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Social Dynamics of Science

Social Dynamics of Science | Content in Context | Scoop.it

The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

 

Social Dynamics of Science

Xiaoling Sun, Jasleen Kaur, Staša Milojević, Alessandro Flammini & Filippo Menczer

Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1069 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep01069


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The Next Phase of Social Business is the Collaborative Economy says Jeremiah Owyang of Altimeter

The Next Phase of Social Business is the Collaborative Economy says Jeremiah Owyang of Altimeter | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Jesse Soininen's insight:

The roles of economy as we know them now are slowly shifting. Ultimately the power of being co-creator (formerly known as the "customer") will have much lager effect than most of us are willing to anticipate now.

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Catherine Pascal's curator insight, March 2, 10:46 AM

Very interesting . Thanks !

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APIs are coming. Welcome to the B2B Sharing Economy

APIs are coming. Welcome to the B2B Sharing Economy | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ Or why APIs , by lowering market transactions costs, are reshaping of the economy we know and enable a new generation of entrepreneurs.”
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Manfred Bortenschlager's curator insight, July 21, 9:08 AM

An interesting argument regarding APIs disrupting the Theory of the Firm and the consequences on transaction costs, which will have a substantial impact on how we create and run organisations in the future. 

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Mike Norman Economics: How the Iron Law of Oligarchy Extends to Peer Production

This is the dilemma facing humanity since the advent of liberalism in the Enlightenment. There is an inherent tension between popular, participatory democracy and efficient organization. The social, political and economic challenge is to work out tradeoffs that enable humanity to recapture the liberty and dignity of Rousseau's noble savage"while also harnessing the advantage of modern organization and management.

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Noah Raford » How to Build a Collective Intelligence Platform to Crowdsource Almost Anything

Noah Raford » How to Build a Collective Intelligence Platform to Crowdsource Almost Anything | Content in Context | Scoop.it
The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence recently published an important overview of the theory and mechanisms behind successful crowdsourcing efforts. Their report, called “Harnessing Crowds: Mapping the Genome of Collective Intelligence“, can be found here.
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Milestone in the methods of collective intelligence practices
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The Rich and Their Robots Are About to Make Half the World's Jobs Disappear

The Rich and Their Robots Are About to Make Half the World's Jobs Disappear | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“So where does that leave the world's working class?”
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A brief history of the workspace

A brief history of the workspace | Content in Context | Scoop.it
The office: was it better before? Not so sure. Our ancestors would be shocked to see the way we work today: "comfortably" and in coworking spaces. But what did the office look like before the arrival of design, ergonomics, open space … and even the rolling office chair? We took a trip back to the past, to understand how coworking today revolutionizes our understanding of the workspace. Office work has always been associated with administrative and intellectual production. The treatment of more timely information and a quest for ever greater productivity has led to the changes in the workspace through the centuries. Much like monks in their time, the office was initially isolated. Since then, our workplaces have become more functional, productive, but also subsequently places of interaction and socialization, where the human dimension has emerged gradually. The term “community work” is also more recent than we think.
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The birth of cooperation

Mutually beneficial associations between individuals of different species, called mutualistic symbioses, have enabled major ecological innovations and underlie some of the major transitions in evolution. For example, the ancestor of plants domesticated endosymbiotic photosynthetic bacteria, today's chloroplasts, for carbon fixation. This association dramatically increased the habitat of these photosynthetic bacteria from the sea to terrestrial ecosystems. However, the colonization of land by plants required an additional symbiotic association, with fungal root symbionts that facilitate nutrient uptake. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how mutualistic symbioses evolved and persist.The birth of cooperationDuur K. Aanen, Ton BisselingScience 4 July 2014: Vol. 345 no. 6192 pp. 29-30 http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256542
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New State of Matter Discovered: Quantum Droplets of Electrons and their Holes

