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How Beer Gave Us Civilization

How Beer Gave Us Civilization | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Humans may have found brew before they found bread. It’s a lucky thing.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Evidence that humans started hanging out in settlements long enough for grain to ferment before settled agriculture -- in the fertile crescent and Oaxaca valley -- makes social sense. Agriculture -- an exaptation of beer brewing?

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JoseAlvarezCornett's curator insight, March 18, 2013 6:09 AM

Long before Internet brought us together, beer did it first.

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Mind-Culture Coevolution: Major Transitions in the Development of Human Culture and Society

"Our theory is thus about processes in the human mind. Those processes evolve in tandem with culture. They require culture for their support while they enable culture through their capacities. In particular, we believe that the genetic elements of culture are to be found in the external world, in the properties of artifacts and behaviors, not inside human heads. Hays first articulated this idea in his book on the evolution of technology and I have developed it in my papers Culture as an Evolutionary Arena"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

I've followed Bill Benzon's writing on evolutionary psychology ever since I read his book, Beethoven's Anvil: Music in Mind and Culture, in which he presents formidable evidence that music emerged as a way to coordinate and synchronize human minds and activities. Although humans are biologically equipped as primates to engage in cooperative activities and social learning, the real progress for our species has kicked in since cultural evolution began consciously building on those biologically evolved capabilities to invent new forms of learning, communication, and collective action.

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The Impact of Elinor Ostrom's Scholarship on Commons Governance in Mexico

The Impact of Elinor Ostrom's Scholarship on Commons Governance in Mexico | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Professor Elinor Ostrom’s work was extremely influential worldwide, and this includes important contributions to Mexican commons governance. From water governance to forest stewardship to small-scale fisheries’ management, Ostrom’s institutional
Howard Rheingold's insight:

This chapter in an edited volume focuses on the important impact that Ostrom's research and findings have had on actual policy-making around commons. Ostrom had complained that policy decisions were made about management of common pool resources in absence of knowledge by policy-makers of the considerable empirical research by Ostrom and others. The common wisdom that these endangered resources can only be preserved by privatization or state ownership or control turns out to be incomplete if not wrong -- as Ostrom has documented in many cases, people all over the world have come up with their own informal arrangements that have worked with resources from water use to hunting, fishing, and logging.

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P2P Foundation's blog » Blog Archive » The Governance of Online Creation Communities for the Building of Digital Commons

P2P Foundation's blog » Blog Archive » The Governance of Online Creation Communities for the Building of Digital Commons | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"This chapter addresses the governance of a specific type of constructed common-pool resource, online creation communities (OCCs).OCCs are communities of individuals that mainly interact via a platform of online participation, with the goal of building and sharing a common-pool resource resulting from collaboratively systematizing and integrating dispersed information and knowledge resources. Previous research of the governance of OCCs has been based on analyzing specific aspects of the governance. However, there has been a gap in the literature, one of lacking a comprehensive and holistic view of what governance means in collective action online. "

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The author of this paper, Mayo Fuster Morell, was one of my first students. She applies the framework of institutional governance of commons pioneered by Elinor Ostrom to online creation communities such as those that created Wikipedia. 

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Framework: Collaborative Economy Honeycomb | Web Strategy by Jeremiah Owyang | Digital Business

Framework: Collaborative Economy Honeycomb | Web Strategy by Jeremiah Owyang | Digital Business | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Howard Rheingold's insight:

An insightful infographic, backed up with stats, by a savvy group of social media analysts (thousands of people claim to be social media experts, but Owyang, Gansky,Gorenflo,  Solis, Samuel, and others really know their material. Collaborative economy is about ways that digital media enable people to interact economically in ways and at scales that were not before possible.

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Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy - OpenMind

Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy - OpenMind | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"The commons is a way of allocating access and use rights in resources that does not give anyone exclusive rights to exclude anyone else.

