Criminology and Economic Theory
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Three types of social structure theories | Essay Library

Three types of social structure theories | Essay Library | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
In the ecological perspective, the theory was promoted by a group of professors from the University of Chicago, which is designated as the Chicago School sociology. Several professors have contributed to this theory as a school of ecology.
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Criminology and Economic Theory
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'Deaths of despair' fuel white midlife mortality

'Deaths of despair' fuel white midlife mortality | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
It's a midlife crisis of a different sort: "Deaths of despair" -- due to drugs, alcohol and suicide -- are largely responsible for rising mortality rates among middle-age white Americans. And a new analysis by Princeton economists delves into what they believe is behind this trend.
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The Imprisoner’s Dilemma

The Imprisoner’s Dilemma | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
There are 2.3 million Americans in prison or jail. The U.S. has 5 percent of the world’s population but 25 percent of its prisoners. One in three black men can …
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DS's comment, March 24, 3:06 PM
Correlation; in most states mass incarceration is not reflecting a large enough decrease in crime. Causation; crime causes incarceration but the desired effects are not seen. Per this article, the regression model show diminishing returns. In AK crime & incarceration have both increased. In CA, the realignment program has shown some success. Non-custodial & monetary sanctions are a more civilized way to treat offenders. EM & control of freedom, plus confiscation and forfeiture are alternatives.
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Manhunts Underway After Shootings Outside Calif. High School

Manhunts Underway After Shootings Outside Calif. High School | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Gang violence is suspected after a student and three teens were injured in two separate shootings.
Rob Duke's insight:
I was Chief right next door in Greenfield in the mid-1990's....the dividing line between the north and south gangs is right at King City, thus lots of gang violence.
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DS's comment, March 24, 3:35 PM
Campus Safety, Magazine "Identifying Pre-Attack Indicators" Sounds like Pre-Crime 'substantive coercive state interventions targeted at non-imminent crimes' Minority Report, or Thought Crime in Eric Blair's.1984. Apparently DHS has something like this going on, don't forget to check with the precogs. Of course their is a "Legal Drawback."
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Ex-pharmacy head convicted of fraud over tainted medication

Ex-pharmacy head convicted of fraud over tainted medication | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A once-prominent drug executive was convicted today of racketeering and fraud but acquitted of murder for his role running the company that allegedly produced contaminated medicine that caused a deadly outbreak of infections including meningitis in 2012.

The jury today returned a mixed verdict in the trial of 50-year-old Barry Cadden, the former president and co-founder of the Boston-based New England Compounding Center, finding him guilty of racketeering and mail fraud but acquitting him on all 25 counts of second-degree murder.
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Where are the world's happiest countries?

Where are the world's happiest countries? | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
People in the world's happiest countries live longer, freer, more generous lives, according to the 2017 World Happiness Report, released on World Happiness Day.
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Why Grammar Matters: Missing Oxford Comma Costs Dairy Company Millions

Why Grammar Matters: Missing Oxford Comma Costs Dairy Company Millions | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A legal loophole caused by a grammar dispute may have earned some Maine truck drivers overtime pay.
Rob Duke's insight:
Report writing 101: use the best grammar possible...it all matters; unfortunately, as much or more than the arrests and other good stuff that we do.
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Deputy killed on rape investigation had been honored for saving life

Deputy killed on rape investigation had been honored for saving life | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A deputy from the East Baton Rouge Sheriff's Office was fatally shot late Saturday night while conducting an investigation into an alleged rape, the East Baton Rouge Sheriff's Office and Louisiana State Police said.

Today, a news release confirmed the identity of the slain deputy as Sgt. Shawn Anderson.

"Sgt. Shawn Anderson died following a struggle in which shots were fired," a statement from the department read. "He and another deputy had responded to a business as part of a rape investigation."

Anderson was conducting the investigation near a barber shop in East Baton Rouge, and struggled with the shooting suspect before being killed, police said.
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Why Arkansas plans to execute a historic number of inmates over 10 days

Why Arkansas plans to execute a historic number of inmates over 10 days | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The state government of Arkansas plans to execute eight men over a period of 10 days in April because one of the key drugs in their lethal injection protocol is set to expire at the end of the month.
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Caitlin Mattingly's comment, March 21, 5:17 PM
This is kind of funny. At least they arent wasting anything! Theyre being conservative with the injections.
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The Economist explains: Universal basic incomes | The Economist

The Economist explains: Universal basic incomes | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

ON JUNE 5th the Swiss overwhelmingly voted to reject an initiative that would have amended the constitution and required the government to take steps towards implementing a universal basic income—an unconditional cash payment given to all citizens. Supporters had favoured an income of SFr2,500 ($2,500) per month. Yet the universal basic income seems to be having a moment. The idea has the backing of people from wildly different parts of the ideological spectrum: like Charles Murray, a libertarian-minded scholar at the right-leaning American Enterprise Institute, and Andy Stern, an American labour leader. The tech world is interested too; Y Combinator, a tech accelerator, is commissioning research on the policy. How would they work and why are people so interested in them?