New State of Matter Discovered: Quantum Droplets of Electrons and their Holes | Content in Context | Scoop.it
There was a time when states of matter were simple: Solid, liquid, gas. Then came plasma, Bose -Einstein condensate, supercritical fluid and more. Now the list has grown by one more, with the unexpected discovery of a new state dubbed “dropletons” that bear some resemblance to liquids but occur under very different circumstances. The discovery occurred when a team at the University of Colorado Joint Institute for Lab Astrophysics were focusing laser light on gallium arsenide (GaAs) to create excitons. Interacting many-body systems are characterized by stable configurations of objects—ranging from elementary particles to cosmological formations1, 2, 3—that also act as building blocks for more complicated structures. It is often possible to incorporate interactions in theoretical treatments of crystalline solids by introducing suitable quasiparticles that have an effective mass, spin or charge4, 5 which in turn affects the material’s conductivity, optical response or phase transitions2, 6, 7. Additional quasiparticle interactions may also create strongly correlated configurations yielding new macroscopic phenomena, such as the emergence of a Mott insulator8, superconductivity or the pseudogap phase of high-temperature superconductors9, 10,11. In semiconductors, a conduction-band electron attracts a valence-band hole (electronic vacancy) to create a bound pair, known as an exciton12, 13, which is yet another quasiparticle. Two excitons may also bind together to give molecules, often referred to as biexcitons14, and even polyexcitons may exist15, 16. In indirect-gap semiconductors such as germanium or silicon, a thermodynamic phase transition may produce electron–hole droplets whose diameter can approach the micrometre range17, 18. In direct-gap semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, the exciton lifetime is too short for such a thermodynamic process. Instead, different quasiparticle configurations are stabilized dominantly by many-body interactions, not by thermalization. The resulting non-equilibrium quantum kinetics is so complicated that stable aggregates containing three or more Coulomb-correlated electron–hole pairs remain mostly unexplored.Researchers now studied such a complex aggregates and identified a new stable configuration of charged particles called a quantum droplet. This configuration exists in a plasma and exhibits quantization owing to its small size. It is charge neutral and contains a small number of particles with a pair-correlation function that is characteristic of a liquid. There is experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of quantum droplets in an electron–hole plasma created in a gallium arsenide quantum well by ultrashort optical pulses.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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The Many Commandments of Social Media Argumentation - Colabria

The Many Commandments of Social Media Argumentation - Colabria | Content in Context | Scoop.it
The Many Commandments of Social Media Argumentation
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Why Replacing Hierarchies is the Future of Work | Switch and Shift

Why Replacing Hierarchies is the Future of Work | Switch and Shift | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ Worry less about the future of work and notice what is happening right now.”
Via Kathryn Hopkins
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What's the Future of the Workplace?

MIT professor Thomas Malone predicts that new technologies will enable more decentralized decision making and ultimately more freedom in business.
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Content Discovery: RSS and the Power of Dynamic OPML Subscriptions

Content Discovery: RSS and the Power of Dynamic OPML Subscriptions | Content in Context | Scoop.it

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Fernando Zamith's curator insight, June 16, 3:19 AM

Parece interessante. Estou a experimentar.

Karen Bowden's comment, June 16, 9:54 AM
This is great! I love it! I can't wait to share some of my own lists. Thank you so much for posting this.
Robin Good's comment, June 16, 10:29 AM
Hi Karen, happy to see that you found this as useful as i did.
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US group plans floating cities with 'start-up governments'

US group plans floating cities with 'start-up governments' | Content in Context | Scoop.it
The Seasteading Institute says it hopes the floating microcountries will allow for experimentation with new ideas which current governments are too large to try. Seasteading communication director Joe Quirk says the floating cities create room for "start-up governments". "When you consider that nearly half the world's surface is a blank slate, unclaimed by existing governments, you see the potential in creating a thousand start-up governments in the sea," he said. "Seasteading comes from a very Silicon Valley perspective, that basically we don't think 193 national governments represent the range of ideas that 7 billion creative people have produced. "We think we need a sort of start-up sector for the government, a sort of Silicon Valley of the sea, where 21st century ideas for governance can be tried. .
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Spaceweaver's curator insight, June 12, 5:38 AM

Interesting!

