Criminology and Economic Theory
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Former Brazilian Model Turned Beggar Stirs Debate on Racism · Global Voices

Former Brazilian Model Turned Beggar Stirs Debate on Racism · Global Voices | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Tall, blue-eyed and wrapped in a blanket while roaming the streets of Curitiba, Rafael Nunes, a former Brazilian model, has gained international attention after his picture and story went viral on Facebook and Twitter.
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Proposed state legislation could push back last calls for bars | The Daily Californian

Proposed state legislation could push back last calls for bars | The Daily Californian | Criminology and Economic Theory |
State Sen. Scott Wiener, D-San Francisco, announced legislation Wednesday that would allow local governments to decide how late alcohol can be served.Read More…
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Local Assemblyman introduces bill to target serial thieves

Local Assemblyman introduces bill to target serial thieves | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Assemblyman Jim Cooper (D-Elk Grove) on Feb. 21 introduced a measure that aims to toughen the state’s penalties on serial thieves.
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4 major US cities are seeing a surge in homicides

4 major US cities are seeing a surge in homicides | Criminology and Economic Theory |
"Cops running from call to call simply do not have the time to engage with communities."
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Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds

Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds | Criminology and Economic Theory |
“Once formed,” the researchers observed dryly, “impressions are remarkably perseverant.”

A few years later, a new set of Stanford students was recruited for a related study. The students were handed packets of information about a pair of firefighters, Frank K. and George H. Frank’s bio noted that, among other things, he had a baby daughter and he liked to scuba dive. George had a small son and played golf. The packets also included the men’s responses on what the researchers called the Risky-Conservative Choice Test. According to one version of the packet, Frank was a successful firefighter who, on the test, almost always went with the safest option. In the other version, Frank also chose the safest option, but he was a lousy firefighter who’d been put “on report” by his supervisors several times. Once again, midway through the study, the students were informed that they’d been misled, and that the information they’d received was entirely fictitious. The students were then asked to describe their own beliefs. What sort of attitude toward risk did they think a successful firefighter would have? The students who’d received the first packet thought that he would avoid it. The students in the second group thought he’d embrace it.

Even after the evidence “for their beliefs has been totally refuted, people fail to make appropriate revisions in those beliefs,” the researchers noted. In this case, the failure was “particularly impressive,” since two data points would never have been enough information to generalize from.

The Stanford studies became famous. Coming from a group of academics in the nineteen-seventies, the contention that people can’t think straight was shocking. It isn’t any longer. Thousands of subsequent experiments have confirmed (and elaborated on) this finding. As everyone who’s followed the research—or even occasionally picked up a copy of Psychology Today—knows, any graduate student with a clipboard can demonstrate that reasonable-seeming people are often totally irrational. Rarely has this insight seemed more relevant than it does right now. Still, an essential puzzle remains: How did we come to be this way?

In a new book, “The Enigma of Reason” (Harvard), the cognitive scientists Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber take a stab at answering this question. Mercier, who works at a French research institute in Lyon, and Sperber, now based at the Central European University, in Budapest, point out that reason is an evolved trait, like bipedalism or three-color vision. It emerged on the savannas of Africa, and has to be understood in that context.
Rob Duke's insight:
Notice the two methodologies.  Any ethical concerns on either one?
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Fairbanks Police Release Footage Of James Richards Shooting Incident | CBS News 13

Fairbanks Police Release Footage Of James Richards Shooting Incident | CBS News 13 | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Rob Duke's insight:
Video is interesting.  Certainly looks like a good shoot to me.  This could have ended a lot worse as it developed into a hostage situation.
Rachel Nichols's comment, February 26, 12:16 AM
The article makes mention of the witnesses at the motel where this began stating that he came in demanding drugs and money. These things are very well what caused this and it is sad to me that it escalated how it did because of the need for drugs and for money for drugs. These things ultimately ruined his life and ended it. He also endangered the lives of many others all because of an addiction he (probably) had.
Lydia Weiss's comment, February 26, 7:20 PM
I actually read about this in the newspaper last night! Especially having interned with that department, it is interesting to see the footage and read about critics for that kind of stuff, for sure.
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Cops Say She Catfished a Rival Into Jail—and That Was Just the Start

