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Fish based diets cause archaeological dating problems

Fish based diets cause archaeological dating problems | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

Marine and riverine "reservoir effect" on radiocarbon dating. Fish, fish diets and hard water environments can cause skewed aging by up to 2000 years (older).

 

Sample:

 

"Hard water contains less Carbon-14 than the atmosphere, because dissolved carbonates are Carbon-14 free. A fish caught in hard water has thus a higher Carbon-14 age than contemporaneous terrestrial samples. If such a fish is then cooked in a ceramic pot, the radiocarbon age of the food crust will be higher than if a terrestrial animal was cooked in the pot.

 

This is known as the “reservoir effect” because the fish’s carbon actually comes from another “reservoir” than the carbon in terrestrial animals from the surrounding area. “Reservoir age” is the difference between the true age and the Carbon-14 date."


Via Spencer Carter
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Conformable Contacts
Notes from the intersection of faith, reason and geology
Curated by YEC Geo
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Raison d'etre

Raison d'etre | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

In geological terms, a contact is the place where two different types of rocks come together. This ezine is a place to find content from my favorite web sources on the the creation-evolution issue, with a focus on the subject of geology.  Just as the layers of a rock can be composed of many different materials, so my sources often differ in their assumptions and in their views on the issue, but their common intersection is the belief that this is an important subject.

 

(Image source:  Glyn Baker, http://www.geograph.org.uk/reuse.php?id=167895)

YEC Geo's insight:

While my interests are wide-ranging, as even a cursory glance at this site will show,  a subject of great personal interest to me is the preservation of biological material in fossils presumed tens to hundreds of millions of years old.  In my view, the increasing pace of discovery of such material is one of the strongest evidences in support of a young age for the earth.

 

Below is a continuously updated archive of articles I've found on the subject:

 


2016:

1.4 million year old chloroplast DNA from deep sea sediments: http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/44/8/615.full.pdf+html

100 million year old mummified bird wings: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160628/ncomms12089/full/ncomms12089.html

1.88 billion year old microbial protein preservation: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160617/ncomms11977/full/ncomms11977.html

445 million year old echinoderm organic molecules: http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/44/5/379.abstract

8-11 million year old snake proteins: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822%2816%2930120-8

247 million year old preserved dinosaur soft tissue: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143, http://www.reuters.com/video/2016/04/04/fossilised-blood-vessels-oldest-in-world?videoId=367980360&videoChannel=6&channelName=Technology

520 million year old preserved arthropod neural tissue: http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/44765/title/To-Retain-a-Brain/, http://sco.lt/7fLsw5

2015 :

Presence of blood confirmed in 80-million-year-old hadrosaur fossil: https://news.ncsu.edu/2015/12/schweitzer-vessels/

Unperminalized hadrosaur bones: http://creation.com/unpermineralized-hadrosaur-bones-alaska

50-million year old melanosomes in bats: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150928155852.htm

150-million year old melanosomes in bird fossil: http://crev.info/2015/09/original-pigment-dinosaur-feathers/

Radiocarbon in dinosaur bone: http://crev.info/2015/06/c14-dinosaur-bone/

Preserved coloration in dinosaur eggshell: http://www.icr.org/article/8805/

Collagen and blood cells in Cretaceous dinosaur museum specimens: http://crev.info/2015/06/more-dino-blood-found/, http://crev.info/2015/06/dinosaur-soft-tissue-surprise/

8-18-million year old proteins in seashells: http://blog.drwile.com/?p=13504, http://phys.org/news/2015-02-million-year-old-mollusk-protein.html

2014:

550 million year old tube worms: http://blog.drwile.com/?p=12518, http://www.icr.org/article/8059/

2013:

23 million year old lizard: http://www.icr.org/article/7569/ 46 million year old mosquito blood: http://crev.info/2013/

10/mosquito-fossil-with-blood-heme/

46 million year old beetle scales: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23786-iridescent-beetle-shimmers-for-49-million-years/#.UeeXxZwSTbC