Eli Levine's curator insight, June 12, 7:36 AM

Interesting, but expensive financially and resource-wise, and potentially dangerous to the people living in those societies and in need of networking in order to get a real national/international feel to how things work.

 

I don't understand how it wouldn't be a good thing to just re-examine history and to see how societies tick and how each society ticks and works with others.  It would save a lot of money, resources, effort, time and risk to the people who may (or may not) live on these islands.

 

The only benefit that I could see with these islands is that we may need them as the sea levels rise to provide shelter for as many people as possible, to keep our inland areas safe and habitable.  Most people live on the coast, after all, and the coast is set to move.  This may be a good solution for housing people who are going to be displaced by the rising sea levels.

 

Think about it.

Complexity Digest's comment, June 13, 7:43 PM
This could go wrong in so many ways...
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Lawrence H. Summers on the future of the global economy: The great challenge will be creating jobs.

Lawrence H. Summers on the future of the global economy: The great challenge will be creating jobs. | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ The former Treasury secretary says the problem will not be producing enough. It will be providing enough work.”
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subBlue / Tom Beddard - explore mathematical and generative landscapes

subBlue / Tom Beddard - explore mathematical and generative landscapes | Content in Context | Scoop.it
A coder, designer and ex-physicist who likes to explore mathematical and generative landscapes and structures searching for the beauty that can emerge from complexity!An app and graphics developer with an interest in UI, maps, generative graphics, fractals and raytracing.www.subblue.com
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Mike Norman Economics: How the Iron Law of Oligarchy Extends to Peer Production

This is the dilemma facing humanity since the advent of liberalism in the Enlightenment. There is an inherent tension between popular, participatory democracy and efficient organization. The social, political and economic challenge is to work out tradeoffs that enable humanity to recapture the liberty and dignity of Rousseau's noble savage"while also harnessing the advantage of modern organization and management.

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Crowdsourcing in Policy-Making: The Impact of Blended Expertise on Law-Making Process

“ Speaker/Performer: Tanja Aitamurto, Visiting Scholar, Data and Democracy Initiative at UC Berkeley Sponsor: CITRIS (Ctr for Info Technology Research in the I...”
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PauletteP's curator insight, July 14, 6:55 AM

Traffic law reform in Finland as a case study in crowd sourcing policy making

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Google co-founders share their philosophy and vision about world's future, and it's full of robots and AI

Google co-founders share their philosophy and vision about world's future, and it's full of robots and AI | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ Larry Page and Sergey Brin, the co-founders of one of the most innovative companies of our time, have spoken a lot about the past and the impending future of Google.”
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Airbnb CEO spells out the end game for the sharing economy, in 7 quotes

Airbnb CEO spells out the end game for the sharing economy, in 7 quotes | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ Brian Chesky, wants a world more like the villages of old: highly trusting and filled with micro-entrepreneurs who shared their assets to make a living.”
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The structure and dynamics of multilayer networks

In the past years, network theory has successfully characterized the interaction among the constituents of a variety of complex systems, ranging from biological to technological, and social systems. However, up until recently, attention was almost exclusively given to networks in which all components were treated on equivalent footing, while neglecting all the extra information about the temporal- or context-related properties of the interactions under study. Only in the last years, taking advantage of the enhanced resolution in real data sets, network scientists have directed their interest to the multiplex character of real-world systems, and explicitly considered the time-varying and multilayer nature of networks. We offer here a comprehensive review on both structural and dynamical organization of graphs made of diverse relationships (layers) between its constituents, and cover several relevant issues, from a full redefinition of the basic structural measures, to understanding how the multilayer nature of the network affects processes and dynamics.The structure and dynamics of multilayer networksS. Boccaletti, G. Bianconi, R. Criado, C.I. del Genio, J. Gómez-Gardeñes, M. Romance, I. Sendiña-Nadal, Z. Wang, M. Zaninhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1407.0742
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Singularity 1 on 1: Jeremy Rifkin on the Zero Marginal Cost Society and the Decline of Capitalism

Singularity 1 on 1: Jeremy Rifkin on the Zero Marginal Cost Society and the Decline of Capitalism | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“ A one-of-a-kind conversation with Jeremy Rifkin discussing “The Zero Marginal Cost Society” and the decline of capitalism.”
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Spaceweaver's curator insight, June 30, 8:30 AM

Interesting and a must read...

