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Conformable Contacts
Notes from the intersection of faith, reason and geology
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Massive Modern Reefs—Finding Time to Grow

Massive Modern Reefs—Finding Time to Grow | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"How was one of the world’s thickest “reefs,” the 4,050-foot (1,230 m) Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, built so quickly after the Flood? A process called “geothermal endo-upwelling” could be the answer. The underwater volcano provided heat to draw cold, nutrient-rich water into a growing mound of limestone. Microbes helped to precipitate lime out of the water until it got near the surface, when reef animals began to live on the mound. Drilling showed that the mound consists mostly of “chalky” limestone material, not coral reef organisms."

YEC Geo's insight:

A plausible explanation for a problematic issue.

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Now I want to go to Baluchistan...

Now I want to go to Baluchistan... | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

...not only are there limestone caves that are a Muslim pilgrimage site, but check out all the cool geologic images on this page:

http://www.cincopa.com/cmp/start.aspx?fid=10872635!25bdfbaa-bc56-4242-a77b-5d53f55faf4b!i3NGbwQLgzCV3wKprNWciA&ipp=100&pg=1

 

The blogger writes about the cave:  "An iron ladder, about five meters high, led to the small entrance of the cave. An overweight person could not enter it. Noé and I followed the group and they soon were engulfed into the rock. The tradition wants it that if someone cannot pass the narrow entrance of the cave, he/she is not the child of his/her father."

 

The cave is purported to be connected to Adam and Eve, Hazrat Ali, and Noah's Ark (http://www.pakistanpressfoundation.org/arts-and-culture/54842)

 

Image credit: http://www.panoramio.com/user/1092747/tags/Lahut LaMakan

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More dolomite discussion

Key quotes:  

 

"A strong possibility is that massive primary dolomite can form particularly during times when large quantities of organic matter in the seabed are degraded by sulphate-respiring bacteria. Such conditions exist when the sea water above the seafloor is free of oxygen. In Earth's history, several such oxygen-free periods have occurred, partly consistent with time periods of intensified dolomite deposition. ... Experts say the process of recent primary dolomite formation is restricted to extreme ecosystems, including bacterial mats in highly saline lakes and lagoons. As these systems are very limited in space, there is an explanation gap for geologists for the widespread presence of fossil dolomite."

 

 

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One answer to calcareous conumdrums

One answer to calcareous conumdrums | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

This company has figured out how to make chalk.  Like in, white cliffs of Dover chalk.  You need carbon dioxide and seawater.  Kind of like what you might find in submarine volcanic processes:  

 

"The Calera process essentially mimics marine cement, which is produced by coral when making their shells and reefs, taking the calcium and magnesium in seawater and using it to form carbonates at normal temperatures and pressures. 'We are turning CO2 into carbonic acid and then making carbonate,' Constantz says. "All we need is water and pollution."

 

The company employs spray dryers that utilize the heat in the flue gas to dry the slurry that results from mixing the water and pollution. 'A gas-fired power plant is basically like attaching a jet engine to the ground,' Constantz notes. 'We use the waste heat of the flue gas. They're just shooting it up into the atmosphere anyway.'

 

In essence, the company is making chalk, and that's the color of the resulting cement: snow white. Once dried, the Calera cement can be used as a replacement for the Portland cement that is typically blended with rock and other material to make the concrete in everything from roads to buildings. 'We think since we're making the cement out of CO2, the more you use, the better,' says Constantz, who formerly made medical cements. 'Make that wall five feet thick, sequester CO2, and be cooler in summer, warmer in winter and more seismically stable. Or make a road twice as thick.'"

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More limestone matters

More limestone matters | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"The origin of the earth's abundant limestone is a matter of great interest and one that can draw helpful lines of distinction between competing theories about how our geology came to look the way it does today. Here again, the evidence appears to be difficult to reconcile with conventional theories, but to be quite consistent with the forces expected to have been present before, during, and after the flood according to the hydroplate theory explanation."

