Marine Conservation and Ecology
256 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

Scientists say dynamic, adaptive management of ocean resources would benefit ... - Summit County Citizens Voice

Scientists say dynamic, adaptive management of ocean resources would benefit ... - Summit County Citizens Voice | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
'We know too much about the world now to keep managing the ocean in the same old way' Staff Report FRISCO — Dynamic, adaptive management is needed to manage ocean resources, including protected spe...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

One More Reason the World Should Stop Eating Whale Meat: It’s Filled With Pesticides

One More Reason the World Should Stop Eating Whale Meat: It’s Filled With Pesticides | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
New documents show that Japan dumped whale meat it bought from Norway because it wasn’t safe for human consumption.

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

Chemical pollution is causing brain damage in polar bears

Chemical pollution is causing brain damage in polar bears | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Toxic chemicals end up in the Arctic where they cause brain damage in polar bears. They could even affect humans, scientists warn.

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

Sign the petition: BP must restore the Gulf of Mexico for dolphins!

Sign the petition: BP must restore the Gulf of Mexico for dolphins! | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
It's been four years since BP's disastrous spill, but dolphins, turtles, and communities are still suffering. You can help!

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Acid oceans threaten creatures that supply half the world's oxygen

Acid oceans threaten creatures that supply half the world's oxygen | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Ocean acidification is turning phytoplankton toxic. Bad news for the many species - us, included - that rely on them as a principal source of food and oxygen.

 

What happens when phytoplankton, the (mostly) single-celled organisms that constitute the very foundation of the marine food web, turn toxic? Their toxins often concentrate in the shellfish and many other marine species (from zooplankton to baleen whales) that feed on phytoplankton. Recent trailblazing research by a team of scientists aboard the RV Melville shows that ocean acidification will dangerously alter these microscopic plants, which nourish a menagerie of sea creatures and produce up to 60 percent of the earth's oxygen.


The researchers worked in carbon saturated waters off the West Coast, a living laboratory to study the effects of chemical changes in the ocean brought on by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. A team of scientists from NOAA's Fisheries Science Center and Pacific Marine Environmental Lab, along with teams from universities in Maine, Hawaii and Canada focused on the unique "upwelled" zones of California, Oregon and Washington. In these zones, strong winds encourage mixing, which pushes deep, centuries-old CO2 to the ocean surface. Their findings could reveal what oceans of the future will look like. The picture is not rosy.


Scientists already know that ocean acidification, the term used to describe seas soured by high concentrations of carbon, causes problems for organisms that make shells. “What we don't know is the exact effects ocean acidification will have on marine phytoplankton communities,” says Dr. Bill Cochlan, the biological oceanographer from San Francisco State University oceanographer who was the project’s lead investigator. “Our hypothesis is that ocean acidification will affect the quantity and quality of certain metabolities within the phytoplankton, specifically lipids and essential fatty acids.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
Scott Baker's curator insight, June 25, 2014 10:00 AM

will fertilization help?  http://nextbigfuture.com/2014/06/russ-george-blogged-about-fraser-river.html

Diane Johnson's curator insight, June 25, 2014 12:12 PM

Understanding systems and interdependence is just so critical!

Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

Ocean Acidification Rate 10 Times Faster than Ancient Upheaval - Nature World News

Ocean Acidification Rate 10 Times Faster than Ancient Upheaval - Nature World News | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Nature World News Ocean Acidification Rate 10 Times Faster than Ancient Upheaval Nature World News During those ancient days, researchers estimate that ocean acidity increased by about 100 percent in a few thousand years or more, and levels didn't...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

The crab-castrating parasite that zombifies its prey

The crab-castrating parasite that zombifies its prey | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Meet Sacculina carcini – a barnacle that makes a living as a real-life body-snatcher of crabs. Unlike most barnacles that are happy to simply stick themselves to a rock and filter food from the water, Sacculina and its kin have evolved to be parasitic, and they are horrifyingly good at it.