Cops Say She Catfished a Rival Into Jail—and That Was Just the Start | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Police arrested a California woman for impersonating her hubby’s ex—and now authorities say she may have stolen the identities of other girls as well.
Lydia Weiss's comment, February 26, 7:23 PM
Man, that was wild from start to finish. It's certainly interesting to see what jealousy can drive people into doing.
Jazmin Pauline's comment, February 26, 11:50 PM
Stolen identities and jealousy are not good combinations.
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Top students more likely to smoke pot, drink alcohol, study says

Top students more likely to smoke pot, drink alcohol, study says | Criminology and Economic Theory |
British teens with the highest test scores are less likely to smoke cigarettes but more likely to drink alcohol and smoke pot compared with teens with lower scores.
Jazmin Pauline's comment, February 26, 11:40 PM
Hmm .. interesting ... smoking pot helps you with homework apparently.
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A Swedish politician is advocating for the ultimate workplace benefit: paid breaks for sex

A Swedish politician is advocating for the ultimate workplace benefit: paid breaks for sex | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Per-Erik Muskos, a 42-year-old local council member for Övertorneå in northern Sweden, proposed this week that Swedes should take a one-hour paid break from work to go home and have sex with their partners. Muskos expressed concern about couples who do not have enough time together, and noted that “studies” show that sex is healthy
Rob Duke's insight:
Um? ok, I guess.....
Brenden Arthur Couch's comment, February 23, 2:28 AM
I am kind of speechless too, maybe I move to Sweden, my problem is that you'd end up having more kids and I have enough pregnant women in my life. IDK will this better their economy? This is weird I had to read it.
Katrina Bishop's comment, February 25, 7:38 PM
This doesn’t make much sense to me. If they already have a six hour work week, getting paid for eight, wouldn’t they have time to improve the physical element of their relationships? I don’t understand how businesses will have the money or resources to pay their employees if the work day continues to be decreased. I would think the productivity would eventually overtake the business, but if it works for Sweden then I suppose there’s nothing else to say about it.
Rachel Nichols's comment, February 25, 11:49 PM
It sounds like I need to move to Sweden. They have a nice work schedule with relaxing breaks throughout the day to help them rejuvenate and eat sweets, and now they are pushing for more breaks that allow employees to go home and have sex with their partners. I think this sounds great and if used as is intended could probably cause Sweden to have the happiest residents. The world could use a place like that, however how can it be sure that the employees will use the extra, paid one hour break how they are supposed to, and how is there money for this? I feel like potential problems could come from this because the article said the breaks would be for single and coupled individuals, but what are the single people supposed to do during these sex breaks? Still have sex? Would this promote sex with whomever, which would cause more STD’s and result in more pregnant women? I could see problems possibly coming from having this extra break during the workday, but also many benefits as people will enjoy their work days more, possibly wanting to work harder and make the businesses they work for stronger. These people should look forward to waking up each morning because they won’t be as stressed and will be happier in life.
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The Economist explains: Why the yakuza are not illegal | The Economist

The Economist explains: Why the yakuza are not illegal | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |

THE Yamaguchi-Gumi, one of the world's largest and most ferocious gangs, is estimated to earn over $6 billion a year from drugs, protection, loan-sharking, real-estate rackets and even, it is said, Japan’s stock exchange. This year, the organisation's 100th, over 2,000 of its 23,400 members split away, leaving police nervous about what fallout might follow; a war between rival gangs in the mid-1980s claimed over two dozen lives. And yet membership of the yakuza—as Japan's crime syndicates are known—is not technically illegal. Finding a mob hangout requires little more than a telephone book. Tokyo’s richest crime group has an office tucked off the back streets of the glitzy Ginza shopping district. A bronze nameplate on the door helpfully identifies the Sumiyoshi-kai, another large criminal organisation. Full gang members carry business cards and register with the police. Some have pension plans.
The yakuza emerged from misfit pedlars and gamblers in the Edo period (between 1603 and 1868) that formed into criminal gangs. During Japan’s turbo-charged modernisation, they reached deep into the economy; after the second world war they grew powerful in black markets. Their might peaked in the 1960s with an estimated membership of 184,000. At their zenith, they had strong links to conservative politicians and were used by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Japan’s post-war political behemoth, to break up unions and left-wing demonstrations. Such ties may not have completely faded. 
This history may explain in part why the gangs are not exactly illegal. But partly under pressure from America, which wants Japan to rein in financial crime, the mob is being brought to heel. Yakuza-exclusion ordinances, introduced three years ago, stop companies from knowingly engaging in business with gangsters. Businesses from banks to corner shops are now obliged to confirm that customers have no ties to organised crime. Known gangsters cannot open bank accounts. Still, there are no plans to criminalise the gangs themselves. The police believe that would drive crime underground, says Hiroki Allen, a security and finance consultant who studies the yakuza. At least now they are regulated and subject to the law, he says: gangsters have often been known to surrender by walking into police stations. “If one member does something bad you can call in the boss and take the whole gang down,” he says.

