Global Corruption
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Global Corruption
Corruption is a particularly viral form of cancer. It is caught here and there but it reappears somewhere else as soon as vigilance is relaxed. It is not eliminated, just driven underground. The corrupt merely suspend their operations temporarily. It lingers, hovering always in the background for its next opportunity.<br>                                                                         - Gerald E. Caiden <br>
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Prosecutor in Assemblyman William Boyland Jr.'s corruption trial says the Brooklyn pol schemed 'to line his pockets'  

Prosecutor in Assemblyman William Boyland Jr.'s corruption trial says the Brooklyn pol schemed 'to line his pockets'      | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

A federal prosecutor urged jurors to convict the Brooklyn Democrat of corruption charges backed by a mountain of evidence showing he put himself and his office up for sale to undercover FBI agents posing as shady businessmen.

“We’ve taken you into the underbelly of the defendant's corrupt, secretive and deceitful schemes,” Assistant Brooklyn U.S. Attorney Lan Nguyen said Monday in her closing argument.

“Each one was designed to line his pockets with illegal money at the expense of his constituents, the elderly and taxpayers,” Nguyen said.

Boyland, 43, betrayed no emotion during the prosecutor’s three-hour summation of secretly recorded tapes and videos, text messages and documents detailing schemes to solicit bribes from the undercover agents who were seeking favors from the political scion.

 

In one damning video recorded by the FBI agent, Boyland accepted $7,000 in cash that he desperately needed after he was arrested in a separate corruption case by the feds in Manhattan.

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Anonymous UK company owned Viktor Yanukovych’s presidential palace compound

Anonymous UK company owned Viktor Yanukovych’s presidential palace compound | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

The private residence of the newly-toppled president of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, has come to be seen as a monument to decadence.[2]  When Yanukovych fled, the security personnel around the palace also left, and hundreds of ordinary Ukrainians were, for the first time, able to see the extravagance of the place for themselves...

 

Over the last twenty years, Global Witness’ investigations have shown time and time again how corrupt politicians, arms traders and tax evaders can hide their identity and their assets behind anonymous shell companies.  It is quick, easy and cheap to create complicated company structures that span multiple countries that make it extremely difficult for anyone to find out who owns a house, or the money in a bank account, or any other valuable asset.

This is why Global Witness is campaigning for an end to anonymous companies.  We want countries around the world to create publicly accessible registers of the real living people who ultimately own and control companies and trusts.

The UK has committed to putting the information about the ultimate, ‘beneficial’ owners of British companies in the public domain after a campaign by Global Witness and other groups, including business associations.

The fact that Yanukovich’s palace compound was in part owned by an anonymous British company is a near perfect, topical example of why this is so important.  Had this already been in place, the people behind the UK company would have had to reveal who was the true owners.  Similarly, the EU is in the process of trying to clamp down on anonymous companies.  It should require all European governments to put the ultimate owners of companies and trusts in the public domain.

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Corruption, meet Turkey

It’s a “treacherous attack” and a “dirty conspiracy,” claimed Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, whose image as a devout Muslim and an honest man is the key to his political success...

 

But he didn’t deny that the voice on the recordings was his, nor that the other voice was that of his son Bilal. He explained the phone calls by saying that they were a “shameless montage” of various things that he and his son had said in other, quite innocent conversations.

The four telephone conversations allegedly took place on Dec. 17, the same day that the Turkish police arrested the sons of three cabinet members in Erdogan’s government for corruption, bribery and tender-rigging. This might easily have caused some alarm in the families of other cabinet members, especially since the dawn raids also uncovered large sums of money whose presence in the sons’ houses was hard to explain.

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Rolls-Royce Faces Indian Corruption and Bribery Investigation

Rolls-Royce Faces Indian Corruption and Bribery Investigation | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Rolls-Royce will come under close scrutiny after India's defence ministry confirmed that it has ordered an investigation into the deal the aerospace and defence giant made with state-run Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

According to a statement by India's top crime fighting agency, the Central Bureau of Investigation, authorities will investigate whether Hal's $1.2bn (£717m, €871m) deal, to purchase jet engines from Rolls-Royce, had breached bribery laws.