 

The microscopic larva of Sacculina seeks out an unsuspecting crab using specialised sensory organs. It then settles on a part of the crab where its armours is most vulnerable, usually on the membrane at the base of one of the crab's hair (called a setae).

 

The larvae then transforms itself into a kind of living hypodermic syringe (called a kentrogon). This syringe stabs the base of the crab's hair and injects the next stage of the parasite – a microscopic blob called the vermigon – into the crab's bloodstream. This blob will eventually grow into a parasite that takes over the crab's entire body.

 

The body of the fully mature Sacculina is unrecognisable as a barnacle (or any animal for that matter) – it consists of a part called the interna which looks more like the roots of a plant than any animal. Its tendrils spread throughout the crab's insides and the only part of the parasite which is visible on the outside is the externa – the female reproductive organ which protrudes from the crab's abdomen.

 

Sacculina takes over the host in both body and mind – it castrates the crab, then turns it into a doting babysitter that grooms and aerates the barnacle's brood, tending the next generation of baby-snatchers as if they were its own babies. Lest you think Sacculina is alone in its nightmarish ways, it is just one genus in an entire order of barnacles called Rhizocephala (the "root head").

A recent study found the effects these parasites have on the host's behaviour also affect the rest of the ecosystem. On the coast of South Carolina lives the flatback mud crab (Eurypanopeus depressus), where it is infected with a species of rhizocephalan call Loxothylacus panopei. Usually, the mud crab has an omnivorous diet and sometimes feeds on mussels, using their claws to pry open the shells. But crabs that are infected with L. panopei lose their appetite for such fare.

 

When confronted with a pile of mussels, uninfected crabs treat it as an all-you-can-eat seafood buffet, and eat as much as they can without hesitation. The more mussels they are presented with, the more they eat. But no matter how many mussels you offered to crabs infected with L. panopei, they simply eat one and call it a day. The parasitised crabs also took longer to get their act together and this seems to be related to the size of the parasite – the larger the parasite has grown, the longer the crab takes to start digging into a mussel.

 

Based on a field survey of the estuary where the study took place, the researchers concluded that about a fifth of the crab at that location were infected with L. panopei. Given the effects that L. panopei has on a crab's appetite for shellfish, it seems that the mussels might have an unlikely ally in the form a parasitic barnacle. The finding of this study share some parallels with a species of muscle-wasting parasite that curbs the appetite of an otherwise ravenous freshwater shrimp which has become invasive in parts of Europe and the UK.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

How coral reefs can help us endure climate change - Mother Nature Network (blog)

How coral reefs can help us endure climate change - Mother Nature Network (blog) | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Mother Nature Network (blog) How coral reefs can help us endure climate change Mother Nature Network (blog) But while ocean acidification and rising water temperatures can be deadly to corals, there's also some evidence these animals can endure...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Promising solution: Bioplastic made from shrimp shells

Promising solution: Bioplastic made from shrimp shells | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it

or many people, “plastic” is a one-word analog for environmental disaster. It is made from precious petroleum, after all, and once discarded in landfills and oceans, it takes centuries to degrade.

 

Then came apparent salvation: “bioplastics,” durable substances made from renewable cellulose, a plant-based polysaccharide. But problems remained. For one, the current bioplastics do not fully degrade in the environment. For another, their use is now limited to packaging material or simple containers for food and drink.

 

Now researchers at Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering have introduced a new bioplastic isolated from shrimp shells. It’s made from chitosan, a form of chitin — the second-most abundant organic material on Earth.

 

Chitin, a tough polysaccharide, is the main ingredient in the hardy shells of crustaceans, the armorlike cuticles of insects, and even the flexible wings of butterflies.

 

The Wyss Institute makes its shrilk from chitin from shrimp shells, most which would otherwise be discarded or used in fertilizer or makeup, and a fibroin protein from silk. Researchers discussed it in a March online study in the journal Macromolecular Materials & Engineering.