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Christian old-earth perspective on Ohio limestones

Christian old-earth perspective on Ohio limestones | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

Cool pictures of limestone formations taken by a Christian old-earther near the meeting location of the Presbyterian Church of America General Assembly.

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Speaking of chalk...

Speaking of chalk... | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Thousands of tons of chalk from the famous White Cliffs of Dover have collapsed into the sea following a huge rockfall."

 

Pretty amazing pictures of a massive landslip (chalkslip?) on the English channel earlier this year.

 

To clarify my earlier post on the manufacture of artifical chalk, (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=cement-from-carbon-dioxide) Calera's process is not directly analogous to the formation of the chalk of the Dover cliffs because the Dover chalk, like most naturally occurring limestones, is composed of massive accumulations of skeletal microorganisms. What may be a hypothesis worth pursuing, however, is that the mixture of carbon dioxide and seawater used to manufacture the Calera chalk is analogous to the formation of the calcareous cement found in many sedimentary rocks.

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More calcareous conumdrums

More calcareous conumdrums | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

How does dolomite form?

 

From the article:

 

"Evidence of primary dolomite formation by a process as common as microbial sulphate respiration under conditions that currently prevail in the seabed, provides new insights into the reconstruction of fossil dolomite deposits. But why are large scale deposits from primary dolomite no longer formed at the ocean floor?"

 

Like the micritic limestone-secreting organisms in my previous post (http://suvratk.blogspot.fr/2012/04/reservoir-rock-in-worlds-biggest-oil.html),  they seem to be just waiting for conditions to be right again...

 

Dolomite Mountains image credit:  http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-2834607072

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Reservoir Rock In World's Biggest Oil Field Disproves Global Flood?

Reservoir Rock In World's Biggest Oil Field Disproves Global Flood? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

Main reservoir rock of the world's largest oil field, the Ghawar of Saudi Arabia, is peloidal limestone, composed primarily of fecal pellets.   The blogger thinks this disproves any possibility of a global flood, because "A chaotic flood would have dispersed and broken up fecal pellets into mud. Only long periods of wave action and winnowing and early cementation on a sea floor would have produce the well sorted fecal pellet sands of the Ghawar reservoir deposit."

 A little digging, however, reveals that this article follows a pattern similar to others that attempt to use a given geological formation to  disprove a global flood.  First, the writers often have assumptions about what a global flood would be like, which may or may not be true, but are essentially speculation.  To be fair, the same is true of YEC geologists--there is simply very little way to analogize a catastrophic global marine transgression from local storms or flood events.  In some sense, that makes it too easy to disprove or prove the flood from any given formation.

 What is more difficult, however, is finding analogies from current environments of deposition to many geologic features in the rock record.  The Ghawar, for instance, is part of a complex regional system of sandstones, shales, limestones, and evaporites, very different from what is found in modern carbonate environments such as the Bahamas bank mentioned in the above blog post. (http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2004/afifi01/index.htm)

 In addition, Kaźmierczak et al (1996), in a widely-cited article, state that "The origin of micritic and peloidal limestones comprising the bulk of many ancient marine carbonate deposits represents a major unsolved problem of carbonate sedimentology."  (http://www.app.pan.pl/article/item/app41-319.html)  Go ahead and read the entire article (pdf link at the bottom of the abstract). In a remarkable statement about the singularity of peloidal deposition, they conclude that, "... the entophysalidaceans, pleurocapsaleans, and similar coccoid benthic cyanobacteria living in an uncalcified state in modern seas are waiting for the restoration of excessively alkaline environmental conditions to imprint again their micritic/peloidal signature on widespread areas of the shallow sea floor."

The takeaway--the Ghafar isn't per se evidence against a global flood, and certain features may in fact fit in well with the chemical, tectonic and sedimentary conditions that could be proposed for a catastrophic global marine transgression.

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