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Steve Wozniak is a pioneer of the digital age, he was one of the three founders of Apple Computer, setting up in Steve Jobs' garage in 1976. Woz, as he is al...
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The roles of economy as we know them now are slowly shifting. Ultimately the power of being co-creator (formerly known as the "customer") will have much lager effect than most of us are willing to anticipate now.
Very interesting . Thanks !
Parece interessante. Estou a experimentar.
Interesting, but expensive financially and resource-wise, and potentially dangerous to the people living in those societies and in need of networking in order to get a real national/international feel to how things work.
I don't understand how it wouldn't be a good thing to just re-examine history and to see how societies tick and how each society ticks and works with others. It would save a lot of money, resources, effort, time and risk to the people who may (or may not) live on these islands.
The only benefit that I could see with these islands is that we may need them as the sea levels rise to provide shelter for as many people as possible, to keep our inland areas safe and habitable. Most people live on the coast, after all, and the coast is set to move. This may be a good solution for housing people who are going to be displaced by the rising sea levels.
Think about it.
Interesting and a must read...
A recap on the unifying theories that could explain the fabric of our universe.
Gravity as thermodynamics reinforces the idea of gravity as an emergent property of space-time...
Good example of the clear benefits of genuine engagement.
ENPS is the 3rd one
Refining research by choosing best fitting search engines..
Good reference list. I didn't realize there were so many search engines.
This is an excellent resource!
What differentiates crowdsourcing from co-creation? These two buzzwords are used a variety of contexts today, which leads to a general confusion about the difference between these terms which are, let’s admit it, conceptually close. Even Quora’s answers are more confusing than enlightning!Joyce Van Dijk brings a valuable contribution to the discussion, and in this post we will complement it by findings from an academic paper, Crowdsourcing of Inventive Activities : Definition and Limits (Penin & Burger-Helmchen, 2011). This blog post builds on this research to highlight the advantages and limits of crowdsourcing… and the complementary role of co-creation.
Economics has a beautiful body of theory. But does it describe real markets? Doubts have come up not only in the wake of the financial crisis, since financial crashes should not occur according to the then established theories. Since ages, economic theory is based on concepts such as efficient markets and the “homo economicus”, i.e. the assumption of competitively optimizing individuals and firms. It was believed that any behavior deviating from this would create disadvantages and, hence, be eliminated by natural selection. But experimental evidence from behavioral economics show that, on average, people behave more fairness-oriented and other-regarding than expected. A new theory by scientists from ETH Zurich now explains why.
Evolution of “friendliness”
Prof. Dirk Helbing of ETH Zurich, who coordinated the study, adds: “Compared to conventional models for the evolution of social cooperation, we have distinguished between the actual behavior – cooperation or not – and an inherited character trait, describing the degree of other-regarding preferences, which we call the friendliness.” The actual behavior considers not only the own advantage (“payoff”), but also gives a weight to the payoff of the interaction partners depending on the individual friendliness. For the “homo economicus”, the weight is zero. The friendliness spreads from one generation to the next according to natural selection. This is merely based on the own payoff, but mutations happen.
For most parameter combinations, the model predicts the evolution of a payoff-maximizing “homo economicus” with selfish preferences, as assumed by a great share of the economic literature. Very surprisingly, however, biological selection may create a “homo socialis” with other-regarding preferences, namely if offsprings tend to stay close to their parents. In such a case, clusters of friendly people, who are “conditionally cooperative”, may evolve over time.
If an unconditionally cooperative individual is born by chance, it may be exploited by everyone and not leave any offspring. However, if born in a favorable, conditionally cooperative environment, it may trigger cascade-like transitions to cooperative behavior, such that other-regarding behavior pays off. Consequently, a “homo socialis” spreads.
Networked minds create a cooperative human species
“This has fundamental implications for the way, economic theories should look like,” underlines Professor Helbing. Most of today’s economic knowledge is for the “homo economicus”, but people wonder whether that theory really applies. A comparable body of work for the “homo socialis” still needs to be written.
While the “homo economicus” optimizes its utility independently, the “homo socialis” puts himself or herself into the shoes of others to consider their interests as well,” explains Grund, and Helbing adds: “This establishes something like “networked minds”. Everyone’s decisions depend on the preferences of others.” This becomes even more important in our networked world.
A participatory kind of economy
How will this change our economy? Today, many customers doubt that they get the best service by people who are driven by their own profits and bonuses. “Our theory predicts that the level of other-regarding preferences is distributed broadly, from selfish to altruistic. Academic education in economics has largely promoted the selfish type. Perhaps, our economic thinking needs to fundamentally change, and our economy should be run by different kinds of people,” suggests Grund. “The true capitalist has other-regarding preferences,” adds Helbing, “as the “homo socialis” earns much more payoff.” This is, because the “homo socialis” manages to overcome the downwards spiral that tends to drive the “homo economicus” towards tragedies of the commons. The breakdown of trust and cooperation in the financial markets back in 2008 might be seen as good example.
“Social media will promote a new kind of participatory economy, in which competition goes hand in hand with cooperation,” believes Helbing. Indeed, the digital economy’s paradigm of the “prosumer” states that the Internet, social platforms, 3D printers and other developments will enable the co-producing consumer. “It will be hard to tell who is consumer and who is producer”, says Christian Waloszek. “You might be both at the same time, and this creates a much more cooperative perspective.”
After homo sapiens sapiens it's time for homo sapiens socialis
One and a half hour of highly entertaining and high speed train thoughts on diversity and how to apply it.