 

Shrilk is cheaply and easily fabricated by a novel method that preserves chitosan’s strong mechanical properties. The researchers said that for the first time, this tough, transparent, and renewable material can be used to make large, 3-D objects with complex shapes using traditional casting or injection-molding techniques. That means objects made from shrilk can be mass-manufactured and will be as robust as items made with the everyday plastics used in toys and cell phones.

 

“There is an urgent need in many industries for sustainable materials that can be mass produced,” Wyss Director Donald E. Ingber said in March. “Our scalable manufacturing method shows that chitosan, which is readily available and inexpensive, can serve as a viable bioplastic that could potentially be used instead of conventional plastics for numerous industrial applications.” This environmentally safe alternative to plastic could also be used to make trash bags, packaging, and diapers.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
Marco Bertolini's curator insight, May 6, 2014 11:28 AM

Des plastiques bio fabriqués à partir de la chitine des crevettes...

satish's curator insight, May 7, 2014 2:03 AM

टिकाऊपण, लवचिकता आणि सक्षमता यामुळे प्लॅस्टिकचा वापर विविध क्षेत्रामध्ये मोठ्या प्रमाणात वाढला आहे. मात्र, त्याच वेळी त्याच्या अविघटनशीलतेमुळे प्लॅस्टिकचे प्रदुषणही वेगाने वाढत आहे. त्यामुळे विघटनशील असे जैवप्लॅस्टिक विकसित करण्यासाठी जगभरामध्ये सातत्याने संशोधन होत आहे. मात्र, सध्या उपलब्ध असलेलेजैव प्लॅस्टिकचा वापर अत्यंत मर्यादीत कारणांसाठी होऊ शकतो. त्यातही खाद्यपदार्थांचे पॅकेजिंग आणि पेयपात्रासाठी सामान्यतः केला जातो. तसेच हे जैव प्लॅस्टिकही अत्यंत कमी वेगाने विघटीत होते. या साऱ्या समस्यावर मात करण्यासाठी हार्वर्ड विद्यापीठातील वायस इन्स्टिट्यूट फॉर बायोलॉजिकल इन्स्पायर्ड येथील संशोधकांनी कोळंबीच्या कवचापासून जैव प्लॅस्टिक वेगळे केले आहे.

 

प्लॅस्टिकच्या अविघटनशीलतेमुळे होणारे प्रदुषण रोखण्यासाठी हे जैव प्लॅस्टिक अत्यंत उपयुक्त ठरेल.

Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

The New Ocean Basemap | ArcGIS Blog - Esri Blogs

The New Ocean Basemap | ArcGIS Blog - Esri Blogs | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
The Ocean Basemap team is thrilled to announce the latest release of the World Ocean Basemap! This new release reflects an exciting and major change to the structure of the basemap. The World Ocean Basemap now ...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Undersea warfare: Viruses hijack deep-sea bacteria at hydrothermal vents

Undersea warfare: Viruses hijack deep-sea bacteria at hydrothermal vents | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it

More than a mile beneath the ocean's surface, as dark clouds of mineral-rich water billow from seafloor hot springs called hydrothermal vents, unseen armies of viruses and bacteria wage war.

Like pirates boarding a treasure-laden ship, the viruses infect bacterial cells to get the loot: tiny globules of elemental sulfur stored inside the bacterial cells.

 

Instead of absconding with their prize, the viruses force the bacteria to burn their valuable sulfur reserves, then use the unleashed energy to replicate.

 

"Our findings suggest that viruses in the dark oceans indirectly access vast energy sources in the form of elemental sulfur," said University of Michigan marine microbiologist and oceanographer Gregory Dick, whose team collected DNA from deep-sea microbes in seawater samples from hydrothermal vents in the Western Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California.

