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Do trees communicate? Networks, networks…

Do trees communicate? Networks, networks… | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
UBC Professor Suzanne Simard on Mother Trees. I was unfamiliar with how mycorrhizal networks connect the roots of trees, facilitating the sharing of resources. Dr. Suzanne Simard writes: Graduate s...
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I introduce mycorrhizal networks in my literacy of cooperation course, as part of the  module surveying cooperative arrangements in biology at all levels from the subcellular to the ecosystemic.

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Intro to communities of practice | Wenger-Trayner

Intro to communities of practice | Wenger-Trayner | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell:
Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.
Note that this definition allows for, but does not assume, intentionality: learning can be the reason the community comes together or an incidental outcome of member’s interactions. Not everything called a community is a community of practice. A neighborhood for instance, is often called a community, but is usually not a community of practice.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Coordination, cooperation, collaboration involved escalating levels of communication, negotiation, and commitment. The relatively recent theories about communities of practice are an important contribution to a number of discipline -- and the interdisciplinary studey of cooperation and collective action.

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cooperative competencies

cooperative competencies | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Both collaborative behaviours (working together for a common goal) and cooperative behaviours (sharing freely without any quid pro quo) are needed in the network era. Most organizations focus on shorter term collaborative behaviours, but networks thrive on cooperative behaviours, where people share without any direct benefit. This is the major shift we need in creating Enterprise 2.0 or social businesses. Being “social” means being human, and humans are much more than economic units. We like to be helpful and we like to get recognition. We need more than extrinsic compensation and our behaviour on Wikipedia and online social networks proves this. For the most part, we like to help others. This is cooperation, and it makes for more resilient networks. Better networks are better for business.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I always pay attentio to Harold Jarche, who has useful things to say about personal knowledge management. There's a lot of hooey out there about collaboration. Jarche connects collaboration, cooperation, networks and organizations -- human needs, organizational needs, software, and behavior.

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Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy — Medium

Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy - Medium
The backlash against unethical labor practices in the “collaborative sharing economy” has been overplayed. Recently, The Washington Post, New York Times and others started to rail against online labor brokerages like Taskrabbit, Handy, and Uber because of an utter lack of concern for their workers. At the recent Digital Labor conference, my colleague McKenzie Wark proposed that the modes of production that we appear to be entering are not quite capitalism as classically described. “This is not capitalism,” he said, “this is something worse.” [1]

But just for one moment imagine that the algorithmic heart of any of these citadels of anti-unionism could be cloned and brought back to life under a different ownership model, with fair working conditions, as a humane alternative to the free market model.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Are "collaborative consumption" services such as Lyft & AirBNB really "cooperation economy," or are they a new facet of capitalism -- or a hybrid? Trebor Scholz, who coined the term "playbor" to describe the way online participants' voluntary behavior can create profits for others, is hardly a booster of capitalism. An interestingly balanced look at this emerging phenomenon.

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Best ever cooperative boardgames

Best ever cooperative boardgames | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Cooperative boardgames require some mental readjustment. Your fellow players aren’t your opponents; they’re on your team! Either you all beat the game, or you all lose!
Howard Rheingold's insight:

When I asked the late Peter Kollock, an expert on social dilemmas, how to reshape attitudes toward cooperation, he suggested starting with the games children play.

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Mesmerizing Amish Barn Raising Time-Lapse Captures the Incredible Power of Team Work

Mesmerizing Amish Barn Raising Time-Lapse Captures the Incredible Power of Team Work | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"The camera never moves, the interval never changes, there’s no crazy ‘flow-motion’ skills involved and what is captured isn’t a picturesque landscape… and yet, this time-lapse gabbed us and wouldn’t let go.

What’s captured in this three-and-a-half-minute time-lapse is an Amish barn raising… about a month of construction done in all of 10 hours. But more than that, it’s the power of team work."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The Amish barn-raising is a primary archetype of cooperative work. It helps that they are neighbors, mostly cousins, and share a strong belief system that sets them apart from their "English" neighbors. (Ostrom -- strong boundaries are the first design principle for institutions for collective action)

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The Great Promise of Social Co-operatives | David Bollier

The Great Promise of Social Co-operatives | David Bollier | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"While most of us are familiar with consumer or worker coops, the social co-operative is a bit different.  First, it welcomes many types of members – from paid staff and volunteers to service users and family members to social economy investors.  While many coops look and feel like their market brethren, with a keen focus on profit and loss, social coops are committed to meeting social goals such as healthcare, eldercare, social services and workforce integration for former prisoners. They are able to blend market activity with social services provisioning and democratic participation, all in one swoop."