The upshot is that the yakuza still operate in plain view in a way that would be unthinkable in America or Europe. Fan magazines, comic books and movies glamorise them. Major gang bosses are quasi-celebrities. Though membership has shrunk to a record low of 53,500, according to the National Police Agency, "muscle work" is subcontracted to freelancers with no police records. A tougher core of gangsters has migrated from the mob's traditional cash cows into financial crimes that may be harder to detect. The yakuza have also been involved in the Fukushima nuclear cleanup and are thought to be eyeing rich pickings from construction and entertainment ahead of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. As long as violence from the recent split does not spill over into the streets, nobody expects the yakuza to be seriously impeded. Japan, it seems, prefers organised crime to the disorganised alternative.

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Anchorage land-use specialist tapped to head Alaska's alcohol and marijuana office

Erika McConnell, who helped guide implementation of Anchorage's local marijuana land-use regulations, will now head the office tasked with overseeing alcohol and marijuana in Alaska.
Rob Duke's insight:
A land planner was appointed to head the regulatory and enforcement agency in charge of alcohol and cannabis in Alaska....hmm...
Jonathan Beardsley's comment, February 22, 5:07 PM
I can see why they would want someone who is a land planner to be in charge of marijuana since the most regulated part of the industry is where you can and can't grow. The zoning is very important to the local production of recreational marijuana, But for alcohol I don't see how being a land planner can be useful.
Brenden Arthur Couch's comment, February 23, 2:46 AM
I think it will be interesting to see where this goes and how this benefits. If he was in charge of how land for growing marijuana is used perhaps he will be familiar with the new sets of laws and regs that go with it. It could be a good thing to benefit the people within the state if it is spent and/or saved properly.
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The Supreme Court declined Tuesday to take up a challenge to Alabama's lethal injection method

The Supreme Court declined Tuesday to take up a challenge to Alabama's lethal injection method | Criminology and Economic Theory |
The U.S. Supreme Court declined Tuesday to take up a challenge to Alabama's method of lethal injection.
Jonathan Beardsley's comment, February 22, 5:43 PM
Regardless of my views on the death penalty The fact that the state wants to use a more available drug that could cause more pain during lethal injection is not ok with me. I agree with the supreme court that if there is a less painful alternative then the proposed method of death penalty should be turned down.
Manisha Misra's comment, February 22, 5:49 PM
Well this is kind of crazy. I feel like because the death penalty isn't as widely used nowadays is because of cruel and unusual punishment, then why would it even be considered to use a drug that is seen as cruel and unusual punishment because of the level of pain it causes. I think that by purposefully using a method that is known to be more painful, we're bordering on torture with the issue, which is absolutely not okay.
Justin Baugh's comment, February 23, 6:30 PM
Midazolam is a sedative that is used in hospitals to put people under for surgery. No matter that drug use used to inject an inmate to kill them by lethal injection. A lethal injection is nothing more than a legal overdose of a person. So if we look at lethal injection as an overdose does it make sense that we legally overdose a person?
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Police 'warn' of cows trying to sell dairy products

Police 'warn' of cows trying to sell dairy products | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Police in Connecticut are reminding people to not open their doors to "any unfamiliar cattle" after a pair of cows escaped from their pen and were found near a home a couple of houses away.
Rob Duke's insight:
...and now for something completely different:
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Number of Alabama inmates dropping, but not without consequences