The idea behind a basic income for all is actually quite old. Thomas Paine reasoned in an essay published in 1797 that—in exchange for a social consensus in favour of private property rights—governments ought to pay everyone £15 per year. Politicians flirted with the notion off and on through the industrial revolution but generally built welfare states along different lines: as programmes of insurance for those who, because of age or bad luck, found themselves without work. Over the past decade, however, interest in basic incomes has grown alongside worries that the wages earned by workers are not rising quickly enough to boost living standards (or not rising at all, in some cases). Growth in pay has been disappointing for workers in many countries since 2000 or so, and the share of total income earned by workers (as opposed to owners of firms or land) has declined. Some basic-income supporters worry that powerful new technologies, like machine intelligence, will make life still harder for workers in future.


Setting up a basic income would be no easy matter. To pay every adult and child an income of about $10,000 per year, a country as rich as America would need to raise the share of GDP collected in tax by nearly 10 percentage points and cannibalise most non-health social-spending programmes. More generous programmes would require bigger tax increases still. There would be benefits. Poorer workers (and people who work for no income, like stay-at-home mums) would get a big boost to their incomes. Many people might use the payment to invest time and money in education or training. Entrepreneurship would become less risky. A more robust safety net would give workers more bargaining power with employers, and force firms to work harder to retain workers (and to make productivity-boosting investments). Yet there would also be big downsides. Many people might choose not to work at all; social tensions might rise. The availability of a basic income would almost certainly harden attitudes towards immigration.


INTERACTIVE: Our universal basic income calculator for OECD countries
The Swiss government, which issues an official opinion before such votes, was firmly opposed to the measure. It worried that a basic income would be ruinously expensive and morally corrosive, leaving the country with unsustainable public finances and a society of unmotivated loafers. Nevertheless, other countries are taking steps in a similar direction; both Finland and the Netherlands are planning basic-income experiments of their own. But while a universal basic income might well be a key part of the welfare state several decades down the road, it will take much more evidence that robots are stealing jobs, and more hardship for workers, to convince people in most countries to embrace such a radical step.

Rob Duke's insight:
What if you didn't have to worry about your basics?  Would you go to grad school?  Would you work on your novel?  Would you start a business in your garage?

Would crime disappear?
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Man arrested after seizure-inducing tweet

Man arrested after seizure-inducing tweet | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Journalist Kurt Eichenwald had an epilepsy seizure after receiving a tweet with an animated strobe image. Now, the FBI has arrested a suspect for cyberstalking.
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Why Do We Count?

Why Do We Count? | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The abacus is a tool, just like the calculator is a tool. Your smartphone’s calculator app — that’s a tool, too.

But are numbers themselves a tool? That’s the case Caleb Everett makes in his new book, “Numbers and the Making of Us: Counting and the Course of Human Cultures.” Everett, a professor of anthropology at the University of Miami, shows that numbers — or the words and symbols we use to represent specific quantities — emerged through a series of slow historical steps. Numbers may feel instinctual. They may seem simple and precise. But Everett synthesizes the latest research from archaeology, anthropology, psychology and linguistics to argue that our counting systems are not just vital to human culture but also were invented by that culture. “Numbers are not concepts that come to people naturally and natively,” he writes. “Numbers are a creation of the human mind.”

I spoke to Everett by phone about the book.
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Police search home on property where slain Indiana teens were found

Police search home on property where slain Indiana teens were found | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Authorities investigating the murder of two Indiana teen girls served a search warrant today at the home of the man who owns the property where the girls' bodies were found, state and local officials told ABC News.

As of yet, no arrests have been made in the double murder case that shook the rural small town of Delphi, Indiana. State police told ABC News today that property owner Ron Logan is not a suspect "at this time."

Logan’s attorney, Andrew Achey, said in a statement, “Mr. Logan had no involvement in this heinous crime.”

