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Direct measurements of the wave nature of matter, previously only known from theory

Direct measurements of the wave nature of matter, previously only known from theory | Content in Context | Scoop.it
At the heart of quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality: matter and light possess both wave-like and particle-like attributes. Typically, the wave-like properties are inferred indirectly from the behavior of many electrons or photons, though it's sometimes possible to study them directly. However, there are fundamental limitations to those experiments—namely information about the wave properties of matter that is inherently inaccessible.And therein lies a loophole: two groups used indirect experiments to reconstruct the wave structure of electrons. A.S. Stodolna and colleagues manipulated hydrogen atoms to measure their electron's wave structure, validating more than 30 years of theoretical work on the phenomenon known as the Stark effect. A second experiment by Daniel Lüftner and collaborators reconstructed the electronic structure of individual organic molecules through repeated scanning, with each step providing a higher resolution. In both cases, the researchers were able to match theoretical predictions to their results, verifying some previously challenging aspects of quantum mechanics.Neither a wave nor a particle description can describe all experimental results obtained by physicists. Photons interfere with each other and themselves like waves when they pass through openings in a barrier, yet they show up as individual points of light on a phosphorescent screen. Electrons create orbital patterns inside atoms described by three-dimensional waves, yet they undergo collisions as if they were particles. Certain experiments are able to reconstruct the distribution of electric charge inside materials, which appears very wave-like, yet the atoms look like discrete bodies in those same experiments.The wave functions in the Stark effect have a peculiar mathematical property, one which Stodolna and colleagues recreated in the lab. They separated individual hydrogen atoms from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) molecules, then subjected them to a series of laser pulses to induce specific energy transitions inside the atoms. By measuring the ways the light scattered, the researchers were able to recreate the predicted wave functions—the first time this has been accomplished. The authors also argued that this method, known as photoionization microscopy, could be used to reconstruct wavefunctions for other atoms and molecules.Lüftner and colleagues took a different approach and examined the wave functions of organic molecules chemically attached (adsorbed) on a silver surface. Specifically, they looked at pentacene (C22H14) and the easy-to-remember compound perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracboxylic dianhydride (or PTCDA, C24H8O6). Unlike hydrogen, the wave functions for these molecules cannot be calculated exactly. They usually require using "ab initio" computer models.The researchers were particularly interested in finding the phase, that bit of the wave function that can't be measured directly. They determined that they could reconstruct it by using the particular way the molecules bonded to the surface, which enhanced their response to photons of a specific wavelength. The experiment involved taking successive iterative measurements by exciting the molecules using light, then measuring the angles at which the photons were scattered away.Reconstructing the phase of the wave function required exploiting the particular mathematical form it took in this system. Specifically, the waves had a relatively sharp edge, allowing the researchers to make an initial guess and then refine the value as they took successive measurements. Even with this sophisticated process, they were only able to determine the phase to an arbitrary precision—something entirely to be expected from fundamental quantum principles. However, they were able to experimentally reconstruct the entire wave function of a molecule. There was previously no way to check whether our calculated wave functions were accurate or not.REFERENCES:Physical Review Letters, 2013. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.213001 andPNAS, 2013. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1315716110 (About DOIs).
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Augmented Collective Intelligence
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Citizen science draws amateurs into scientific research | Harvard Magazine Jan-Feb 2014

Citizen science draws amateurs into scientific research | Harvard Magazine Jan-Feb 2014 | Content in Context | Scoop.it
"FOLDIT IS PART of a growing trend toward citizen science: enabling ordinary people, often without formal training, to contribute to scientific research in their spare time. The range of involvement varies. Some citizen scientists donate idle time on their home computers for use in solving problems large in scale (the search for intergalactic objects, as in Einstein@home) or small (folding proteins). Other projects encourage participants to contribute small bits of data about themselves or their environments. The Great Sunflower Project, for instance, provides a platform for logging and sharing observations of pollinators like bees and wasps. Still other efforts enlist laypeople to tag and analyze images: Eyewire, for example, a game developed by Sebastian Seung ’86, Ph.D. ’90, a professor of computational neuroscience at MIT, involves participants in mapping neurons in the brain."
Via Howard Rheingold
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Peer2Politics
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Liquid Democracy: The App That Turns Everyone into a Politician

Liquid Democracy: The App That Turns Everyone into a Politician | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Liquid Democracy is one of the boldest contemporary innovations in democratic decision-making. The idea uses web technology that allows users to interact in new ways. Its primary innovators are located in Berlin, and Germany has been the first to adopt and apply Liquid Democracy systems in the context of political parties, parliamentary processes, and some organizations.
Via jean lievens
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Papers
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How Can the Study of Complexity Transform Our Understanding of the World?