Number of Alabama inmates dropping, but not without consequences | Criminology and Economic Theory |
The law made possession of drugs, including heroin, a felony not punishable by jail time for first-time offenders.
Justin Baugh's comment, February 23, 6:41 PM
First-time felons not being in jail if the felon is a drug related charge is not going to help anyone because it puts the felons back on the streets with nothing more than a wrist slap because the lawmakers do not want to have overcrowded. This is not going to change the results on the street because once the felon is on the streets they come back to how their life where before they went to prison. This new system is only going to had a label to the offenders.
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Bill Would Limit Early Parole For Crimes Like Rape, Arson, Abuse and Murder For Hire

Bill Would Limit Early Parole For Crimes Like Rape, Arson, Abuse and Murder For Hire | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Hollywood, CA - A state lawmaker aims to modify Prop. 57 so that a slew of crimes like Human trafficking of a minor aren't eligible for leniency.
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Should eBay Be Doing More to Stop Sales of Fakes?

Should eBay Be Doing More to Stop Sales of Fakes? | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Sales of counterfeit items is a serious issue for e-commerce sites like eBay. Is the company working hard enough to protect consumers from fake or dangerous products.
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Some Chicago gangs turning to rifles for added firepower, police say

Some Chicago gangs turning to rifles for added firepower, police say | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Chicago police believe four Hispanic gangs have used high-powered rifles in at least 33 shootings in Back of the Yards and Brighton Park in recent months.
Rob Duke's insight:
The Chicago School identified this disorganized community problem in Chicago back in the 1930's, so why haven't we found a solution yet?  Is it really about how disorganized a community has become?

We talked about the Valdez Oil Spill and how the sudden job shortage (and social upheaval) created social problems (e.g. domestic violence, suicide, increased property crime).  Is this really a social-psychological problem or is it all economic?
J Meiler Balog's comment, Today, 3:09 AM
I think that the social disorganization is being amplified by the amount of time that these people have been getting away with their crimes. If they are having to increase firepower then it tells me that there are more people that are getting their hands on weapons and a pistol isn't doing the trick anymore. This isn't good for police either if criminals are walking around with high powered rifles.
Rob Duke's comment, Today, 11:45 AM
yes, interesting comment. My other deals with the idea of folks misusing the political system to unfairly manipulate others for their own selfish purposes. Particularly in Chicago, there has been a shifting of property rights away from private citizens to the criminal element. This has arguable happened because some politicians profit from this tactic. Some say this is just "politics".
Rob Duke's comment, Today, 11:46 AM
we have a long tradition of using politics for our own purposes, but there's always a political backlash at some point....(see, for instance, how the second bank of the U.S. used it's power of the purse and persuasion to influence U.S. politics until Andrew Jackson disbanded it).
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In the frame: Graphic novels and the refugee crisis | The Economist

In the frame: Graphic novels and the refugee crisis  | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |
ART SPIEGELMAN, the renowned graphic novelist behind “Maus” (1986, 1991), proved that comics can be expansive and nuanced enough to capture the stories of movements, peoples and nations. “Maus” depicted the experiences of his parents at the hands of the Nazis, including their imprisonment at Auschwitz. “In the Shadow of No Towers” (2004) recounted the events of the 9/11 attacks. Both works initially struggled to find a publisher—comics seemed too risky a medium to document such horrific events—yet they are now considered canonical graphic novels, works that cemented the genre’s gravity. 

Faced with documenting another 21st-century horror—the migrant crisis—a new generation of graphic novelists has taken up Mr Spiegelman’s torch, depicting the deadly journey across the Mediterranean. “A Perilous Journey”, a comic series by Benjamin Dix and Lindsay Pollock, follows three men who fled their homes in Syria for Europe (the last frame takes the unexpected form of a photograph, showing one of the characters reunited with his family after being granted asylum in Norway). In 2016, Marvel produced “Madaya Mom”, inspired by the experiences of a young mother in Madaya, a besieged Syrian resort town. Similar projects, like Sarah Glidden’s “Rolling Blackouts”, Ali Fitzgerald’s Refugee Comic Project,  Kate Evans’s “Threads: From the Refugee Crisis” and Wolfgang Speer’s “Stories from the Grand Hotel” also use the expansive form of the graphic novel to familiarise Western readers with the harrowing realities that refugees face every day. Comics have always dealt in the hidden good and evil of the world, celebrating the triumphs of everyday heroes over metaphorical monsters (Godzilla emerged as a stand-in for the nuclear bomb). Mr Spiegelman’s literary heirs do away with much of the metaphor—refugees’ lives are quite dramatic enough. 