A city street is a commons: anyone who has a car or a bicycle can drive on the road; anyone who can walk or use a wheelchair can travel the sidewalks. No individual or company has the right to exclude anyone or charge them for access. From streets and highways, to canals and waterways, major shipping lanes and navigable rivers; basic scientific knowledge, mathematical algorithms, basic ideas; all these have been kept as commons in modern market economies because they provide enormous freedom of action to a wide range of productive behaviors—both economic and social.

Wikipedia and the free open source software have become examples of remarkable innovation in the production of information."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The commons is not just about grazing pastures, watersheds, fisheries. The Internet is a commons. So is a sidewalk. Yochai Benklert has been the foremost spokesman for the notion that a new form of economic production -- in addition to the firm and the market -- has arisen because of digital media and networks: "commons-based peer production." This piece is a good short introduction to the ideas Benkler covers at length in his book, Wealth of Networks.

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Eight Points of Reference for Commoning | David Bollier

Eight Points of Reference for Commoning | David Bollier | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"One of the great achievements of the late Professor Elinor Ostrom was the identification of key design principles for successful commons.  She set forth eight of them in her landmark 1990 book, Governing the Commons.  The wording of those principles is aimed at social scientists who study the management of common-pool resources from a neutral, non-participatory, scientific perspective.  As a result, the principles are not as accessible to the general public, nor do they reflect the direct experiences and first-person voice of commoners.    

The first German Sommerschool on the Commons, which took place in Bechstedt/Thuringia in June 2012, decided to remedy this problem.  Participants took part in intense debates over what a new set of principles for commoning – based on the Ostrom principles – might look like if they reflected the personal perspective of commoners themselves.  The result is a statement, "Eight Points of Reference for Commoning,” which can be seen as a re-interpretation – remix? – of Ostrom's design principles".  

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Ostrom is fundamental. Her writing is technical. This version remixes Ostrom's design principles for successful instituitions for collective action into more vernacular language.

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Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom

Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"a six week course using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks, synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter to introduce the fundamentals of an interdisciplinary study of cooperation: social dilemmas, institutions for collective action, the commons, evolution of cooperation, technologies of cooperation, and cooperative arrangements in biology from cells to ecosystems."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

This is the fifth time I've presented this (totally online) course; it has evolved each time, as I learn from my colearners. The meta-learning here is the practice of using social media and peer learning to cultivate a learning community among former strangers in a short period of time. This year, the course runs from April 30 to June 12. Limit 30 learners. Contact howard@rheingold.com if interested.

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Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom

Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
a six week course using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks, synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter to introduce the fundamentals of an interdisciplinary study of cooperation: social dilemmas, institutions for collective action, the commons, evolution of cooperation, technologies of cooperation, and cooperative arrangements in biology from cells to ecosystems.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I plan to offer a version of this in May-June. Let me know via email to howard at rheingold dot com if you want to be notified.

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Inteligência coletiva's curator insight, March 1, 2:28 PM

O Rheingold disponibilizou a  pagina wiki do seu curso "Social media in the classroom", onde podemos explorar alguns recursos...

Gostei do artigo(blog post) de David Wiley sobre a comparação entre as  relações biológicas  inter espécies  e a organização  (cooperação) nas dinâmicas de relacionamento nas comunidades virtuais.

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Worker Co-ops 101

Worker Co-ops 101 | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"Get to know the basics of worker cooperatives, how they work and what they do, from management to the everyday practice of cooperation. Worker cooperatives are democratically and equally owned by the workers, and adhere to the principles of one worker, one share, one vote. Through activities, guided readings, and facilitated conversations with worker-cooperative professionals and other students, participants will become familiar with how co-ops work and the growing worker-cooperative movement.


You will receive a certificate upon completion of the course.

This course will take place between April 16 and 17. It will be five hours total over two nights. We will poll participants to find the best time to hold the sessions. It will be offered again every other month."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Coops are not communism. They are worker-owned corporations. Hundreds of millions of people and tens of billions of dollars are involved in coops annually. This course -- which I have NOT taken -- claims to teach what you need to know to start and make one work.