Via june holley
Howard Rheingold's insight:

David Bollier has been thinking very incisively about the commons for years. A co-operative is an institution for collective action. Many think of grocery co-ops or giant economic actors such as Mondragon. Here, Bollier introduces an institution for collective action that is aimed at social, not market goals.

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John Niles's curator insight, July 4, 1:39 PM

Car-sharing is likely to be important for the environmental sustainability of personal mobility as cars become more electronics- and robotics (software)-enabled, thus trending toward cheaper to buy and easier to drive.  

 

Social co-operatives are likely to be important to facilitate the expansion of car-sharing, and you already know that vehicle automation is going to be a facilitating factor for car-sharing.

 

So learn about social co-operatives!

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The Lives of Sociable Spiders

The Lives of Sociable Spiders | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"A new study suggests that predictable social lives accentuate individual quirks and personal styles in spiders that live in groups....But about 25 arachnid species have swapped the hermit’s hair shirt for a more sociable and cooperative strategy, in which dozens or hundreds of spiders pool their powers to exploit resources that would elude a solo player."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Darwin's defenders, who preached "survival of the fittest" and elevated competition to the role of supreme driving force in evolution, knew less about complex interdependencies and cooperative arrangements than we know today. Instead of competing for scarce resources, species from bacteria to arachnids to fishes and mammals sometimes team up to create an abundance of key resources.

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The Evolved Apprentice | The MIT Press

The Evolved Apprentice | The MIT Press | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"IThe Evolved Apprentice, Kim Sterelny argues that the divergence stems from the fact that humans gradually came to enrich the learning environment of the next generation. Humans came to cooperate in sharing information, and to cooperate ecologically and reproductively as well, and these changes initiated positive feedback loops that drove us further from other great apes.

Sterelny develops a new theory of the evolution of human cognition and human social life that emphasizes the gradual evolution of information sharing practices across generations and how information sharing transformed human minds and social lives. Sterelny proposes that humans developed a new form of ecological interaction with their environment, cooperative foraging, which led to positive feedback linking ecological cooperation, cultural learning, and environmental change. The ability to cope with the immense variety of human ancestral environments and social forms, he argues, depended not just on adapted minds but also on adapted developmental environments."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

I have not yet read this, but we're talking about similar aspects of cultural evolution my Literacy of Cooperation course: biology equipped us for social learning, but cultural evolution took over when we began inventing communication media (language, writing) that extend social learning across time and space. 

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How big-hearted babies turn into selfish monsters

How big-hearted babies turn into selfish monsters | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Tracy McVeigh: Our natural instinct for altruism is being destroyed by the demands of modern life, claims a new book
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I'm not so sure it is entirely due to "modern life" -- it might be civilization (i.e., post-agriculture) or there are probably strong differences from culture to culture. But the research seems to indicate that contrary to the old narratives, humans are born altruistic and later learn to be more selfish.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 4, 6:31 PM

We live in a crass, callous and careless world, where priorities are out of whack with our physical and psychological needs.

 

This makes a lot of sense, especially when and if you look at voting patterns and attitudes of people who get older.  Less empathetic, less caring, less in tune with what is right for other people, more authoritarian....

 

What a sad sad species we are.

 

We deserve to die off, especially in our present form.

 

Think about it.

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Think Like a Commoner | Think Like a Commoner

Think Like a Commoner | Think Like a Commoner | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"In our age of predatory markets and make-believe democracy, our troubled political institutions have lost sight of real people and practical realities. But if you look to the edges, ordinary people are reinventing governance and provisioning on their own terms. The commons is arising as a serious, practical alternative to the corrupt Market/State.

The beauty of commons is that we can build them ourselves, right now. But the bigger challenge is, Can we learn to see the commons and, more importantly, to thinklike a commoner?"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

David Bollier has been thinking, writing, and acting about the commons for a long time. I haven't read it yet, but it's on my short list.

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, April 14, 10:50 PM

It sound like an interesting book.