The attributes that make the graphic novel an expressive form also make it a useful didactic tool: a handful of local and state governments have turned to comics to prescribe behaviour to newcomers. In January, the Department of National Policy, Interregional Relations and Tourism in Moscow published a 100-page comic guide illustrating proper conduct as part of an effort to lower “the level of tension among Muscovites and migrants”. Narrated by heroes and heroines from Russian fairy tales and folk stories (such as Princess Vasilisa the Wise, the manual instructs migrants not to attract attention to themselves, to refrain from ogling women and to always be ready to show their papers to authorities. Some of the information it imparts is practical—how to navigate the underground system, for example—but its thinly-concealed message is “assimilate quietly or leave”.

A German public broadcaster took a similar approach when it published a comic guide for migrants called “Germany and Its People” last October. In German and Arabic, the guide describes appropriate public behaviours—how to introduce oneself with a handshake or ask for directions from a stranger—and inappropriate ones, such as groping women and using violence to solve conflicts. In comic form, these suggestions take on a condescending tone—so much so that satirist Karl Sharro created his own version, telling Western governments how not to behave in the Middle East.
Prose would be sufficient to communicate social and legal norms, but that is not the only goal of this emerging genre of state-sponsored graphic guides. Each tries to deploy visual language to paint a cohesive portrait of their respective nations—depicting Russians as descendants of their fairy tale heroes and conquering knights, or Germans as law-abiding, egalitarian citizens. Both guides address their audience in the vaguest terms possible, grouping all newcomers as “others”, while relying on illustration to communicate ethnic differences and state narratives. Migrants and refugees are shown to inhabit a space separate to the fairy tale of the nation. 

It is possible to create an empathetic yet instructive guide for refugees. International Medical Corps UK published two comic books for child refugees that tell the story of migration from their point of view while also conveying basic health and safety information, like how to avoid contracting polio and how to stay safe in a refugee camp. “Europa: An Illustrated Introduction to Europe for Migrants and Refugees”, produced in partnership with the Arab Fund for Arts and Culture, is available in four languages and weaves together photographs, first-person accounts, historical, political and practical information to provide a comprehensive guide for people seeking refuge. Their success lies in specificity, using illustration to illuminate rather than obscure the faces of newcomers. “Comics can be pernicious, fascist propaganda or anti-authoritarian,” Mr Spiegelman said. “The ones that shaped me were particularly anti-authoritarian.” The next generation of graphic novelists would do well to follow in his footsteps. 
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Tribe banishes 4 people over meth

Tribe banishes 4 people over meth | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Allakaket Chief PJ Simon has a message for methamphetamine dealers: “You’re not welcome here. Meth is not welcome in Allakaket,” Simon said in a phone interview Thursday. “We can banish people. The tribal board can vote to disenroll a tribal member. We are willing to go that route.”

Simon said four people suspected of dealing methamphetamines were confronted and banished from the village Tuesday after an emergency tribal council meeting was held.
Joshua Vey's comment, February 24, 9:52 PM
Right thing to do. Don't stand for some bullcrap.
Sarah Levy's comment, February 26, 9:21 PM
I am fully behind what the elders chose. I really respect that they are welcoming those with open arms that are addicted by exiled the ones that brought and sold the drugs. It is great to see a community come together have open arms to those suffering. One main factor of addiction is being alone and isolated, and if those people know they have a safe place to come and get clean it'll make the process that much easier.
J Meiler Balog's comment, Today, 2:59 AM
This is a sad day when such measures have to be taken to make a statement and have you hand forced to banish people for your village. I support their decision and would support them for doing it again until people realize that its not something that should be tolerated. These villages are like one large family and it great to see them take care of it in-house effectively.
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Two Fairbanks residents dead in apparent murder-suicide