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A co-operative university

A co-operative university | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

In 2011, I helped set up a co-operative for higher education. It began as an idea that my colleague, Mike Neary, and I had been discussing the previous summer, and was partly influenced by the network ofsocial centres that exist across the UK and elsewhere. In May this year, the co-operative had its second AGM and we are currently running a Social Science Imagination course for the second year, two arts-based community projects, as well as regular public talks

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Cooperative learning is something that humans do -- perhaps our capacity for social learning is our most important trait is a species -- but the institutions of education often get in the way. http://peeragogy.org is one way of looking at cooperative education. The co-operative university is another.

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Vivianne Amaral's curator insight, January 7, 9:41 AM

Explorando novas formas para organizar a educação 

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The science of social connections

"I don't think it's a coincidence that of all the kinds of ways human beings could organize themselves into networks, that's what we do. We evince degree assortativity, and I don't think it's a coincidence that we do that. We assemble ourselves into groups, the group now has this property, this germ- resistance property, which is a property of the group, but which, as it turns out, also benefits and affects us. Now, being a member of that group, we are less likely to acquire pathogens.

And this sets the stage for a set of ideas that we and others have been exploring that shed light on multi-level selection and other kinds of contentious ideas in the biological and the social sciences. And we have a number of fellow travelers on this road—László Barabási, Dirk Helbing, Tooby and Cosmides, Frans de Waal, Nowak, Rand, Santos—people working on these related areas of interactions among animals and people, and what this means. In fact, David Rand and Josh Green and Martin Nowak just had a nice paper this past year — I was asked to highlight some papers—looking at whether you can use time to response as a kind of heuristic for understanding are people intuitive cooperators and rationally selfish, or do they exercise rational self-control over a kind of instinctive greed? The data they presented in that paper, to my eyes, was quite compelling—that we are intuitively wired to cooperate."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Understanding the emergence of human culture requires an understanding of how social information and ideas spread through social networks -- and so does understanding the emergence and nature of human cooperation

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luiy's curator insight, January 6, 2:45 AM

We can shift our perspective on lots of things when we think about people as being nodes on a graph, as being connected to other people. And this shift in focus might, in fact, prompt us to begin to think about —not the individuals themselves‑but the ties between them. This calls to mind an analogy, which I don't know if some of you may already know, of streets in the United States and in European countries. So, streets have names in our country, and the houses on the streets are numbered numerically and linearly as you move along the street. And the blocks between the streets don't have names or numbers and are seen as the things that are between the streets, and we don't pay much attention to them. But if you go to Japan, it's the blocks that are numbered. The blocks have names and the houses on the blocks are numbered in the order in which they were built, not numerically or linearly in any kind of systematic way. If you ask the Japanese, "What's going on with the streets?" they say, "The streets are the spaces between the blocks." They don't pay attention to those.

Geoff Findley's curator insight, January 6, 10:04 PM

Social Bonds

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Practical Anarchism

"The article considers several working anarchies in the networked environment, and whether they offer a model for improving on the persistent imperfections of markets and states. I explore whether these efforts of peer mutualism in fact offer a sufficient range of capabilities to present a meaningful degree of freedom to those who rely on the capabilities it affords, and whether these practices in fact remain sufficiently nonhierarchical to offer a meaningful space of noncoercive interactions. The real utopias I observe here are perfect on neither dimension. Internally, hierarchy and power reappear, to some extent and in some projects, although they are quite different than the hierarchy of government or corporate organization. Externally, there are some spectacular successes, some failures to thrive, and many ambiguous successes. In all, present experience supports neither triumphalism nor defeatism in the utopian project. Peer models do work, and they do provide a degree of freedom in the capabilities they provide. But there is no inexorable path to greater freedom through voluntary open collaboration. "

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Yochai Benkler has been the foremost scholarly chronicler of non-market peer production. Is it any kind of alternative to markets and firms? Here is Benkler's latest on "peer mutualism" -- important that he notes it doesn't have to be perfect to be useful.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 13, 5:22 AM

Honestly, this is sooo not a shock.