Lia Goren's curator insight, April 15, 9:20 AM

El comentario me dispone a compartirlo por la importancia del tema y para mi propio archivo personal. Es un tema que no quiero dejar de profundizar. 

Vivianne Amaral's curator insight, June 22, 7:03 PM

O desafio maior é: podemos aprender a ver os bens comuns e, mais importante, a pensar como uma pessoa comum? Abandonar qualquer ideia de privilégio?

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Two Enduring Lessons from Elinor Ostrom by Brett M. Frischmann :: SSRN

Two Enduring Lessons from Elinor Ostrom by Brett M. Frischmann :: SSRN | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
This article is a tribute to Elinor Ostrom. It explores two enduring lessons she taught: a substantive lesson that involves embracing complexity and context, an
Howard Rheingold's insight:

The late Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom is an essential figure in understanding human cooperation, especially the way we create workarounds ("institutions for collective action") for social dilemmas (such as "the tragedy of the commons"). But she was a meticulous scientist, which means her writing is often laden with data and methodology and can be slow going. This paper approaches some of Ostrom's key findings in a more readable manner. 

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Understanding The Effects Of Hierarchy In Society

Professor Robert Sapolsky's baboon studies offer insight into the negative effects of hierarchy in society: "f they(baboons) are able to, in one generation transform what are supposed to be textbook social systems sort of engraved in stone, we don’t have any excuse when we say that there are certain inevitabilities about human social systems.”


Via june holley
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Sapolsky is a world-reknowned primatologist who notes an important empirical observation of an instance in which a fiercely hierarchical baboon society was able to re-arrange itself into a more egalitarian, less conflict-ruled social structure.

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Peter Skillen's curator insight, April 5, 9:15 AM

Professor Robert Sapolsky always makes me think deeply about what we assume to be 'the way it is'. But, it doesn't have to be that way.

Lia Goren's curator insight, April 23, 1:31 AM

Interesantísima experiencia del Profesor Robert Sapolsky acerca de los efectos negativos de la jerarquía en la sociedad. ¿Qué pasó en una comunidad de mandriles cuando los machos alfa maltratadores estaban y cuando dejaron de estar? Sorprendente!

El link de la Fundación P2P tiene otras referencias acerca del tema.

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Economists finally test prisoner's dilemma on prisoners

Economists finally test prisoner's dilemma on prisoners | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
For six decades, the classic cooperation test known as the prisoner’s dilemma has been a mainstay of graduate courses on game theory and behavioral economics, not to mention in Hollywood detective series.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Prisoner's Dilemma is the e coli, the fruitfly, of behavioral economics probes of human cooperation, but apparently this is the first published study conducted on actual prisoners -- who turn out, at least in this study, to be more likely to cooperate than defect.

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[eBook] The Peeragogy Handbook (Howard Rheingold)

[eBook] The Peeragogy Handbook (Howard Rheingold) | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

Peeragogy is a collection of techniques for collaborative learning and collaborative work. By learning how to “work smart” together, we hope to leave the world in a better state than it was when we arrived. Indeed, humans have always learned from each other. But for a long time – until the advent of the Web and widespread access to digital media – schools have had an effective monopoly on the business of learning. Now, with access to open educational resources and free or inexpensive communication platforms, groups of people can learn together outside as well as inside formal institutions. All of this prompted us to reconsider the meaning of “peer learning.”

The Peeragogy Handbook isn’t a normal book. It is an evolving guide, and it tells a collaboratively written story that you can help write. Using this book, you will develop new norms for the groups you work with — whether online, offline, or both. Every section includes practical ideas you can apply to build and sustain strong and exciting collaborations. When you read the book, you will get to know the authors and will see how we have applied these ideas: in classrooms, in research, in business, and more. You’ll meet Julian, one of the directors of a housing association; Roland, a professional journalist and change-maker; Charlie, a language teacher and writer who works with experimental media for fun and profit; and Charlotte, an indie publisher who wants to become better at what she does by helping others learn how to do it well too — as well as many other contributors from
around the globe.


Via Edumorfosis, juandoming
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Peeragogy is  about cooperative learning. With collaborative learning, you learn by working on projects together. With cooperative learning, you cultivate a learning community in which each member co-learns with each other member. The peeragogy handbook is a guide for groups of motivated self learners who want to learn a subject cooperatively -- whether or not any of the learners in the group is an expert in the subject they seek to learn.