How Can the Study of Complexity Transform Our Understanding of the World? | Content in Context | Scoop.it
The “study of complexity” refers to the attempt to find common principles underlying the behavior of complex systems—systems in which large collections of components interact in nonlinear ways. Here, the term nonlinear implies that the system can’t be understood simply by understanding its individual components; nonlinear interactions cause the whole to be “more than the sum of its parts.”How Can the Study of Complexity Transform Our Understanding of the World?Melanie Mitchellhttps://www.bigquestionsonline.com/content/how-can-study-complexity-transform-our-understanding-world
Via Complexity Digest
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MEMEnomics; An Evolutionary Journey through Western Capitalism, Said Dawlabani

MEMEnomics; An Evolutionary Journey through Western Capitalism, Said Dawlabani | Content in Context | Scoop.it
MEMEnomics; The Next-Generation Economic System is a book that reframes the American experience of capitalism through an evolutionary lens. The book represents the culmination of ten years of work by author Said E. Dawlabani. He is an integrally informed cultural economist and a practitioner of Spiral Dynamics Integral. The framework represents a whole-systems, integrated model that places economic activity into an emergent values context. This is one of the first applications of the bio-psycho-social development model originally pioneered by psychologist Clare W. Graves to macroeconomic issues. MEMEnomics uses Graves' framework, the research of his successor Don Beck, and the author's in depth knowledge of finance and real estate to place the long-established field of economics into a values-based evolutionary model.
Via jean lievens
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What storytelling does to our brains

What storytelling does to our brains | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Storytelling is one of the most overused and underused techniques at the same time. In this post, we are revealing what storytelling does to our brains.
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Europe in the creative age, revisited - Demos Quarterly

Europe in the creative age, revisited - Demos Quarterly | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Demos Quarterly is an online magazine of political ideas, published by the British think-tank Demos.
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What Happens To Music After Net Neutrality?

What Happens To Music After Net Neutrality? | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Years ago, I believed experts who said Net Neutrality wasn't a big deal for two reasons. First, It never really existed in the first place (because many ISPs prioritize traffic in some way, say, for or against online gaming).
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Yeah, You Can Invest In The Stock Market Like A Nerd, But The Cool Kids Are Investing In Hope

Yeah, You Can Invest In The Stock Market Like A Nerd, But The Cool Kids Are Investing In Hope | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ Things that matter. Pass 'em on.”
Via jean lievens
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Global Brain
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The Global Brain

The Global Brain | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ Here's a paper by David Weinbaum that invokes stigmergy, my first mention of stigmergy and the global brain this year.”
Via Spaceweaver
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Content Curation World
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An Introductory Guide to Content Curation

An Introductory Guide to Content Curation | Content in Context | Scoop.it

Via Robin Good
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Alfredo Corell's curator insight, January 23, 2014 3:25 PM

A very useful guide from one of the Pioneers in Content Curation

Bookmarking Librarian's curator insight, April 1, 2014 10:35 PM
Content curation
Anne-Laure Conté's curator insight, December 14, 2015 3:04 AM

What about a test on this matter at the baccalaureat ?

Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Peer2Politics
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The shape of things to come

The shape of things to come | Content in Context | Scoop.it
A self-confessed 'pretty unlikely early adopter', the digital guru Clay Shirky still proved to be uncannily prescient about the impact of the web - which is why Tom Teodorczuk is getting his media forecast for 2009
Via jean lievens
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Curate Your Own Wiki-Guide with the Wikipedia Book Create Tool

Help:Books - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are almost no limits when creating books from Wikipedia content. A good book focuses on a certain topic and covers it as well as possible. A meaningful title helps other users to have the correct expectation regarding the content of a book.


Via Robin Good
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Curation & The Future of Publishing
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Interest-based Content Curation Publishing: the cure for Content Shock?

