking. But that merely stoked the villagers’ anger. His wife, Yang Zhen, says she is certain the confession was coerced. His halting delivery in substandard Mandarin, she believes, was his way of letting villagers know this. “They are trying to deceive everyone, but no one believes it,” she says. Dozens of furious villagers went to a local school where nervous officials had barricaded themselves behind metal doors and barred windows; they kicked the doors and shouted abuse. As The Economist went to press, Wukan was preparing to embark on its sixth consecutive day of protest.

Many residents say they have lost all faith in the local government, and that only the central authorities in Beijing will be able to find a fair solution. “They took our land. My father and grandfather farmed it, and now I have nothing. No work and no other path forward,” says a 39-year-old villager. “We have a black government, all corrupt. They cannot trick us again with more talk of the ‘Wukan model’. We need our land back,” he fumes.
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Orion Hutchin's comment, September 12, 12:38 AM
Property rights are key to economic growth and development. Seems the government in this case is squashing the stance of the people. The Native American's in the U.S. seem to be in battles of land rights just as those in China are. However the tactics taken by the governments are different, we are seeing a lot of negative impacts from governments though.
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Releasing Drug Offenders Won’t End Mass Incarceration

Releasing Drug Offenders Won’t End Mass Incarceration | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
It’s been a landmark week in the criminal-justice world, as a barnstorming President Obama pushed for broad reforms to the sentencing system and called for an e…
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Congress Turning a New Leaf on Marijuana

Congress Turning a New Leaf on Marijuana | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Lobbyists, policy experts and lawmakers say the trajectory is clear: Congress is leaning toward decriminalizing marijuana in the coming years.
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Police-involved injuries of civilians rise nearly 50%, Harvard researchers say

Police-involved injuries of civilians rise nearly 50%, Harvard researchers say | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The article also concluded that black civilians, and particularly black men, are significantly more likely to be injured by police than their white counterparts, a trend carried over in numerous analyses of police killings and fatal shootings. Black people were injured and sought treatment at a rate 4.9 times higher than whites, according to the research.

In the 14-year period studied, the majority of injuries – 64% – were categorized as “struck by/against”, and stemmed from a physical interaction with officers. Non-fatal firearm injuries caused just 1% of the estimated 683,033 injuries.

Feldman, a doctoral candidate at Harvard, and his co-authors are part of a body of public health researchers increasingly analyzing injuries and deaths caused by police as a public health issue.

The Harvard researchers looked at trips to emergency rooms by persons aged 15 to 34, who accounted for the majority of legal intervention injuries during the time period studied.

Epidemiologist Nancy Krieger, one of the article’s co-authors, said the study analyzes a new source of data and adds to the knowledge about non-lethal police violence, which can be harder to track.
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...and, how much have assaults on officers increased....
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Orion Hutchin's comment, September 12, 12:33 AM
Please tell me they have adjusted for population changes and the rise of the news media that publicizes the negative interactions between police and citizens. I also wonder how many of these injuries involved people that did not cooperate with law enforcement. The issues has two parties, this story only represents one side.
Howard Cameron's comment, September 12, 1:53 PM
We have had a discussion on the definiton of the good life and part of that is the justice system. Additionally we read how different cultures look at the criteria of what is the good life. Research has shown that a majority of Blacks in the US don't have confidence in the criminal justice system and in particular police. The report of the US Department of Justice regarding the Baltimore police department clearly showed that Blacks were targeted by police by unjustified arrests, planted evidence and plain harassment. The DOJ cleared the officer in the Ferguson MO shooting but determined that Blacks were targeted by the police department. This article that may not have the greatest reliability but it does raise questions about how Blacks are treated by law enforcement. I assume that the majority of Blacks would have major doubts about the Good Life when they take into account the criminal justice system. M comment to you Professor Duke is that the information on assaults on police officers is readily available but for those injured by police is hard to find as how many injuries caused by police as I think many are not reported regardless how it happened.