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Penn biologists show that generosity leads to evolutionary success

With new insights into the classical game theory match-up known as the "Prisoner's Dilemma," University of Pennsylvania biologists offer a mathematically based explanation for why cooperation and generosity have evolved in nature. Their work builds upon the seminal findings of economist John Nash, who advanced the field of game theory in the 1950s, as well as those of computational biologist William Press and physicist-mathematician Freeman Dyson, who last year identified a new class of strategies for succeeding in the Prisoner's Dilemma. Postdoctoral researcher Alexander J. Stewart and associate professor Joshua B. Plotkin, both of Penn's Department of Biology in the School of Arts and Sciences, examined the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma as played repeatedly by a large, evolving population of players. While other researchers have previously suggested that cooperative strategies can be successful in such a scenario, Stewart and Plotkin offer mathematical proof that the only strategies that succeed in the long term are generous ones. They report their findings in PNAS the week of Sept. 2. "Ever since Darwin," Plotkin said, "biologists have been puzzled about why there is so much apparent cooperation, and even flat-out generosity and altruism, in nature. The literature on game theory has worked to explain why generosity arises. Our paper provides such an explanation for why we see so much generosity in front of us." The Prisoner's Dilemma is a way of studying how individuals choose whether or not to cooperate. In the game, if both players cooperate, they both receive a payoff. If one cooperates and the other does not, the cooperating player receives the smallest possible payoff, and the defecting player the largest. If both players do not cooperate, they receive a payoff, but it is less than what they would gain if both had cooperated. In other words, it pays to cooperate, but it can pay even more to be selfish.
Via Ashish Umre
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Some patterns of association will prevail. Such patterns progressively facilitate the overall flow ("payoff") of the system. The system may grow to allow more complex associations.
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Citation of constructal related publications still in rise in the S-shaped curve

Citation of constructal related publications still in rise in the S-shaped curve | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

The updated indices of contructal related works in

qualified peer-review publications.

 

h-index: 44

(excerpt from Thomson-Reuters® web of science with "constructal" as topic)

Marcelo Errera's insight:

 

The accumulated qualified citations since 1996 reached the 10,000 barrier.

 

The number of articles without self-citations increased in 25% only last year !  Newer researchers in newer fronts as the field takes its natural course of spreading.

 

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Did Humans Walk the Earth with Dinosaurs? Triceratops Horn Dated to 33,500 Years

Did Humans Walk the Earth with Dinosaurs?  Triceratops Horn Dated to 33,500 Years | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
A Triceratops brow horn discovered in Dawson County, Montana, has been controversially dated to around 33,500 years, challenging the view that dinosaurs died out around 65 million years ago. The...
Marcelo Errera's insight:
The never ending effort of Science to unveil the truth even when it seems otherwise set.
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Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Regardless of the means by which species evolve to find better way to improve their chances of survival, one can identify trends, directions of never-ending process of flow facilitation. 

It's a trend, not fate.

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Constructal Theory: Introduction to the Inverse of Biomimicry

Constructal Theory: Introduction to the Inverse of Biomimicry | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
A new theory, and possibly a new law of physics, Constructal theory can be understood as the inverse of biomimicry.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

As people go deep in their understanding of the Constructal Law, they get the feeling that it is obvious. Yes, it is trivial once you know it.  Does it sound familiar ?

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Constructal Blog

Constructal Blog | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Sharing information about Constructal Theory
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Like all humans, more similarities then differences. The principle and incidental variations must be seen separately.

 

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2015 Winter Meeting -Sessions Page

2015 Winter Meeting -Sessions Page | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Sessions Page
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Plenary session on Constructal Theory. It means Physicists want to know how to convey the message for the youth.

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Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions

Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Cooperation among unrelated individuals is frequently observed in social groups when their members combine efforts and resources to obtain a shared benefit that is unachievable by an individual alone.
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Flow in a sufficiently large group of individuals will evolve to build main channels and tributaries as well as diffusive flow. In that way heterogenous links bring more equal benefits.
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MIT Neurotech: Microfluidics Opens a Window Into Unseen Worlds | Expeditions, Scientific American Blog Network

MIT Neurotech: Microfluidics Opens a Window Into Unseen Worlds | Expeditions, Scientific American Blog Network | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
A 14-foot aluminum alloy robot hurdles through the black of space at 13,000 miles per hour. For 350 million miles, its load of scientific instruments built ...
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Miniaturized bio-reactors.  The flow branching and confluence organization is the result of the design evolution.