 

"We suspect that these viruses are essentially hijacking bacterial cells and getting them to consume elemental sulfur so the viruses can propagate themselves," said Karthik Anantharaman of the University of Michigan, first author of a paper on the findings published this week in the journal Science Express.

 

Similar microbial interactions have been observed in shallow ocean waters between photosynthetic bacteria and the viruses that prey upon them. But this is the first time such a relationship has been seen in a chemosynthetic system, one in which the microbes rely solely on inorganic compounds, rather than sunlight, as their energy source.


"Viruses play a cardinal role in biogeochemical processes in ocean shallows," said David Garrison, a program director in the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences, which funded the research. "They may have similar importance in deep-sea thermal vent environments." 

 

The results suggest that viruses are an important component of the thriving ecosystems--which include exotic six-foot tube worms--huddled around the vents.

 

"The results hint that the viruses act as agents of evolution in these chemosynthetic systems by exchanging genes with the bacteria," Dick said. "They may serve as a reservoir of genetic diversity that helps shape bacterial evolution."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Marine Conservation
Scoop.it!

Why marine fish don't go into the deeper blue - Phys.org

Why marine fish don't go into the deeper blue - Phys.org | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
(Phys.org) —Fish appear to be absent from the ocean's greatest depths, the trenches from 8400 to 11000 m. A team told Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences about this in a study titled 'Marine fish may be ...

Via Prof Brendan Godley
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

Bill would ban SeaWorld orca shows

Bill would ban SeaWorld orca shows | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Lawmaker was inspired to act by the documentary "Blackfish."

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

How Captivity Has Changed the Way Dolphins Communicate

How Captivity Has Changed the Way Dolphins Communicate | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Communication issues are among the growing list of things like sound deprivation, ulcers, skin cancer, isolation, boredom that affect dolphins in captivity.

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

Seal Hunt Disgrace (Part Two)

Seal Hunt Disgrace (Part Two) | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
In Part One of this article we examined issues of cruelty and discussed at length the commercial Canadian seal hunt. With quotas in excess of 450 thousand seals to be slaughtered, the commercial Canadian seal hunt has the notorious distinction of being the largest slaughter of marine mammals on earth.

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
Scoop.it!

Microbiota of Healthy Corals Are Active against Fungi in a Light-Dependent Manner

Microbiota of Healthy Corals Are Active against Fungi in a Light-Dependent Manner | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Coral reefs are intricate ecosystems that harbor diverse organisms, including 25% of all marine fish. Healthy corals exhibit a complex symbiosis between coral polyps, endosymbiotic alga, and an array of microorganisms, called the coral holobiont. Secretion of specialized metabolites by coral microbiota is thought to contribute to the defense of this sessile organism against harmful biotic and abiotic factors. While few causative agents of coral diseases have been unequivocally identified, fungi have been implicated in the massive destruction of some soft corals worldwide. Because corals are nocturnal feeders, they may be more vulnerable to fungal infection at night, and we hypothesized that the coral microbiota would have the capability to enhance their defenses against fungi in the dark. A Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolated from a healthy octocoral displayed light-dependent antifungal properties when grown adjacent to Penicillium citrinum (P. citrinum) isolated from a diseased Gorgonian octocoral. Microbial MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) coupled with molecular network analyses revealed that Pseudoalteromonas produced higher levels of antifungal polyketide alteramides in the dark than in the light. The alteramides were inactivated by light through a photoinduced intramolecular cyclization. Further NMR studies led to a revision of the stereochemical structure of the alteramides. Alteramide A exhibited antifungal properties and elicited changes in fungal metabolite distributions of mycotoxin citrinin and citrinadins. These data support the hypothesis that coral microbiota use abiotic factors such as light to regulate the production of metabolites with specialized functions to combat opportunistic pathogens at night.
Wilna J. Moree †, Oliver J. McConnell †§, Don D. Nguyen ‡, Laura M. Sanchez †, Yu-Liang Yang ,Xiling Zhao ‡, Wei-Ting Liu ‡, Paul D. Boudreau §,Jayashree Srinivasan , Librada Atencio , Javier Ballesteros , Ronnie G. Gavilán #, Daniel Torres-Mendoza , Héctor M. Guzmán ¶, William H. Gerwick †§, Marcelino Gutiérrez *, and Pieter C. DorresteinACS Chem. Biol., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/cb500432jPublication Date (Web): July 24, 2014
Via NatProdChem
more...
NatProdChem's curator insight, August 23, 2014 1:22 PM