 

Yet it's not going to change the opinions and sentiments of the anrachists and Libertarians that are out there.  Hierarchy serves a purpose, and power inevitably is likely to spring up between two or more individuals.  The question then becomes how does one work and think and feel about those dynamics.  Do they think that it's a license for them to do whatever they wish?  Or do they put it all in perspective and actually comprehend that they only get as much as the weak are willing to give, and that the nature of the relationship is a privilege dependent upon their behavior, attitude, perspective, and that the actions that effect the other also effect themselves?

 

One is a more accurate way of perceiving power dynamics within a social system.

 

And yet while our present leadership is incompetent and not thinking or understanding these concepts, the fact of the matter is, is that we need a certain degree of hierarchy and a certain concentration of power in people who have the appropriate brain type and disposition to handle that kind of influence while not having the stupidity cloud their judgement.

 

It's just a brain type, after all, that doesn't get the basic ways of achieving and wielding real power effectively.  Why throw the baby out with the bath water?

 

Think about it.

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Precision Information Environments

Changing the Future of First Response Cooperation
Howard Rheingold's insight:

The external infotention environment includes dashboards. This from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by US Dept. of Homeland Security, appears to be a dashboard for people to respond to complex emergencies -- infotention meets augmented collective intelligence.

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JoseAlvarezCornett's comment, September 20, 2013 3:47 AM
It will be impressive, once it is achieved. Right now it is only good research being carried out at PNL. I wonder if Howard has heard about Kira's prediction software. Amazing ! I have read about her on MIT Technology review and watch a video of her work but it is in Hebrew with Spanish subtitles.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGNCRvl4iFk Kira's soft machine is impressive. http://www.focus.technion.ac.il/newsStory.asp?id=274
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The Great Promise of Social Co-operatives | David Bollier

The Great Promise of Social Co-operatives | David Bollier | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"While most of us are familiar with consumer or worker coops, the social co-operative is a bit different.  First, it welcomes many types of members – from paid staff and volunteers to service users and family members to social economy investors.  While many coops look and feel like their market brethren, with a keen focus on profit and loss, social coops are committed to meeting social goals such as healthcare, eldercare, social services and workforce integration for former prisoners. They are able to blend market activity with social services provisioning and democratic participation, all in one swoop."


Via june holley
Howard Rheingold's insight:

David Bollier has been thinking very incisively about the commons for years. A co-operative is an institution for collective action. Many think of grocery co-ops or giant economic actors such as Mondragon. Here, Bollier introduces an institution for collective action that is aimed at social, not market goals.

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John Niles's curator insight, July 4, 10:39 AM

Car-sharing is likely to be important for the environmental sustainability of personal mobility as cars become more electronics- and robotics (software)-enabled, thus trending toward cheaper to buy and easier to drive.  

 

Social co-operatives are likely to be important to facilitate the expansion of car-sharing, and you already know that vehicle automation is going to be a facilitating factor for car-sharing.

 

So learn about social co-operatives!

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The Lives of Sociable Spiders

The Lives of Sociable Spiders | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"A new study suggests that predictable social lives accentuate individual quirks and personal styles in spiders that live in groups....But about 25 arachnid species have swapped the hermit’s hair shirt for a more sociable and cooperative strategy, in which dozens or hundreds of spiders pool their powers to exploit resources that would elude a solo player."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Darwin's defenders, who preached "survival of the fittest" and elevated competition to the role of supreme driving force in evolution, knew less about complex interdependencies and cooperative arrangements than we know today. Instead of competing for scarce resources, species from bacteria to arachnids to fishes and mammals sometimes team up to create an abundance of key resources.

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The Evolved Apprentice | The MIT Press

The Evolved Apprentice | The MIT Press | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"IThe Evolved Apprentice, Kim Sterelny argues that the divergence stems from the fact that humans gradually came to enrich the learning environment of the next generation. Humans came to cooperate in sharing information, and to cooperate ecologically and reproductively as well, and these changes initiated positive feedback loops that drove us further from other great apes.