Prosecutors added that it will look into $80m worth of alleged 'kick-backs,' which is a form of bribery that pays commission to the bribe taker when an agreed service between both parties, had been completed.

Rolls-Royce representatives were not immediately available for comment at the time of publication.

Earlier this month, British police arrested two men in connection to UK's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) probe into the aerospace and defence giant over allegations of bribery and corruption across a number of emerging markets.

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China's Corruption Probe Could Net Former Security Chief

China's Corruption Probe Could Net Former Security Chief | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

A political consultant in China has for the first time openly hinted that a former security chief could be corralled into the country's ongoing corruption probe, local news reports said Sunday.

News reports, citing a spokesperson for the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, or the CPPCC, suggested that an investigation into Zhou Yongkang, who served as the vice minister of the Petroleum Ministry and as the nation's top security official, could bring an end to one of China's most significant corruption probes in decades. Zhou's significant powers as security chief were reportedly diluted in 2012 by the Communist Party as part of its anti-corruption drive.

"Our serious investigation and punishment of party members and cadres, including some senior officials, indicates that what we stated was not empty words. I can only say so much so far. You know what I'm saying," Lv Xinhua, a spokesperson for the CPPCC, said in a press conference Sunday, according to the South China Morning Post, or SCMP.

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Mexico Takes Over Oceanografia After Citigroup Alleges Fraud

Mexico Takes Over Oceanografia After Citigroup Alleges Fraud | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Mexico’s government took control of Oceanografia SA afterCitigroup Inc. (C) alleged fraud on loans to the oil-services company and requested an investigation, Attorney General Jesus Murillo Karam said.

State-owned oil producer Petroleos Mexicanos, known as Pemex, found inconsistencies in how Oceanografia billed, Murillo said today at a press conference in Mexico City.

“The attorney general’s office is working along with financial authorities and the bank in order to establish criminal responsibility quickly,” Murillo said. The Finance Ministry said banking regulator CNBV also is investigating the allegations.

The government will protect the operations of Oceanografia, and will attempt to recoup misappropriated funds, Murillo said. The company’s services are “crucial” to Pemex’s operations, especially for activities in the Gulf of Mexico, Fluvio Ruiz, a Pemex board member, said in a telephone interview today.

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USDOJ: South American Company Agrees to Plead Guilty to Price Fixing on Ocean Shipping Services for Cars and Trucks

USDOJ: South American Company Agrees to Plead Guilty to Price Fixing on Ocean Shipping Services for Cars and Trucks | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Compañía Sud Americana de Vapores S.A. (CSAV), a Chilean corporation, has agreed to plead guilty and to pay an $8.9 million criminal fine for its involvement in a conspiracy to fix prices, allocate customers and rig bids of international ocean shipping services for roll-on, roll-off cargo, such as cars and trucks, to and from the United States and elsewhere, the Department of Justice announced today.

 

According to a one-count felony charge filed today in U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland in Baltimore, CSAV engaged in a conspiracy to suppress and eliminate competition by allocating customers and routes, rigging bids and fixing prices for the sale of international ocean shipping services of roll-on, roll-off cargo to and from the United States and elsewhere, including the Port of Baltimore.  CSAV participated in the conspiracy from at least January 2000 to September 2012.  CSAV has also agreed to cooperate with the department’s ongoing antitrust investigation.  The plea agreement is subject to court approval.

 

Roll-on, roll-off cargo is non-containerized cargo that can be both rolled onto and rolled off of an ocean-going vessel.  Examples of this cargo include new and used cars and trucks, as well as construction, mining and agricultural equipment.

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February 2014 Ponzi Scheme Roundu

February 2014 Ponzi Scheme Roundu | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

 A summary of the activity reported for February 2014. The Ponzi Scheme Blog discusses hot legal and practical issues in the complex world of unraveling Ponzi Schemes.

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Gold Fix Study Shows Signs of Decade of Bank Manipulation

Gold Fix Study Shows Signs of Decade of Bank Manipulation | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

The London gold fix, the benchmark used by miners, jewelers and central banks to value the metal, may have been manipulated for a decade by the banks setting it, researchers say.