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Theoretical physics: The origins of space and time

Theoretical physics: The origins of space and time | Content in Context | Scoop.it
Many researchers believe that physics will not be complete until it can explain not just the behavior of space and time, but where these entities come from.“Imagine waking up one day and realizing that you actually live inside a computer game,” says Mark Van Raamsdonk, describing what sounds like a pitch for a science-fiction film. But for Van Raamsdonk, a physicist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, this scenario is a way to think about reality. If it is true, he says, “everything around us — the whole three-dimensional physical world — is an illusion born from information encoded elsewhere, on a two-dimensional chip”. That would make our Universe, with its three spatial dimensions, a kind of hologram, projected from a substrate that exists only in lower dimensions.This 'holographic principle' is strange even by the usual standards of theoretical physics. But Van Raamsdonk is one of a small band of researchers who think that the usual ideas are not yet strange enough. If nothing else, they say, neither of the two great pillars of modern physics — general relativity, which describes gravity as a curvature of space and time, and quantum mechanics, which governs the atomic realm — gives any account for the existence of space and time. Neither does string theory, which describes elementary threads of energy.Van Raamsdonk and his colleagues are convinced that physics will not be complete until it can explain how space and time emerge from something more fundamental — a project that will require concepts at least as audacious as holography. They argue that such a radical reconceptualization of reality is the only way to explain what happens when the infinitely dense 'singularity' at the core of a black hole distorts the fabric of space-time beyond all recognition, or how researchers can unify atomic-level quantum theory and planet-level general relativity — a project that has resisted theorists' efforts for generations.“All our experiences tell us we shouldn't have two dramatically different conceptions of reality — there must be one huge overarching theory,” says Abhay Ashtekar, a physicist at Pennsylvania State University in University Park.Finding that one huge theory is a daunting challenge. Here, Nature explores some promising lines of attack — as well as some of the emerging ideas about how to test these concepts (see 'The fabric of reality').
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Guillaume Decugis's curator insight, June 24, 7:52 AM

A recap on the unifying theories that could explain the fabric of our universe.

Tekrighter's curator insight, June 25, 6:36 AM

Gravity as thermodynamics reinforces the idea of gravity as an emergent property of space-time...

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Engaging Employees: 3 Ways To Actually Do It

Engaging Employees: 3 Ways To Actually Do It | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“Start by talking about impact, not financial performance.”
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Richard Lock's curator insight, June 18, 12:06 AM

Good example of the clear benefits of genuine engagement.

Jean-Guy Frenette's curator insight, June 18, 6:33 PM

PDGLead

Wanda McKenzie's curator insight, June 27, 5:42 PM

ENPS is the 3rd one

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A Curated Collection of The Best Search Engines Organized Around Your Needs

A Curated Collection of The Best Search Engines Organized Around Your Needs | Content in Context | Scoop.it

Via Robin Good, R.Conrath, Ed.D.
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Fatima Formariz's curator insight, March 31, 2:41 PM

Refining research by choosing best fitting search engines..

Steve Whitmore's curator insight, June 17, 4:59 AM

Good reference list. I didn't realize there were so many search engines.

Pushpa Kunasegaran's curator insight, June 19, 4:58 PM

This is an excellent resource!

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The Best Sharing Happens Offline

The Best Sharing Happens Offline | Content in Context | Scoop.it
“Lisa Gansky, Robin Chase and Seth Godin came together to discuss the sharing economy and the ways that value is created through connecting people.”
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▶ Michel Bauwens interview with Layne Hartsell 2/3 - YouTube


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