70 million year old hadrosaur skin: http://creation.com/hadrosaur-skin, http://phys.org/news/2013-04-scientists-rare-dinosaur-skin-fossil.html

160 year old mollusk melanin: http://phys.org/news/2013-06-melanin-jurassic-era-mollusk-tool-cancer.html

Brian Thomas’ overviewshttp://www.icr.org/article/7520/

Archaeopteryx feather: http://blog.drwile.com/?p=10235#more-10235

190-197 million year old sauropod egg proteins: http://crev.info/2013/04/protein-found-in-dinosaur-eggs/

250 million year old coloration on trilobites: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/03/130327-trilobite-spots-marine-paleontology-science/

Cretaceous triceratops horn: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128113000020, http://blog.drwile.com/?p=10065

350 million year old crinoids & 417 million year old eurypterid chitin: http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/oldbiomarkers.htm

Soft tissue overview from Answers in Genesis: https://answersingenesis.org/fossils/3-soft-tissue-in-fossils/

2012:

Jurassic squid ink: http://creation.com/fossil-squid-ink (see here for Charles Dickens reporting on fresh squid ink and fresh squid eye discovery: http://observationdeck.kinja.com/mary-anning-the-fossil-finder-by-charles-dickens-1579691341)

C-14 in dinosaur bones, a presentation at an AGU-AOGS conference that was later stricken from the conference records: http://creation.com/c14-dinos

Dr. Mary Schweitzer’s dinosaur tissue research: http://www.icr.org/article/7091/

Brian Thomas update: http://www.icr.org/article/7183/


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Reflections on the Ark Encounter

Reflections on the Ark Encounter | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Yesterday, I toured the Answers in Genesis Ark Encounter with my wife and a friend. I wanted to visit the encounter as soon as it opened, but because of trips to Italy and China, yesterday was the first opportunity we had. I didn’t know what to expect, so I went in with an open mind.
YEC Geo's insight:
Interesting observations by a respected home school science textbook author.
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Deadly volcanoes  causing panic in city while 10km ash cloud grounds flights

Deadly volcanoes  causing panic in city while 10km ash cloud grounds flights | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Panic spread after one of the world's most deadly volcanoes spewed toxic ash over a city and a separate eruption grounded flights 10,000 miles away."

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Evaluating the Chicxulub Impact Dinosaur Extinction Hypothesis

Evaluating the Chicxulub Impact Dinosaur Extinction Hypothesis | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

David Coppedge at Creation-Evolution Headlines reports on the latest iteration of the Chicxulub impact theory and the K-T boundary. 

 

This has bothered me for some time, because the whole discussion illustrates what I have come to see as a major logical failing in modern stratigraphic interpretation, especially in regard to the interpretative principle that the present is the key to the past.

 

In a nutshell, the idea that flat, horizontal contacts between thick, areally-widespread formations can be analogized to the present time, is unrealistic because of the ubiquity of erosion.

 

The above image illustrates the point quite nicely.  Much work has been done to support the theory that the iridium layer above the Hell Creek formation (essentially at the position of the red line above) marks the K-T boundary.  Thus, fossils buried below the boundary are Cretaceous, and those above are Tertiary.

 

But now look at the contrast between the current topography and the geometry of the outcrop--could it be more stark? 

 

The main point is that EROSION is the dominant process of the present.  Nowhere in historical time do we find thick subaerial layers being deposited and left undisturbed long enough to accumulate the thickness and areal extent of the Hell Creek and its other equivalents, such as the Lance Formation (see here for an map: www.und.nodak.edu/instruct/jhartman/Research/PDFs/2002-117-Johnson%20et%20al%20sp361.pdf)

 

The connection with the K-T border is that conditions must have been extremely unique for the ash that marks the border to fall on horizontal, uniform rock layers and then remain undisturbed by erosion for the amount of time required by current interpretations for the accumulation of both the overlying and underlying horizontal layers. 

 

Think about it:  where are the widespread, thin horizontal ash layers from Mt. St. Helens?