Unusual trading patterns around 3 p.m. in London, when the so-called afternoon fix is set on a private conference call between five of the biggest gold dealers, are a sign of collusive behavior and should be investigated, New York University’s Stern School of Business Professor Rosa Abrantes-Metz and Albert Metz, a managing director at Moody’s Investors Service, wrote in a draft research paper.

“The structure of the benchmark is certainly conducive to collusion and manipulation, and the empirical data are consistent with price artificiality,” they say in the report, which hasn’t yet been submitted for publication. “It is likely that co-operation between participants may be occurring.”

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Citi discovers fraud in Mexico unit, cuts 2013 earnings

Citi discovers fraud in Mexico unit, cuts 2013 earnings | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Banking giant Citigroup cut its fourth quarter and full year 2013 estimates on Friday, as its profit was hit by fraudulent activity at a Mexico-based subsidary.

The bank said in a statement that Banco Nacional de Mexico, or Banamex, had loaned $585 million in short-term money to a Mexican oil services company named Oceanografia. It was later discovered that the firm had been suspended by the government from being awarded new contracts,

"Based on Citi's review...Citi estimates that it is able to support the validity of approximately $185 million of the $585 million of accounts receivables owed to Banamex by Pemex as of December 31, 2013," the bank added. 

As a result of the incident, Citi will take an estimated $235 million after-tax, or $360 million pre-tax, charge against last year's earnings. The impact will lower 2013 net income from $13.9 billion to $13.7 billion.

Citi said it believed the fraud was "isolated to this particular client," but added that its review was ongoing. The bank expects it will determine "whether any or all portion of the $33 million of direct loans made to [Oceanografia], and the remaining approximately $185 million of accounts receivable due from Pemex is impaired."

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Banks see huge jump in ATM fraud

Banks see huge jump in ATM fraud | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Debit card skimming is on the rise, and much of it originates from a trusted source: bank-owned ATMs.

Data from the FICO Card Alert Service shows a 48% increase in ATM fraud as a result of skimming from 2012 to 2013 (ATM fraud meaning the thief used the stolen PIN and card information to fraudulently withdraw funds from an ATM). The bulk of those fraudulent withdrawals used information skimmed from bank-owned ATMs, according to a post to the FICO Banking Analytics Blog written by John Buzzard, manager of product management and fraud operations at FICO.

ATM fraud is only one of several potential outcomes of skimming — a thief can use your stolen debit card information as many ways as you can use the card — but it’s definitely a troubling one. You could quickly find yourself with an empty bank account if someone uses your info to take money out of an ATM, and while you wait for fraud protection to kick in, you may struggle to meet other financial obligations.

After bank-owned ATMs, point-of-sale (POS) systems were the next most common source of card skimming, followed by non-bank-owned ATMs. While POS skimming has been all over the news with the Target data breach, Buzzard noted that most of the cards stolen in that breach have not led to ATM fraud.

It’s disconcerting to see bank-owned ATMs as the main source of skimming that leads to ATM fraud, considering that those terminals tend to be seen as more secure than independently owned ATMs. Bank customers are also more likely to favor those ATMs because they may be able to avoid fees. Even more disturbing: Less than 20% of ATM fraud originated from cards skimmed at bank-owned ATMs in 2011, but that grew to just more than 50% in 2013. That’s a big jump.

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US report slams Turkish gov’t over corruption scandal, calls for respect for rule of law

US report slams Turkish gov’t over corruption scandal, calls for respect for rule of law | Global Corruption | Scoop.it
The US State Department has expressed concerns over rule of law and judicial independence in Turkey, saying “law enforcement and the judiciary were subject to executive branch influence as the government reassigned thousands of police and prosecutors during the December 17 anti-corruption operation and subsequent scandal.” 

The annual report, which reviews latest developments concerning on human rights in a number of countries, was released by the State Department on Thursday. The report reveals US concerns over series of human rights abuses in Turkey, with lingering questions over the direction the country is taking.

Touching on a wide array of issues concerning Turkey, the report gave a special place to the sweeping corruption scandal that first broke on Dec. 17 and has implicated Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s close associates.