Sterelny develops a new theory of the evolution of human cognition and human social life that emphasizes the gradual evolution of information sharing practices across generations and how information sharing transformed human minds and social lives. Sterelny proposes that humans developed a new form of ecological interaction with their environment, cooperative foraging, which led to positive feedback linking ecological cooperation, cultural learning, and environmental change. The ability to cope with the immense variety of human ancestral environments and social forms, he argues, depended not just on adapted minds but also on adapted developmental environments."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

I have not yet read this, but we're talking about similar aspects of cultural evolution my Literacy of Cooperation course: biology equipped us for social learning, but cultural evolution took over when we began inventing communication media (language, writing) that extend social learning across time and space. 

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How big-hearted babies turn into selfish monsters

How big-hearted babies turn into selfish monsters | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Tracy McVeigh: Our natural instinct for altruism is being destroyed by the demands of modern life, claims a new book
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I'm not so sure it is entirely due to "modern life" -- it might be civilization (i.e., post-agriculture) or there are probably strong differences from culture to culture. But the research seems to indicate that contrary to the old narratives, humans are born altruistic and later learn to be more selfish.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 4, 3:31 PM

We live in a crass, callous and careless world, where priorities are out of whack with our physical and psychological needs.

 

This makes a lot of sense, especially when and if you look at voting patterns and attitudes of people who get older.  Less empathetic, less caring, less in tune with what is right for other people, more authoritarian....

 

What a sad sad species we are.

 

We deserve to die off, especially in our present form.

 

Think about it.

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Think Like a Commoner | Think Like a Commoner

Think Like a Commoner | Think Like a Commoner | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"In our age of predatory markets and make-believe democracy, our troubled political institutions have lost sight of real people and practical realities. But if you look to the edges, ordinary people are reinventing governance and provisioning on their own terms. The commons is arising as a serious, practical alternative to the corrupt Market/State.

The beauty of commons is that we can build them ourselves, right now. But the bigger challenge is, Can we learn to see the commons and, more importantly, to thinklike a commoner?"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

David Bollier has been thinking, writing, and acting about the commons for a long time. I haven't read it yet, but it's on my short list.

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, April 14, 7:50 PM

It sound like an interesting book.

Lia Goren's curator insight, April 15, 6:20 AM

El comentario me dispone a compartirlo por la importancia del tema y para mi propio archivo personal. Es un tema que no quiero dejar de profundizar. 

Vivianne Amaral's curator insight, June 22, 4:03 PM

O desafio maior é: podemos aprender a ver os bens comuns e, mais importante, a pensar como uma pessoa comum? Abandonar qualquer ideia de privilégio?

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Two Enduring Lessons from Elinor Ostrom by Brett M. Frischmann :: SSRN

Two Enduring Lessons from Elinor Ostrom by Brett M. Frischmann :: SSRN | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
This article is a tribute to Elinor Ostrom. It explores two enduring lessons she taught: a substantive lesson that involves embracing complexity and context, an
Howard Rheingold's insight:

The late Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom is an essential figure in understanding human cooperation, especially the way we create workarounds ("institutions for collective action") for social dilemmas (such as "the tragedy of the commons"). But she was a meticulous scientist, which means her writing is often laden with data and methodology and can be slow going. This paper approaches some of Ostrom's key findings in a more readable manner. 

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Understanding The Effects Of Hierarchy In Society

Professor Robert Sapolsky's baboon studies offer insight into the negative effects of hierarchy in society: "f they(baboons) are able to, in one generation transform what are supposed to be textbook social systems sort of engraved in stone, we don’t have any excuse when we say that there are certain inevitabilities about human social systems.”


Via june holley
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Sapolsky is a world-reknowned primatologist who notes an important empirical observation of an instance in which a fiercely hierarchical baboon society was able to re-arrange itself into a more egalitarian, less conflict-ruled social structure.

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Peter Skillen's curator insight, April 5, 6:15 AM

Professor Robert Sapolsky always makes me think deeply about what we assume to be 'the way it is'. But, it doesn't have to be that way.