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Peers Wants To Offer Help (And Some Stability) To Sharing Economy Workers

Peers Wants To Offer Help (And Some Stability) To Sharing Economy Workers | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
“There is an emerging sharing economy workforce,” Peers executive director Shelby Clark told BuzzFeed News. “It’s totally different than anything we’ve ever seen before, it has new needs. So we need to create new products and services that meet those needs.”
To that end, Peers, an online community for sharing economy workers — which according to Clark boasts a quarter of a million people in the network — is rolling out two of the first programs to be made available to its networks of workers on the site’s support marketplace: Homesharing Liability Insurance and Keep Driving.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

One test of whether the sharing economy is  real or mostly hype will be whether this online community thrives or withers.

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Plants talk to each other using an internet of fungus

Plants talk to each other using an internet of fungus | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
It's an information superhighway that speeds up interactions between a large, diverse population of individuals. It allows individuals who may be widely separated to communicate and help each other out. But it also allows them to commit new forms of crime.
No, we're not talking about the internet, we're talking about fungi. While mushrooms might be the most familiar part of a fungus, most of their bodies are made up of a mass of thin threads, known as a mycelium. We now know that these threads act as a kind of underground internet, linking the roots of different plants. That tree in your garden is probably hooked up to a bush several metres away, thanks to mycelia.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Cooperative communication between individuals, among members of a population, among members of a species, between species, is hardwired into biological evolution. Competition and cooperation are in a dance with the environment.

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The Dangerous Hole In The Ozone Layer Is Healing, And It’s Because Of A Global Agreement

The Dangerous Hole In The Ozone Layer Is Healing, And It’s Because Of A Global Agreement | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"According to a United Nations report published Wednesday, the ozone layer — which protects Earth’s inhabitants from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays — is slowly rebuilding itself. Almost more impressive is the fact that the prevention of this harmful hole is happening because of a global treaty: the Montreal Protocol."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Evidence that effective institutions for collective action can be created, even at the global level, even with multiple actors with conflicting agendas.

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Mind-Culture Coevolution: Major Transitions in the Development of Human Culture and Society

"Our theory is thus about processes in the human mind. Those processes evolve in tandem with culture. They require culture for their support while they enable culture through their capacities. In particular, we believe that the genetic elements of culture are to be found in the external world, in the properties of artifacts and behaviors, not inside human heads. Hays first articulated this idea in his book on the evolution of technology and I have developed it in my papers Culture as an Evolutionary Arena"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

I've followed Bill Benzon's writing on evolutionary psychology ever since I read his book, Beethoven's Anvil: Music in Mind and Culture, in which he presents formidable evidence that music emerged as a way to coordinate and synchronize human minds and activities. Although humans are biologically equipped as primates to engage in cooperative activities and social learning, the real progress for our species has kicked in since cultural evolution began consciously building on those biologically evolved capabilities to invent new forms of learning, communication, and collective action.

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The Impact of Elinor Ostrom's Scholarship on Commons Governance in Mexico

The Impact of Elinor Ostrom's Scholarship on Commons Governance in Mexico | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Professor Elinor Ostrom’s work was extremely influential worldwide, and this includes important contributions to Mexican commons governance. From water governance to forest stewardship to small-scale fisheries’ management, Ostrom’s institutional
Howard Rheingold's insight:

This chapter in an edited volume focuses on the important impact that Ostrom's research and findings have had on actual policy-making around commons. Ostrom had complained that policy decisions were made about management of common pool resources in absence of knowledge by policy-makers of the considerable empirical research by Ostrom and others. The common wisdom that these endangered resources can only be preserved by privatization or state ownership or control turns out to be incomplete if not wrong -- as Ostrom has documented in many cases, people all over the world have come up with their own informal arrangements that have worked with resources from water use to hunting, fishing, and logging.

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P2P Foundation's blog » Blog Archive » The Governance of Online Creation Communities for the Building of Digital Commons

P2P Foundation's blog » Blog Archive » The Governance of Online Creation Communities for the Building of Digital Commons | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"This chapter addresses the governance of a specific type of constructed common-pool resource, online creation communities (OCCs).OCCs are communities of individuals that mainly interact via a platform of online participation, with the goal of building and sharing a common-pool resource resulting from collaboratively systematizing and integrating dispersed information and knowledge resources. Previous research of the governance of OCCs has been based on analyzing specific aspects of the governance. However, there has been a gap in the literature, one of lacking a comprehensive and holistic view of what governance means in collective action online. "

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The author of this paper, Mayo Fuster Morell, was one of my first students. She applies the framework of institutional governance of commons pioneered by Elinor Ostrom to online creation communities such as those that created Wikipedia. 