"I would like to caution the public to avoid jumping to conclusions before law enforcement has completed the ongoing investigation," Achey added. "Not only does Mr. Logan maintain his innocence but he also encourages anyone with information to call the tip line."
Rob Duke's insight:
A break in the case!
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Caitlin Mattingly's comment, March 21, 5:18 PM
It very interesting to me that the owner of the property wasnt arrested or even considered a suspect. The bodies were found on his property. hmmmmm
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The gentrification of college hoops

The gentrification of college hoops | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
An Undefeated analysis shows that first-generation college students are starting to disappear from NCAA sports
Rob Duke's insight:
You see this in other sports (e.g. Nascar, Football) and in professions (e.g. law, medicine), but it's even happening now in college b-ball.  Is this because some families are better?  Or, is it privilege and connections?
I suspect a bit of both.  In law enforcement, for instance, we try to convince our kids to do something else (like be a firefighter, for instance), but when the kids follow dad or mom, it ends up they do have an easier time getting "in" (they know the system from the inside; and they know the right people to know when jobs are open and what experience they needed to be competitive in the hiring process); and, once on the job, they have a lead on everyone else because they grew up around the techniques, politics, and history of being a cop, so they often have better skills on the street and in the boardroom.  The best I ever knew were sons and daughters, nieces and nephews of cops....

What do you think?  Does this carry over to sports fields, too?
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Colorado cold-case homicide suspect arrested in South Dakota

Julian Pena-Morales was arrested in Ipswich this week after seven years on the run from law enforcement.
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The incarcerated workforce: Prison labour is a billion-dollar industry, with uncertain returns for inmates | The Economist

The incarcerated workforce: Prison labour is a billion-dollar industry, with uncertain returns for inmates | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

SILICON VALLEY mavens seldom stumble into San Quentin, a notorious Californian prison. But when Chris Redlitz, a venture capitalist, visited seven years ago, he found that many of the inmates were keen and savvy businessmen. The trip spurred him to create The Last Mile, a charity that teaches San Quentin inmates how to start businesses and code websites, for which they can earn up to $17 an hour. One of the first people it helped was Tulio Cardozo, who served a five-year sentence after a botched attempt at cooking hashish, which also left him with severe burns across half his body. Two years after he was released, he got a job as a lead developer in a San Francisco startup.

Such redemptive stories are the model for what the prison system could be. But they are exceptions—the rule is much drearier. Prison labour is legally required in America. Most convicted inmates either work for nothing or for pennies at menial tasks that seem unlikely to boost their job prospects. At the federal level, the Bureau of Prisons operates a programme known as Federal Prison Industries that pays inmates roughly $0.90 an hour to produce everything from mattresses, spectacles,road signs and body armour for other government agencies, earning $500m in sales in fiscal 2016. Prisoners have produced official seals for the Department of Defence and Department of State, a bureau spokesman confirmed. In many prisons, the hourly wage is less than the cost of a chocolate bar at the commissary, yet the waiting list remains long—the programme still pays much more than the $0.12-0.40 earned for an hour of kitchen work.


Similar schemes exist at the state level as well, making the market of 61,000 captive labourers worth well over $1bn. California’s programme expects to generate $232m in sales this year, much of it from construction and textiles, though $10m is also expected from meat-cutting. In Idaho, prisoners roast potatoes. In Kentucky, they sell $1m worth of cattle.

Critics have spent years directing their anger towards private prisons, by pointing out the moral hazard created when profiting from punishment. Jeff Sessions, the attorney-general, caused a stir last month when he cancelled an Obama-era directive to phase out federal contracting with private prison companies, which expect bumper earnings under Donald Trump. The share price for CoreCivic, the rebranded name of the Corrections Corporation of America, shot up by 43% in a single day after Mr Trump was elected, in anticipation of lucrative contracts to run immigration detention centres.

But those who attack the new prison-industrial complex might be surprised to learn that America’s publicly run prisons have been providing labour for private companies since 1979. More than 5,000 inmates take part in the scheme, known as “Prison Industry Enhancement”. “Orange is the New Black”, a television show set in a women’s prison, recently lampooned a private-prison takeover, after which the inmates are forced to sew lingerie for $1 an hour. But this gets the history only half right. Female inmates did indeed make lingerie for brands like Victoria’s Secret in the 1990s—but only through a deal between South Carolina’s public prisons and a private manufacturer.