Two Fairbanks residents dead in apparent murder-suicide | Criminology and Economic Theory |
FAIRBANKS — A Fairbanks man and woman died in an apparent murder-suicide Wednesday night in the area behind Shopper's Forum Mall, according to a news release issued by Fairbanks police.
Rob Duke's insight:
Socially Disorganized?  Strain?  A deviant subculture?  Does the Chicago School model hold water in Fairbanks?
John Oulton's comment, February 24, 1:55 AM
What an interesting story to read. I think something was bound to happen to Tran due to his criminal record and he could of sought help for his behavioral problems. I thought the article provided a good example of domestic abuse because Alaska is one of the leading states for domestic violence. I wonder if the state is going to do something about domestic violence considering how governor Bill Walker declared an opioid epidemic for the state. Domestic violence has been an issue for quite sometime and I haven't heard any addresses to it at the state level.
Rachel Nichols's comment, February 24, 7:00 PM
I am mainly confused at the fact that it seems this man did not spend enough time incarcerated. He was charged with all of these felonies and murders, has a horrible track record, and his time in jail was suspended. Did I read that wrong? Because I totally could have. I feel awful for the woman who was murdered and for her little boy who is left behind. He shouldn’t be motherless because this man should have been in jail or put away or something. It is seeming to me as if this man never ‘paid’ for what he was doing to others. Alaska is one of the leading states in our nation for domestic violence and something that I feel is being talked about, needs to change and be put in place so that these things can be addressed and hopefully stop.
Joshua Vey's comment, February 24, 9:53 PM
This was very sad to read. I wish it could have gone differently and better for everyone.
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A Danish man has been charged with blasphemy after filming himself burning the Quran and posting it on Facebook

A Danish man has been charged with blasphemy after filming himself burning the Quran and posting it on Facebook | Criminology and Economic Theory |
A man who set fire to the Quran has become the first Danish national charged with blasphemy in 46 years.

The 42-year-old man, who remains unidentified, filming himself burning the Muslim holy book in his garden in north Jutland in December 2015, and then posted the footage on an anti-Islam Facebook group called “Yes to freedom - no to Islam.”

He posted the video with the message: “Think of your neighbor: it stinks when it burns,” according to prosecutors, The Copenhagen Post reported.
Liam Juhl's comment, February 24, 5:31 PM
What does a charge of blasphemy bring? That the danish are close to 80% christian, and less than I think 4% muslim, it seems doubly odd that there would be even a law opposed to a free speech act like that, and that it would apply to the non dominant religion. That the law has been ignored for almost half a century, too, leads me to believe that there may be other motivating factors in the charge of this crime, likely political in base.
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DEA, Troopers, FPD To Discuss Opioid Addiction With Public At West Valley Feb. 23rd | CBS News 13

DEA, Troopers, FPD To Discuss Opioid Addiction With Public At West Valley Feb. 23rd | CBS News 13 | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Chasing the Dragon' is a film produced by the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration that depicts the harsh reality of heroin and opioid addiction.

There will be a showing of the film Thursday, February 23rd, at the West Valley Performing Arts Center, starting at 5:30 p.m.
The Fairbanks Memorial Hospital, the US Attorney's Office, and the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District are presenting the film.

After the showing, there will be a Q & A session with representatives from the DEA, U.S. Attorney's Office, Alaska State Troopers, Fairbanks Police Department, Fairbanks Memorial Hospital, and the School District.

This event has been organized on of the heels of Gov. Bill Walker's public health crisis declaration earlier this month.
Rob Duke's insight:
While you can't ignore enforcement, Harm Reduction programs are where you really reduce the deaths and market demand for opiates.  Few people want to be addicted or to die of an overdose, but enforcement of users sends these folks underground where they have few treatment options, they share needles, and eventually, they overdose.  A good Harm Reduction program combines needle exchange, methadone, and readily available Narcan/Naloxone shots.  It also includes treatment so folks learn to manage their addiction and to cope with whatever led them to opiates in the first place (pain, lifestyle, PTSD, or other psychological trauma).
Law enforcement should focus on those who import and traffic the drug.
Kelsey Therron Snell's comment, February 23, 1:53 AM
This is a very serious issue within our communities, not just here in Fairbanks but everywhere in the nation. I have wondered for a long time though how many people do to the underground to buy pain pills because they don't have a way to get them through a prescription when they are in need of them. I remember after my back surgery they tried to cut my script as part of the nation's attempt to cut down on the illegal sales of opioids and they almost cut mine when I actually needed them.
Brenden Arthur Couch's comment, February 23, 2:38 AM
I believe public awareness campaigns are crucial to raising awareness community wide, especially when the penalties to a great number of crimes within the State are in flux as a new senate bill takes effect. If I had the time I would love to go see this but unfortunately I am really busy currently. I hope to catch it on youtube or on some public domain.
Justin Baugh's comment, February 23, 6:16 PM
as an EMT I see this a lot the effects of opioids in people. IF there is Narcan/naloxone there for them to use there are no people there to administer it besides an EMT or a paramedic to administer it to them. With the recent declaration from Governor Bill Walker, it puts a more public eye on this epidemic. Some people become tolerant to the prescription opiods that they were prescribed by a doctor because of pain.
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Fighting crime using social media