The report said Turkish “authorities have not established a pattern of investigating, indicting and convicting individuals accused of corruption, and there were concerns about the impartiality of the judiciary in the handling of anticorruption cases.”

This came against backdrop of series of attempts by government, which opponents says is derailing the graft investigation through enacting new law granting stronger control to the government over judiciary. The government’s mass purges in judiciary and police forces also have become sources of concern both in Turkey and in the EU which is weary of the ruling Justice and Development Party’s (AK Party) clumsy handling of the corruption case.

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Blog: Culture of corruption in federal bureaucracy

Blog: Culture of corruption in federal bureaucracy | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

 "Evidence is accumulating of a corrupt bureaucratic culture in many, if not all, federal agencies. Revelations of lavish meetings at fancy hotels, featuring stupid but expensive custom-made videos emerged in the last couple of years. But even worse, cases of bureaucrats stealing from taxpayers by taking time off while still being paid high salaries have been reported recently, with their supervisors knowingly turning a blind eye to the taxpayer rip-off... 


...the GOP ought to start making corruption in the federal bureaucracy a campaign issue. The public understands that government employees in general live a privileged life, with guaranteed pensions unavailable to the rest of us, with more days off than the rest of us, and with tolerance for slacking that is unknown in the private sector. People once referred to as “public servants” are now our masters – and they know it."

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USDOJ: Former Project Manager Sentenced to Serve Time in Prison for Role in Bid Rigging and Other Fraudulent Schemes Involving Two EPA Superfund Sites in New Jersey

USDOJ: Former Project Manager Sentenced to Serve Time in Prison for Role in Bid Rigging and Other Fraudulent Schemes Involving Two EPA Superfund Sites in New Jersey | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Gordon D. McDonald, a former project manager for a prime contractor at two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund sites in New Jersey, was sentenced today to serve 14 years in prison for participating in multiple bid-rigging, fraud and kickback schemes, the Department of Justice announced.   The prison term, which takes into account the multiple crimes McDonald committed, represents the longest prison sentence ever imposed involving an antitrust crime.

 

In addition to the prison sentence, McDonald was sentenced in U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey in Newark by Judge Susan D. Wigenton to pay a $50,000 fine.   The court will order restitution at a later date.

 

After a two week jury trial, ending on Sept. 30, 2013, McDonald was convicted of engaging in separate bid-rigging, kickback and fraud conspiracies with three subcontractors at two New Jersey Superfund sites - Federal Creosote in Manville, N.J., and Diamond Alkali in Newark, in return for kickbacks of more than $1.5 million. He was also convicted of engaging in an international money laundering scheme, major fraud against the United States, committing two tax violations and obstruction of justice. The various conspiracies took place at different time periods from approximately December 2000 until approximately April 2007. McDonald was initially charged in an indictment returned on Aug. 31, 2009.

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INDIA: Riots or corruption in 2014? Google shows what's on voter's mind

INDIA:  Riots or corruption in 2014? Google shows what's on voter's mind | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

In times of General Elections, a key to the voter's mind can be the elixir of life for politicians. Google Search Trends over the last three months reveal interesting insights into what all has been on people's minds.   

Corruption remains the most searched topic on Google Search Trends. Jan Lokpal and the issues around it remain the most searched topic based on the recent consumer interest. When looking at the overall trend for corruption, the issue of Black Money is also a topic that features prominently in this list.

 

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Time to rethink the misguided anti-corruption strategies in Thailand

Time to rethink the misguided anti-corruption strategies in Thailand | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Few people question the cost of corruption. Though statistics on corruption are often questionable, available data suggest it accounts for a significant proportion of economic activity. Estimates by the World Economic Forum show the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global GDP, with over UScopy trillion paid in bribes each year according to the World Bank. Not surprisingly, there.  has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices. In addition, many governments and development agencies have devoted substantial resources and energies to fighting corruption in recent... 


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US Treasury publishes a family tree of Chapo Guzman's cartel empire

US Treasury publishes a family tree of Chapo Guzman's cartel empire | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

 Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto says his investigators aim to roll up the political and financial network that has protected and enriched arrested crime lord Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman.