Interest-based Content Curation Publishing: the cure for Content Shock? | Content in Context | Scoop.it
In a recent post, top content marketer and blogger Mark Schaefer scored a hit and started a big controversy by predicting the end of content marketing as we know it because of a forecasted Content Shock. With Content Marketing having been all the rage these past few years, his post made some noise generating responses and debate from many. And while a lot of people have given numerous arguments as to why he’s right or wrong – including Shel Holtz who argues that as content consumers we become better and better at filtering content through various curation tools – nobody yet has looked at the role publishing-by-curation and the interest graph played in that picture.
Via Guillaume Decugis
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Papers
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Twitter Trends Help Researchers Forecast Viral Memes

Twitter Trends Help Researchers Forecast Viral Memes | Content in Context | Scoop.it
What makes a meme— an idea, a phrase, an image—go viral? For starters, the meme must have broad appeal, so it can spread not just within communities of like-minded individuals but can leap from one community to the next. Researchers, by mining public Twitter data, have found that a meme's “virality” is often evident from the start. After only a few dozen tweets, a typical viral meme (as defined by tweets using a given hashtag) will already have caught on in numerous communities of Twitter users. In contrast, a meme destined to peter out will resonate in fewer groups.
Via Claudia Mihai, Complexity Digest
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Content Curation and Marketing
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Capture the Attention of Your Clients by Being Contrarian

Capture the Attention of Your Clients by Being Contrarian | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“We asked 20 experts for counter-intuitive, contrarian advice on content marketing. Here are 20 tips you don't hear often.”
Via Barry Deutsch
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There's a New Law in Physics and It Changes Everything

There's a New Law in Physics and It Changes Everything | Content in Context | Scoop.it
I first came across the work of Adrian Bejan through my old friend, J.
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Technology Is Not Driving Us Apart After All

Technology Is Not Driving Us Apart After All | Content in Context | Scoop.it
It turns out, we may be more social than we were 30 years ago — at least in public spaces.
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Beyond Civilized and Primitive

Beyond Civilized and Primitive | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Western industrial society tells a story about itself that goes like this: "A long time ago, our ancestors were 'primitive'. They lived in caves, were stupid, hit each other with clubs, and had short, stressful lives in which they were constantly on the verge of starving or being eaten by saber-toothed cats. Then we invented 'civilization', in which we started growing food, being nice to each other, getting smarter, inventing marvelous technologies, and everywhere replacing chaos with order. It's getting better all the time and will continue forever."
Via jean lievens
Jesse Soininen's insight:
If you read only one long read article on this decade then this might be the one!
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Rescooped by Jesse Soininen from Content Curation World
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Filter Out Anything You Don't Want To See Again with Rather

Filter Out Anything You Don't Want To See Again with Rather | Content in Context | Scoop.it

"Block babies, Upworthy, twerking, annoying friends, awful coworkers, and anything else you hate with things you'd rather see, like cats."


Via Robin Good
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Beth Kanter's curator insight, January 15, 2014 1:18 PM

More on filtering out the noise.

Louise B-Johnston's curator insight, January 16, 2014 7:02 AM

I can't wait to try this out! It would be great to be able to filter what I want to see, rather than rely on FB doing it for me & often getting it wrong!

laura mata's curator insight, January 16, 2014 9:24 AM

Filtra los contenidos que sí o que  no sdeseas ver...

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The History of the English Language, Animated

The History of the English Language, Animated | Content in Context | Scoop.it
"The Sun never sets on the English language."

The history of language, that peculiar human faculty that Darwin believed was half art and
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How the Friendship Paradox Makes Your Friends Better Than You Are | MIT Technology Review

How the Friendship Paradox Makes Your Friends Better Than You Are  | MIT Technology Review | Content in Context | Scoop.it
The friendship paradox is the empirical observation that your friends have more friends than you do. Now network scientists say your friends are probably wealthier and happier, too.
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A Little List of Algorithm-based Content Aggregator Websites - ScottCowley.com

A Little List of Algorithm-based Content Aggregator Websites - ScottCowley.com | Content in Context | Scoop.it
A list of algorithm-based content aggregators, including hybrids with voting or editorial components. These are the best of the best.
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