Another excellent piece of work by Dorrestein's team, holistic and comprehensive approach to a complex biological phenomenon. Bravo!

PM

Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

Fisherman hooks baby great white shark off Rockaway Beach | PIX 11

Fisherman hooks baby great white shark off Rockaway Beach | PIX 11 | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
QUEENS (PIX11) - It's driving anglers into a frenzy almost as intense as the one attracting the sharks that weigh up to 500 pounds. A variety of sharks of that size have been spotted — and caught — off Rockaway Beach this ...
Matt Nicholson's insight:

We should ALSO realize that this fisherman caught and killed a beautiful thresher shark, right before telling the media that too many fish are being caught and killed… hmmm

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

'Emma's last nest': Sea turtle killed by animal, likely coyote, at state park ... - al.com (blog)

'Emma's last nest': Sea turtle killed by animal, likely coyote, at state park ... - al.com (blog) | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
'Emma's last nest': Sea turtle killed by animal, likely coyote, at state park ...
al.com (blog)
About 6:30 a.m.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

Unintended netting lands dozens of sharks on beach - The News Journal

Unintended netting lands dozens of sharks on beach - The News Journal | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Unintended netting lands dozens of sharks on beach
The News Journal
1 CONNECTTWEETLINKEDINCOMMENTEMAILMORE.
Matt Nicholson's insight:

Bycatch … I say it all the time … a HUGE problem. 

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Oceans and Wildlife
Scoop.it!

SeaWorld put on notice by orca scientist (Includes interview)

SeaWorld put on notice by orca scientist (Includes interview) | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
A leading orca scientist is challenging SeaWorld over the erroneous use of a self-authored paper describing dorsal fin collapse in wild killer whales.

Via Wildlife Defence
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Seahorse Project
Scoop.it!

Your Marine Biology Jobs Site @ GetMarineBiologyJobs.com

Free Marine Biology job postings and career opportunities. Start your Marine Biology jobs search today.

Via Gaye Rosier
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

Our Plastic, Our Problem (A marine litter info-operetta!) - YouTube

The Amazing Mr. Smashing sings an info-operetta about plastic in our oceans! Our huge level of consumption and the accompanying waste it creates is leading t...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

Satellite Telemetry Uncovers the Tracks of Tiny Ocean Giants ...

Satellite Telemetry Uncovers the Tracks of Tiny Ocean Giants ... | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Pygmy blue whales dwell in vast expanses of the Indian and southern Pacific oceans, and are a highly mobile species. The species was identified in 1966—although it's likely to have been confused with its cousin the “true” ...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Matt Nicholson
Scoop.it!

ScienceShot: Who Says Sharks Haven't Evolved?

ScienceShot: Who Says Sharks Haven't Evolved? | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Fossils of their ancient kin reveal dramatic changes over time
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Matt Nicholson from Marine Conservation
Scoop.it!

Biologists Use Tracking Devices to Uncover Early Life of Florida's Loggerhead ... - Nature World News

Biologists Use Tracking Devices to Uncover Early Life of Florida's Loggerhead ... - Nature World News | Marine Conservation and Ecology | Scoop.it
Nature World News
Biologists Use Tracking Devices to Uncover Early Life of Florida's Loggerhead ...

Via Prof Brendan Godley
more...
No comment yet.