America’s prison-labour industry is wrapped in euphemism. Federal Prison Industries does business under the more palatable name of UNICOR, and government-run prison production schemes are called “correctional industries”. Some slogans are better than others; UNICOR has an unfortunate habit of calling its facilities “factories with fences” in reports.

Employment upon release is perhaps the best defence against recidivism. The chief justification for prison labour is that it both defeats idleness and gives inmates marketable skills. Whether it actually does so is unclear. “The vast majority of prison labour is not even cloaked in the idea of rehabilitation,” says Heather Thompson of the University of Michigan. Simple manufacturing jobs, like the ones done cheaply by most inmates, have already left the country. The study pushed by the Bureau of Prisons, showing drops in reoffending, was published in 1996. More recent comparison statistics often ignore bias in how those being studied are chosen. Rigorous academic work on the subject is almost non-existent.

Still, such programmes are undoubtedly legal. The Thirteenth Amendment to the constitution prohibits slavery and indentured servitude—“except as a punishment for crime”. 

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DS's comment, March 24, 3:18 PM
This is a Great idea, why didn't I think of that. Prisoners perform a valuable community service while repaying their debt to society. Restitution is paid and offenders are rehabilitated; ready to become productive members of society.
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Man Indicted for Using GIF as 'Deadly Weapon'

Man Indicted for Using GIF as 'Deadly Weapon' | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A cyberstalking case against a Maryland man is notable both for how the jury considered a seizure-inducing GIF and how the FBI caught the perpetrator.
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LAPD: Latinos report fewer sex crimes amid immigration fears

LAPD: Latinos report fewer sex crimes amid immigration fears | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
LAPD: Latinos report fewer sex crimes amid immigration fears
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Friend of Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof sentenced to prison

Friend of Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof sentenced to prison | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Joey Meek has been sentenced to 27 months in prison for failing to report a crime and lying to the FBI.
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Home invasion and gun threat in Wasilla lead to high-speed chase, troopers say

A man who threatened a woman with her own gun during a Wasilla home invasion early Monday was arrested after a high-speed pursuit in the area, troopers said.

Troopers first received a report of the incident involving 28-year-old Jacob Gearing, who had forced his way into a home off Scatters Way, at about 2 a.m., according to an online dispatch.

"When the homeowner retrieved a firearm, (Gearing) disarmed her, then pointed the weapon at the homeowner and another occupant," troopers wrote.
Rob Duke's insight:
Why are cops ambivalent about gun control? Because most people don't have enough training to properly use it, thus most "home protection" guns either hurt those who they were meant to protect; or, get stolen during burglaries and other crimes....

**glad everyone was o.k. in this story.
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Drones are helping police, but not everyone is happy

Drones are helping police, but not everyone is happy | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Nearly 20 pieces of construction equipment stolen from Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey were recovered on two Cecil County, Maryland, properties earlier this month.

It was called a landmark arrest, not because of the magnitude of the crime, but because of the method used to crack the case.

The Cecil County Sheriff's Office used an unmanned aerial vehicle, otherwise known as a drone, to find the missing equipment.
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Caitlin Mattingly's comment, March 21, 5:16 PM
I definitely see drones as an invasion of privacy and not as helpful as some may think
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Professional Management Drives Local Government Efficiency and Effectiveness | icma.org