Lia Goren's curator insight, April 22, 10:31 PM

Interesantísima experiencia del Profesor Robert Sapolsky acerca de los efectos negativos de la jerarquía en la sociedad. ¿Qué pasó en una comunidad de mandriles cuando los machos alfa maltratadores estaban y cuando dejaron de estar? Sorprendente!

El link de la Fundación P2P tiene otras referencias acerca del tema.

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Economists finally test prisoner's dilemma on prisoners

Economists finally test prisoner's dilemma on prisoners | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
For six decades, the classic cooperation test known as the prisoner’s dilemma has been a mainstay of graduate courses on game theory and behavioral economics, not to mention in Hollywood detective series.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Prisoner's Dilemma is the e coli, the fruitfly, of behavioral economics probes of human cooperation, but apparently this is the first published study conducted on actual prisoners -- who turn out, at least in this study, to be more likely to cooperate than defect.

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Gossip and Ostracism Promote Cooperation in Groups

Gossip and Ostracism Promote Cooperation in Groups | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Cooperation in groups often depends on "altruistic punishment" on non-cooperators (a mild example is the way shame can enforce norms -- in societies where spitting on the sidewalk is considered shameful, there is less spitting on the sidewalk). Or think about your emotions when you see someone cutting in line. Although punishment (maybe "sanctions" is a less loaded term) and gossip (perhaps "communication about reputation" is less loaded) are seen by many as negative traits, the research described in this abstract (full text ) presents evidence for the role of gossip and ostracism in promoting cooperation.

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For the good of the colony - MIT News Office

For the good of the colony - MIT News Office | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"MIT researchers have found that cells in a bacterial colony grow in a way that benefits the community as a whole. That is, while an individual cell may divide in the presence of plentiful resources to benefit itself, when a cell is a member of a larger colony, it may choose instead to grow in a more cooperative fashion, increasing an entire colony’s chance of survival. "

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The tension and complementarity between self-interest and collective action operates at every level from the bacterial to the ecosystem. It's where organisms originated

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Stanford computer scientists create crowdsourcing website to draw ... crowds

Stanford computer scientists create crowdsourcing website to draw ... crowds | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it


"Stanford computer scientists have created a website to help organizers plan events that are more likely to succeed or allow them to pull the plug on impending flops before they occur.

The website, called Catalyst, is based on a behavioral science concept known as the threshold model of collective action, which posits that people may be reluctant to commit to participating in activity until they see others taking part, at which point interest surges and the activity becomes successful. But if participation doesn’t reach this threshold point, the event is likely to fail.

Catalyst builds this principle into software. The website allows people to enter a few details, such as date, time, description of the event and the number of participants needed to make it a success. If signups don't hit this threshold point by the deadline, Catalyst emails organizers and would-be participants a warning."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

In my 2002 book (12 years ago!) Smart Mobs, I called it "technologies of cooperation" -- working with Institute for the Future, I co-authored a report on Technologies of Cooperation -- and now we're beginning to see computer scientists converge with what social scientists know about collective action to design software that can help people crowdsource.

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Social Ties, Reciprocity, Cooperation Studied

"

Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintaincooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity,whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknownhow the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here weuse a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach
from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The interdisciplinary understanding of human cooperation is at about the same level as our understanding of disease before the discovery of microorganisms -- but real progress is being made. Human socialty, from the neural to behavioral levels, has a great deal to do with our ability to negotiate cooperation with others. The way we form and break social ties is key.

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, November 15, 2013 10:04 AM

I think there will always be things we cannot explain, but make sense. Too much stimulus is not good and too little is not good either.

Peter C. Newton-Evans's curator insight, November 22, 2013 2:51 PM

One more piece in the puzzle that Cooperation Theory is putting together to bring science closer to a real human need of our time: learning to restructure society as a win-win proposition.

Inteligência coletiva's curator insight, February 6, 12:59 PM

Um estudo relevante acerca do estabelecimento de laços sociais, reciprocidade e cooperação.