Fighting crime using social media | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Sergeant Mickey Keaton of the Shelby County Sheriff's Office talks about how social media helps them solve crimes.
John Oulton's comment, February 23, 12:36 AM
I wonder how significant social media has helped police since almost everything is digital. I did not think that Sergeant Kenton can spend an entire day for weeks monitoring FB and online sources. I think using social media is a great idea because it connects you with community and makes them aware that there is some one watching. Pretty soon they are going to be using drones. I think it will be interesting if a police department does.
Tyler Hytry's comment, February 23, 3:35 PM
Yeah I can see how this would help out in solving cases or finding stolen property like the guitar that was mentioned. The article also talks about how people's pages on Facebook are a photo album of their lives which can provide a lot of information about people.
J Meiler Balog's comment, Today, 3:06 AM
This is very true and a great tool. I myself have been a victim of theft here in Fairbanks and with my wife's social media wizardry we were contacted by many people with tips and were able to find out online who had actually stolen from us and people that he is know to be around. When used correctly it can be a great tool. It is also frightening just how much information you can get form, say, facebook about someone. The article brings up a good point about some of the information people post without realizing it.
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John Rawls

John Rawls | Criminology and Economic Theory |

WHEN young, John Rawls was a talented athlete. Instead of becoming one of America's most distinguished political thinkers, he could have been a baseball player. Thin, quick and gangly, he would have made a perfect third baseman, a position requiring lightning reflexes and no time to think.

In the line he chose, however—close argument—Mr Rawls was a slow mover. He noted queries in pencil, responded to every objection and often begged for time with, “I'll have to think about that.” Many philosophers treat their theories as extensions of themselves; his seemed more like a common enterprise. He was modest, claiming that he took up philosophy because he was not clever enough for music or mathematics. Others at his level were quicker. Few were as thorough.

The germ of “A Theory of Justice”, the book that to his surprise made him famous, began to circulate in draft soon after he reached Harvard from Princeton and MIT in 1962. By the time of its publication in 1971, Mr Rawls had done his best to work in answers to every possible objection. His assiduity made the book hard-going. It also meant that it met a test proposed by Hilary Putnam, a logician and colleague, for a philosophical classic: the smarter you get, the smarter it gets. The book has sold getting on for 400,000 copies, and exists in dozens of languages, most recently Arabic.

In “A Theory of Justice”, Mr Rawls attempted to lay out a defendable basis for an equality-minded liberalism. Its pillars were two principles of justice: the inviolability of individual rights and the idea that when justifying social inequality—some degree of which was inevitable in a flourishing and prosperous society—absolute priority should be given to the needs of the worst off. By putting rights back at the centre of the enterprise and by re-invoking the old idea of a notional social contract among putative equals, Mr Rawls did much to free political theory in America and Britain from apparent cul-de-sacs. It also encouraged philosophers to think more practically about moral issues in the public arena.

Problems of redistribution
Challenges were not long in coming. Much fire was concentrated on Mr Rawls's famous “veil of ignorance”: what principles of justice would we choose, he asked, if we did not know our talents, wealth or opinions? Would we be as risk-averse as he seemed to think? This eye-catching device actually mattered less to the whole than it looked. A more notable attack came from Robert Nozick (who died in January). In “Anarchy, State and Utopia” (1974), Nozick argued that Mr Rawls's two principles of justice were in irreconcilable conflict. Attempts at redistribution to correct for inequality were bound, Nozick believed, to infringe on personal freedoms.

Conservatives took up Nozick's charge with alacrity. Though socialists were lukewarm to Mr Rawls, the two men were soon represented outside the academy as prizefighters for right and left: in the blue corner, Nozick, in the red corner, Rawls.

For all its importance, the issue of redistribution arose for Mr Rawls from a deeper concern. How can people with conflicting ideas about morals, religion and the good life agree to principles that will allow them to live together in a decent society? Though the need for toleration is perfectly general, because of America's divided history and his own family background, Mr Rawls felt its demands with unusual acuity.