“We’re going after everything,” Peña Nieto told journalist Leon Krause in an interview for Fusion, the US English-language TV network aimed at Latinos. “Private sector agents, public agents here and in the United States and anywhere else in the world. I think he will offer a lot to talk about and to act on in the coming months,” he said.

If the Mexican president follows through on his vow, his agents might work from a detailed roadmap provided by the US Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Asset Control, or OFAC.

The agency has been targeting the financial empire of Guzman and other Sinaloa traffickers for more than seven years. OFAC in recent years designated the kingpin’s two ex-wives and a number of their children as criminals.

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Crédit Suisse: U.S. Senate Says Bank Kept Billions in Secret | 100 Reporters

Crédit Suisse: U.S. Senate Says Bank Kept Billions in Secret | 100 Reporters | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

U.S. Senate subcommittee on Tuesday accused Crédit Suisse, Switzerland’s second-largest bank, of knowingly helping rich Americans evade U.S. taxes...

 

Detailing subterfuge they said was worthy of a spy novel, a Senate subcommittee on Tuesday unveiled a raft of allegations against Crédit Suisse, Switzerland’s second-largest bank, which they said had knowingly helped thousands of rich Americans evade U.S. taxes.

 

The subcommittee report was released as top brass from the bank, including its CEO Brady W. Dougan, prepared to testify before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, which has in recent years aggressively pursued misconduct in the financial services industry.

The bank, among the world’s largest with $1.4 trillion under management, has been the target of a federal investigation since 2011. Seven of its bankers are under criminal indictment and itconcluded a $196 million settlement last week with the Securities and Exchange Commission, admitting that it provided advisory services to U.S. clients without registering with the market regulator.

Speaking to reporters before the report’s release, Sen. Carl M. Levin (D-Mich.) said that at its height Crédit Suisse had held more than 22,000 accounts for U.S. citizens and residents, holding as much as $12 billion out of the view of the Internal Revenue Service.

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USDOJ: Omnicare to Pay Government $4.19 Million to Resolve False Claims Act Allegations of Kickbacks

USDOJ: Omnicare to Pay Government $4.19 Million to Resolve False Claims Act Allegations of Kickbacks | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Omnicare Inc., an Ohio-based long-term care pharmacy, has agreed to pay the government $4.19 million to settle allegations that it engaged in a kickback scheme in violation of the False Claims Act, the Justice Department announced today.  Omnicare provides pharmaceuticals and services to long-term care facilities and residents and other senior populations.

 

The settlement resolves allegations that Omnicare solicited and received kickbacks from the drug manufacturer Amgen Inc. in return for implementing “therapeutic interchange” programs that were designed to switch Medicaid beneficiaries from a competitor drug to Amgen’s product Aranesp.  The government alleged that the kickbacks took the form of performance-based rebates that were tied to market-share or volume thresholds, as well as grants, speaker fees, consulting services, data fees, dinners and travel. 

 

“Kickbacks are designed to influence decisions by health care providers, such as which drugs to prescribe,” said Assistant Attorney General for the Justice Department’s Civil Division Stuart F. Delery.  “Americans who rely on federal health care programs, particularly vulnerable patients in skilled nursing facilities, are entitled to feel confident that decisions about their medical care are not tainted by improper financial arrangements.”

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allAfrica.com: Zimbabwe: Corruption Exposed At Anti-Corruption Commission

allAfrica.com: Zimbabwe: Corruption Exposed At Anti-Corruption Commission | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Commissioners at the Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission (ZACC) have ironically been accused of being corrupt themselves, after it was revealed that their term of office expired in August last year but they were still receiving salaries and spending a fortune hiring government cars.

According to the state-run Herald newspaper, only one of the nine commissioners, Chairperson Denford Chirindo, is still legally employed by the anti-graft body after their statutory two-year term expired on August 31st.

This means commissioners have done no work for nearly six months, while collecting salaries. The Herald said almost $457,000 was owed to the CMED for vehicles hired by commissioners as of mid-December, 2013.