Professional Management Drives Local Government Efficiency and Effectiveness | icma.org | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Professional local government management—through which elected officials hire a highly trained, nonpolitical chief executive to oversee the day-to-day operations of a community—makes a significant difference in that jurisdiction’s creditworthiness, efficiency, and ability to build community, according to a recent review conducted by ICMA, the International City/County Management Association. `   
A review of Moody’s Aaa-rated local governments in 2016 revealed that more than 66 percent of the 179 municipalities that earned Moody’s highest bond rating employ a professional manager. And an examination of the 40 jurisdictions that earned the coveted All America City designation from the National Civic League between 2013 and 2016 revealed that 75 percent of those communities were also professionally managed.
“The good news about the important role of professional management in ensuring a community’s creditworthiness and overall civic innovation comes as no surprise to ICMA,” says Executive Director Marc Ott. “The findings support what ICMA members and supporters have known all along: that professional local government management and the council-manager form of government—which combines strong political leadership and effective management capacity—makes an important difference in the quality of life for the residents in those communities that employ it.”
ICMA defines a professional manager as a local government chief appointed officer who, at a minimum:
Has direct responsibility for policy formulation on overall problems.
Has major responsibility for the preparation and administration of a jurisdiction’s operating and capital improvements budgets.
Exercises significant influence in the appointment of key administrative personnel.
Has an ongoing, direct relationship with the operating department heads on the implementation and administration of the programs.
Was hired as a result of her/his educational & administrative background and qualifications.
Is a member of ICMA and, therefore, must adhere to the ICMA Code of Ethics, which was adopted by ICMA in 1924 and which governs each member’s professional and personal conduct.
The high percent of Moody’s Aaa-rated municipalities and counties that employ a professional manager or administrator suggests a strong correlation between professional management and a community’s creditworthiness. Moody’s established its system of rating securities to provide investors with a simple method of evaluating the “future relative creditworthiness” of securities. Obligations, such as municipal bonds, that are rated Aaa are “judged to be of the highest quality, subject to the lowest level of credit risk,” according to the company’s Rating System and Definitions.
Since 1949, the National Civic League has recognized and celebrated the best in American civic innovation with the prestigious All-America City Award. The Award, bestowed to 10 communities annually (more than 500 in all), shines a spotlight on innovative efforts to bring all aspects of the community together to tackle the most pressing local issues.
These new findings reinforce the results reported in a 2011 operations efficiency benchmarking study, “Smarter, Faster, Cheaper,” published by IBM Global Business Services, which found that cities that operate under the council-manager form of government and thus have a professional local government manager are nearly 10 percent more efficient than those that operate under the mayor-council form.
In the IBM study, David Edwards, who then led the Smarter Government Campaign for IBM’s Public Sector Strategy and Innovation Practice, examined publicly available data for 100 of the largest cities in the United States. Edwards concluded that this finding
“…appears to validate the assumption underlying city manager forms of government, notably that investing executive authority in professional management shielded from direct political interference should yield more efficiently managed cities. To put it another way, even if a city operates within conditions most favorable for efficiency – no collective bargaining, geographically compact, and peaking on all scale curves – management choices can still lead a city down the path to inefficiency. It is both a sobering and encouraging conclusion.”
Rob Duke's insight:
Don't be fooled by the lure of the strong mayor.  Real managerial efficiency, effectiveness, economy, and equity are better attained through the use of professional managers.

Hire ICMA managers, and they'll be prepared to manage police and other functions according to the best practices in government.

You wouldn't hire judges who weren't respected members of the bar, so why would you hire day-to-day managers who didn't have the highest level of training?
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Rob Duke's comment, March 18, 9:32 PM
Don't get me wrong: you also need open and free elections, but those leaders perform the governance function and not the managerial function. They help manage a fair and open system in which everyone has a fair chance to influence policy. Managers also help people to have meaningful access to governance; and, provide information about how policy is implemented to elected officials (budgets, outcome measures, etc.), but generally are neutral on what policies are adopted (unless a clear inequality arises).
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A push to end modern 'debtors prisons' notched a win in Alabama

A push to end modern 'debtors prisons' notched a win in Alabama | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The rise of fee-based jailings has driven stories of lives ruined ─ lost jobs, crippling debt, spiraling poverty ─ and civil rights lawsuits.
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Why it may be increasingly hard to find police officers

Why it may be increasingly hard to find police officers | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Several of the nation's police departments are desperately losing manpower with decreasing numbers of officers and recruits.
Rob Duke's insight:
Yup, that is what it feels like sometimes....
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Boan White's comment, March 19, 10:20 PM
I completely agree that Law enforcement is becoming a less desirable career choice due to diminishing pay, high risk, and of course a recent bad rap. But I don't see any plausible solution to the decrease in people applying to the police force.
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Authorities serve search warrant in connection with Delphi murder case

Authorities serve search warrant in connection with Delphi murder case | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
DELPHI, Ind. – Indiana State Police, the FBI and Carroll County sheriff’s deputies are serving a search warrant Friday in connection with the murders of two Delphi teens.
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Former Power Ranger Pleads Guilty to Samurai Sword Killing

Former Power Ranger Pleads Guilty to Samurai Sword Killing | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Ricardo Medina, the actor who played the Red Lion Ranger in Power Rangers Wild Force from 2002 to 2003, has pleaded guilty to killing his roommate, Josh Sutter, with a samurai sword. Medina, who initially claimed he was acting in self-defense, pleaded to voluntary manslaughter and now faces six years in prison. He had initially been charged with murder, which, if convicted, would have carried a sentence of 26 years to life.
Rob Duke's insight:
Second power ranger to go to jail for killing someone...weird.
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