He was born to a wealthy, professional family from Maryland, a slave-owning border state that stayed in the Union during the civil war. The father was a Baltimore lawyer who, to the son's chagrin, shared the racial bigotry of his class and time. His mother campaigned for women's rights.

Mr Rawls grew up with a powerful conscience. Though not conventionally religious, there was something deeply moral about him. At one time, he thought of becoming a minister of religion. Colleagues remember his kindness and wry humour. He was almost universally admired, even loved. Not all of us can be so good, of course. Isaiah Berlin, an Oxford political thinker, referred to him teasingly as Christ. Political opponents chided Mr Rawls for overplaying human decency and underestimating our selfishness. A conservative writer called him an innocent.

Holier than some might wish, perhaps. But innocent, never. In 1943, Mr Rawls signed up as an infantry private and fought on the Pacific beaches. A rare example of direct political action was his protest in 1945 against the Hiroshima bomb. Like his reconciling hero, Abraham Lincoln—whose memorial he visited on trips to Washington—Mr Rawls appealed to our better natures. But he knew from experience what people and states were capable of. Not to see this darker, more pessimistic side is to mistake what he was about.

In his later work, Mr Rawls paid more attention to “how” questions of fair process and tried to extend his principles from what struck some as their unduly western, not to say American, context. He lived behind a veil of privacy with his wife and four children, accepting few honours, giving few interviews and devoting spare time to hiking and sailing.

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Why Are Shootings Deadlier In Some Cities Than Others?

Why Are Shootings Deadlier In Some Cities Than Others? | Criminology and Economic Theory |
What explains the disconnect? On the most basic level, shooting rates don’t always align with murder rates because shootings are more deadly in some cities than others. I was able to get a breakdown between fatal and nonfatal shootings10 for 14 of the above 17 cities through a mix of publicly available data, requests to police departments and private citizen tallies. Looking at gun violence like this shows that Baltimore had the highest murder rate among the 14 cities in 2016 because shootings were more lethal there.
Tyler Hytry's comment, February 23, 3:51 PM
Interesting article and explanations with regard to gun violence in different cities. It there were a few good explanations like how a larger gun could be one possible factor the simple fact that a bigger bullet will make a bigger hole seem logical other factors such as what type of gun might also fall into this case a gun with a longer barrel is far more accurate than that of a gun with a little snub barrel, but this is likely not the case as concealment is more important in larger cities. The other explanation brought up was that individual people were being being targeted. That is a good explanation but is it just me or does that seem kind of micro rather than macro.
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Chasing thunder: Searching for Alaska's most legendary cannabis strain

Myths surround the history of the Mat-Su marijuana strain that once defined Alaska cannabis.
Us Woodards's comment, February 19, 10:45 PM
I just read this article before starting my homework. I find the comments on ADN more enlightening than the article itself. The issue of legal weed is one that is still playing itself out, and one that is staunchly divided among Alaskans. I personally think that the public perception of marijuana is more of a nuisance than a criminal act, much like chronic intoxication. So I think the legalization of the drug is just following suit with the public opinion. I do find it interesting how analytical grow operators approach the hunt for MTF. It is surprising to me just how business oriented some of the growers are. I think in this new era of legalisation, proponents of marijuana use have a huge responsibility. If there is any hope in normalizing the drug, it must be done by showing responsible use. Stereotypes of the burned out loser must be broken. The worst thing that can happen is for people to go overboard, and drive stoned, or associate the drug with criminal acts. Marijuana seems to be at a crossroads, and this article proves it. Hopefully adults who partake are responsible, and keep it to themselves. That way it remains legal. Otherwise, they risk criminalizing it again.
Dustin Drover's comment, February 19, 11:15 PM
I first heard of this "strain" back in high school. A lot of the stoners still continue to talk about it. Whats interesting to me is that no one actually still has it. I also think that some of the public overreacts when it come to marijuana. Law enforcement, I think has done a good job at enforcing marijuana laws. From what I have seen on some of the several Alaska shows, pot usually used in law enforcement to find other information out about someone. I am interested in how the legalization of marijuana in Alaska has changed things. Has it made cops jobs easier? Harder? And how does this work with federal laws?