The Salary Services Bureau (SSB) had actually stopped paying the commissioners when their term of office ended. But they were directed to continue payments by the Secretary for Home Affairs, Melusi Matshiya, who reportedly insisted the commissioners' term had been extended.

The Herald said Matshiya has even ignored letters from Chairperson Denford Chirindo, pleading with him to urgently make the legalities of the situation clear, to be careful not to waste public funds and "avoid financial misconduct as defined by the Public Finance Management Act".

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Press releases - Transparency International warns that billions of climate change dollars face corruption risk

Press releases - Transparency International warns that billions of climate change dollars face corruption risk | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

New reports show 7 of the bigger, multinational climate funds must do more to promote transparency, accountability and integrity

Funds set up to manage the global response to climate change must act now to prevent the abuse of power, bribery and secret deals from disrupting the flow of billions of dollars set aside to address the issue, global anti-corruption coalition Transparency International warned today.

Climate change will challenge countries in every continent in the coming years, bringing floods, droughts and stronger storms. Transparency International analyzed seven multinational funds set up to channel financial support to help countries adapt to or mitigate the impacts of climate change.

All of the funds fall short in the promotion of transparency, integrity and accountability in their processes and procedures. None have a comprehensive, fund-wide zero-tolerance policy for corruption, according to the assessments on what the funds are doing to stop corruption published by Transparency International today. Click here to see the full reports.

Most of the funds had poor policies for penalizing corruption or fraud, with only two funds having passable sanctions procedures.

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Supreme Court Permits Investor Lawsuits in Stanford Fraud

Supreme Court Permits Investor Lawsuits in Stanford Fraud | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

The Supreme Court on Wednesday allowed investors to pursue class-action suits against law firms, insurance brokers and financial services companies that the investors said bore partial responsibility for one of the most brazen frauds in recent history, the $7 billion Ponzi scheme orchestrated by R. Allen Stanford.

The question for the justices was whether the lawsuits, filed under state laws, were proper in light of the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act, a 1998 federal law that was meant to stop end runs around the protections offered to defendants under federal law. The 1998 law bars many state-law class actions based on asserted fraud “in connection with the purchase or sale of a covered security.”

In a 7-to-2 decision, the Supreme Court said Mr. Stanford’s scheme did not concern covered securities — those traded on a national exchange — meaning the suits could proceed under state laws. A contrary ruling would have basically barred the suits, which would not have been permitted under federal law.

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Brazil's top court overturns some convictions in political corruption case

Brazil's top court overturns some convictions in political corruption case | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

Brazil's Supreme Court overturned racketeering convictions against former leaders of the ruling Workers Party on Thursday, reducing their prison sentences in the country's biggest political corruption case.

The 6-5 ruling does not affect other convictions for corruption and money-laundering in the congressional vote-buying scandal that almost toppled party leader Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva from the presidency in 2005.

"This is a sad day for this Supreme Court," said a disheartened Chief Justice Joaquim Barbosa, who became a household name in Brazil for his pursuit of convictions in the so-called mensalao, or big monthly payments, case.

The 2012 trial was seen as a landmark in a country with a long history of corruption where political leaders had never gone to jail for bribery or embezzlement of public funds. Twenty-five people were convicted.

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Widespread corruption in India in all levels of govt, says US report - Hindustan Times

Widespread corruption in India in all levels of govt, says US report - Hindustan Times | Global Corruption | Scoop.it

There is widespread corruption in India in all levels of the government including judiciary, said a US Congress-mandated report. Though the law provides criminal penalties for official corruption, the government did not implement the law effectively, it said...

 

"Corruption was present at all levels of government. The CBI registered 583 cases of corruption between the months of January and November."

"The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) received 7,224 cases in 2012. Of those, 5,528 were received in 2012 and an additional 1,696 remained from 2011. The commission recommended action on 5,720 cases," the report said.

"The CVC operated a toll-free hotline to lodge complaints and a web portal to share information. NGOs noted that bribes typically were paid to expedite services, such as police protection, school admission, water supply, or government assistance," it said.

Civil society organisations drew public attention to corruption throughout the year, including through public demonstrations and websites that featured individual stories of corruption, it added.

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