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Framework: Collaborative Economy Honeycomb | Web Strategy by Jeremiah Owyang | Digital Business

Framework: Collaborative Economy Honeycomb | Web Strategy by Jeremiah Owyang | Digital Business | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Howard Rheingold's insight:

An insightful infographic, backed up with stats, by a savvy group of social media analysts (thousands of people claim to be social media experts, but Owyang, Gansky,Gorenflo,  Solis, Samuel, and others really know their material. Collaborative economy is about ways that digital media enable people to interact economically in ways and at scales that were not before possible.

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Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy - OpenMind

Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy - OpenMind | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"The commons is a way of allocating access and use rights in resources that does not give anyone exclusive rights to exclude anyone else.

A city street is a commons: anyone who has a car or a bicycle can drive on the road; anyone who can walk or use a wheelchair can travel the sidewalks. No individual or company has the right to exclude anyone or charge them for access. From streets and highways, to canals and waterways, major shipping lanes and navigable rivers; basic scientific knowledge, mathematical algorithms, basic ideas; all these have been kept as commons in modern market economies because they provide enormous freedom of action to a wide range of productive behaviors—both economic and social.

Wikipedia and the free open source software have become examples of remarkable innovation in the production of information."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The commons is not just about grazing pastures, watersheds, fisheries. The Internet is a commons. So is a sidewalk. Yochai Benklert has been the foremost spokesman for the notion that a new form of economic production -- in addition to the firm and the market -- has arisen because of digital media and networks: "commons-based peer production." This piece is a good short introduction to the ideas Benkler covers at length in his book, Wealth of Networks.

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Eight Points of Reference for Commoning | David Bollier

Eight Points of Reference for Commoning | David Bollier | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"One of the great achievements of the late Professor Elinor Ostrom was the identification of key design principles for successful commons.  She set forth eight of them in her landmark 1990 book, Governing the Commons.  The wording of those principles is aimed at social scientists who study the management of common-pool resources from a neutral, non-participatory, scientific perspective.  As a result, the principles are not as accessible to the general public, nor do they reflect the direct experiences and first-person voice of commoners.    

The first German Sommerschool on the Commons, which took place in Bechstedt/Thuringia in June 2012, decided to remedy this problem.  Participants took part in intense debates over what a new set of principles for commoning – based on the Ostrom principles – might look like if they reflected the personal perspective of commoners themselves.  The result is a statement, "Eight Points of Reference for Commoning,” which can be seen as a re-interpretation – remix? – of Ostrom's design principles".  

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Ostrom is fundamental. Her writing is technical. This version remixes Ostrom's design principles for successful instituitions for collective action into more vernacular language.

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Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom

Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"a six week course using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks, synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter to introduce the fundamentals of an interdisciplinary study of cooperation: social dilemmas, institutions for collective action, the commons, evolution of cooperation, technologies of cooperation, and cooperative arrangements in biology from cells to ecosystems."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

This is the fifth time I've presented this (totally online) course; it has evolved each time, as I learn from my colearners. The meta-learning here is the practice of using social media and peer learning to cultivate a learning community among former strangers in a short period of time. This year, the course runs from April 30 to June 12. Limit 30 learners. Contact howard@rheingold.com if interested.

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Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom

Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
a six week course using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks, synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter to introduce the fundamentals of an interdisciplinary study of cooperation: social dilemmas, institutions for collective action, the commons, evolution of cooperation, technologies of cooperation, and cooperative arrangements in biology from cells to ecosystems.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I plan to offer a version of this in May-June. Let me know via email to howard at rheingold dot com if you want to be notified.

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Inteligência coletiva's curator insight, March 1, 5:28 PM

O Rheingold disponibilizou a  pagina wiki do seu curso "Social media in the classroom", onde podemos explorar alguns recursos...

Gostei do artigo(blog post) de David Wiley sobre a comparação entre as  relações biológicas  inter espécies  e a organização  (cooperação) nas dinâmicas de relacionamento nas comunidades virtuais.