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Earth's new address: 'Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea'

Earth's new address: 'Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea' | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Analysis of galaxies shows local supercluster to be 100 times larger than previously thought.
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Pattern or Organization ?
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Researchers make breakthrough discovery about evolution of spiders and their ... - Phys.Org

Researchers make breakthrough discovery about evolution of spiders and their ... - Phys.Org | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Phys.Org
Researchers make breakthrough discovery about evolution of spiders and their ...
Marcelo Errera's insight:

A matter that we must follow closely.  Is it possible to identify a direction of the evolution of artifacts produced by  "non-thinking" beings ?

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Constructal Law and Second Law Conference

Constructal Law and Second Law Conference | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

               CONSTRUCTAL LAW  &  SECOND LAW CONFERENCE

 

                               18-19 May 2015   Parma, Italy

 

                                      http://www.clc2015.eu

 

                              Early registration: 15 November 2014 

 

The Constructal Law governs the phenomena of design and evolution in nature. The conference explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all the domains of design generation and evolution, from biology and geophysics to social organization, energy sustainability and security. 
The conference also covers the Second Law, and how the Constructal Law fits in thermodynamics. The Constructal Law and the Second Law are self-standing as first principles. Together, they empower science much more than the Second Law alone.

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NigelReading|ASYNSIS's curator insight, August 4, 2014 4:52 AM

The 9th Annual Constructal Law conference will be held in May 2015 in glorious Parma, Italy. http://www.clc2015.eu/venue/conference-venue.html

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Evolutionary physics: could Darwin have predicted the Airbus? - FT.com

Evolutionary physics: could Darwin have predicted the Airbus? - FT.com | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
The development of commercial aircraft since the early 20th century has followed an evolutionary path very similar to Darwinian evolution in biology, even though it is driven by human design and engineering skills rather than natural selection. That
Marcelo Errera's insight:

It's hard to predict the future.

If the physical and economical flying environment remain nearly unchanged any "off-charts" design can be questioned in a sound way. 

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5 Common Evolution Myths, Debunked - Mashable

5 Common Evolution Myths, Debunked - Mashable | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
5 Common Evolution Myths, Debunked
Mashable
It's right up there next to politics and religion on the list of things you probably shouldn't talk about at the dinner table.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

It's just simple.

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Harvesting energy from humidity: Free, green energy from leaping water droplets

Harvesting energy from humidity: Free, green energy from leaping water droplets | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
The study of a super-hydrophobic surface has led to discovery of a method for generating power from condensation. Condensing water droplets literally leap off the surface and produce an electric charge that can be harvested.

Via Digital Sustainability, Kalani Kirk Hausman, Rowan Edwards, Pedro Santiago
Marcelo Errera's insight:

New frontiers are found as we deepen our understanding of natural systems.

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Digital Sustainability's curator insight, July 15, 2014 10:57 AM

It’s time to get rid of that dehumidifier — you are just throwing awayfree energy by sucking all the moisture out of the air, according to some new research published by a team from MIT. Postdoc researchers Nenad Miljkovic and engineering professor Evelyn Wang figured out last year that water droplets jumping off a hydrophobic surface could gain an electric charge, but now they’re worked out how to capture that energy, essentially pulling power out of thin air.

The team happened upon this mechanism quite by accident. The goal when the leaping water was discovered was to design a more efficient heat transfer material for power plants. That’s not nearly as sexy as conjuring power from humidity, but Miljkovic and Wang noticed something odd when working with a super-hydrophobic surface (pictured above). The condensing water droplets sometimes spontaneously jumped away from the hydrophobic surface, which was the goal as it cools much more efficiently. They didn’t expect the water droplets to produce an electric charge in the process, and that may have significant ramifications.

It’s the natural tendency of water to flow away from a hydrophobic surface, but in turning the leaping water into a viable method of power generation, the researchers had to give it somewhere to go. To encourage the water droplets to take a leap, a hydrophilic surface was placed just above the hydrophobic one. So the water really wants to make the trip from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and it brings a few electrons along for the ride. The charge difference between the two plates can then be used to provide power.

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L’architecture des flocons de neige

L’architecture des flocons de neige | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

Certains font penser à un ouvrage de dentelle d'une finesse extraordinaire, d'autres ressemblent à...

Marcelo Errera's insight:

Snowflakes with their diversity meet at a single physical principle.

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What is a classic book? | www.toptenbooks.net

What is a classic book? | www.toptenbooks.net | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

The constructal law shows that lists of great/classic books are hierarchical designs that arise naturally to organize the swelling flow of literature. This is necessary because of the vast divide between the upper limits of what we can read in a lifetime – say 7,000 books, which is a tad more two books a week, every week, for 65 years – and the millions of works in print.

Marcelo Errera's insight:

Once one reads the classics, everything else seems familiar or poorly depicted.  

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Pope Francis declares evolution and Big Bang theory are real and God is not 'a magician with a magic wand'

Pope Francis declares evolution and Big Bang theory are real and God is not 'a magician with a magic wand' | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
The theories of evolution and the Big Bang are real and God is not “a magician with a magic wand”, Pope Francis has declared.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Good for him and the Church.

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AAPT on Twitter

AAPT on Twitter | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Listening to tonight's plenary speaker Adrian Bejan of @DukeU speak on his book Design in Nature. #AAPTWM15 pic.twitter.com/URPOsipT4F
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Expanding horizons.

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A thermo-physical analysis of the proton pump vacuolar-ATPase: the constructal approach : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

A thermo-physical analysis of the proton pump vacuolar-ATPase: the constructal approach : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Pumping protons across a membrane was a critical step at the origin of life on earth, and it is still performed in all living organisms, including in human cells. Proton pumping is paramount to keep normal cells alive, e.g. for lysosomal digestion and for preparing peptides for immune recognition, but it goes awry in cancer cells. They acidify their microenvironment hence membrane voltage is lowered, which in turn induces cell proliferation, a hallmark of cancer. Proton pumping is achieved by means of rotary motors, namely vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPase), which are present at many of the multiple cellular interfaces. Therefore, we undertook an examination of the thermodynamic properties of V-ATPases. The principal result is that the V-ATPase-mediated control of the cell membrane potential and the related and consequent environmental pH can potentially represent a valuable support strategy for anticancer therapies. A constructal theory approach is used as a new viewpoint to study how V-ATPase can be modulated for therapeutic purposes. In particular, V-ATPase can be regulated by using external fields, such as electromagnetic fields, and a theoretical approach has been introduced to quantify the appropriate field strength and frequency for this new adjuvant therapeutic strategy.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Understanding how the flow configuration took place at the smallest scale of the living organisms opens new fronts for Biosciences and Physics.

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Microfluídica revela dinâmica microscópica de tecidos vivos | Scientific American Brasil | Duetto Editorial

Microfluídica revela dinâmica microscópica de tecidos vivos | Scientific American Brasil | Duetto Editorial | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Miniaturized bio-reactors.  The flow branching and confluence organization is the result of the design evolution.

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In search of the golden ratio in architecture - The Globe and Mail

In search of the golden ratio in architecture - The Globe and Mail | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
In search of the golden ratio in architecture
The Globe and Mail
In 2009, Adrian Bejan, a professor of mechanical engineering at Duke University, in North Carolina, completed a study on the proportion.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

The easier flow of information seems to be the key for human perception.

But what about geometry proportions of fluid, heat and chemical species flow systems ? Can one predict when and how the golden rule emerges ? 

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Deconstructing Trees

Deconstructing Trees | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

Deconstructing Trees. Monochrome photographs exploring the patterns of constructal law in trees.


Via Nicholas Ripley
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Trees emerged everywhere. They continue to amaze us by its design. 

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Constructal Law and Increasing Returns: The Evolution of Machines and Catching the Next Wave • exp (industry)

Constructal Law and Increasing Returns: The Evolution of Machines and Catching the Next Wave • exp (industry) | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
In The Evolution of Airplanes, A. Bejan, J.D. Charles, and S. Lorente propose a compelling framework which describes the evolution of the airplane based on constructal law. Constructal law states that, for a finite-size system to persist in time,... | exp (industry) | Embarked on a journey to find the next big idea for industry, one small idea at a time.
Marcelo Errera's insight:

This post reminds us that once an idea is out there, it can never be withdrawn. It just promotes new ideas.

The post made very interesting new associations.

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Bees physically transfer heat to stay cool - Daily Times

Bees physically transfer heat to stay cool - Daily Times | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

llAmerican Live Wire Bees physically transfer heat to stay cool Daily Times MEDFORD/SOMERVILLE, United States - Researchers have found that honey bees can absorb heat from the brood walls just like a sponge to protect their young ones from heat and...

Marcelo Errera's insight:

Interesting research. Does the frequency bees get in and out change with the internal temperature of the beehive ?  

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