 

Coppedge reports on the slap in the face that the cometary extinction theory had for uniformitarianism:

 

"'It flew in the face of the position that geologists and paleontologists at the time had for gradual explanations for everything that happened in the Earth’s past, a position that went by the name of uniformitarianism,' said Walter Alvarez. 'The notion that this mass extinction was caused by an impact, or even the notion that there was a sudden mass extinction, raised a lot of dispute at the time, and people strongly challenged the idea.'"

 

However, you can't have it both ways. If the Fort Union and Hell Creek formations were laid down slowly, uniformitarianism predicts that they should have been heavily eroded.  If they were laid down quickly, then the fossils they contain can't be representative of different geologic time periods.

 

Draping actualism over uniformitarianism results in a useless predictive paradigm, because anything is possible, and nothing is improbable. 

 

Unless it allows people to entertain the hypothesis of a catastrophic global marine transgression.  I'm not holding my breath.

 

Image credit: http://geologyblues.blogspot.com/2010/05/accretionary-wedge.html

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Hydrothermal Origin-of-Life Chemistry Is Unlikely

Hydrothermal Origin-of-Life Chemistry Is Unlikely | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Origin-of-life (OOL) researchers in the metabolism-first camp have looked to hydrothermal vents to provide the energy needed to leap these barriers without the help of enzymes, which could not have been present.
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Lava from Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano hits Pacific

Lava from Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano hits Pacific | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The Big Island of Hawaii is getting a little bigger as lava from the Kilauea Volcano flows into the Pacific Ocean.
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Ancient temples in the Himalaya reveal signs of past earthquakes

Ancient temples in the Himalaya reveal signs of past earthquakes | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
"Tilted pillars, cracked steps, and sliding stone canopies in a number of 7th-century A.D. temples in northwest India are among the telltale signs that seismologists are using to reconstruct the extent of some of the region's larger historic earthquakes."
YEC Geo's insight:
I've got to say, that's one creepy-looking figurine in that temple alcove.
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Proteins in '2-Billion-Year-Old' Rock

Proteins in '2-Billion-Year-Old' Rock | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Three orders of magnitude separate protein's longevity based on repeatedly measured decay rates and the evolutionary age assignment for this deposit that houses algal protein remnants.
YEC Geo's insight:
More on the Precambrian proteins.
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Channeling the Chesapeake: In Search of Ancient Estuaries

Channeling the Chesapeake: In Search of Ancient Estuaries | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Jeff Halka of the Maryland Geological Survey helped lead a search for ancient channels that could be buried under the bottom of the Bay. The first evidence for paleochannels came from boreholes drilled for the building of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge. What Halka and his collaborators found changed our understanding of how the Chesapeake Bay was created.
YEC Geo's insight:
I love geological mystery stories.
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How the gurus behind Google Earth created 'Pokémon Go'

How the gurus behind Google Earth created 'Pokémon Go' | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The story behind the Pokéstops.
YEC Geo's insight:
Why  am I not surprised?
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Reservoir Rock In World's Biggest Oil Field Disproves Global Flood?

Reservoir Rock In World's Biggest Oil Field Disproves Global Flood? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

The main reservoir rock of the world's largest oil field, the Ghawar of Saudi Arabia, is peloidal limestone, composed primarily of fecal pellets.   The blogger thinks this disproves any possibility of a global flood, because "A chaotic flood would have dispersed and broken up fecal pellets into mud. Only long periods of wave action and winnowing and early cementation on a sea floor would have produce the well sorted fecal pellet sands of the Ghawar reservoir deposit."


 A little digging, however, reveals that this article follows a pattern similar to others that attempt to use a given geological formation to  disprove a global flood.  First, the writers often have assumptions about what a global flood would be like, which may or may not be true, but are essentially speculation.  To be fair, the same is true of YEC geologists--there is simply very little way to analogize a catastrophic global marine transgression from local storms or flood events.  In some sense, that makes it too easy to disprove or prove the flood from any given formation.


 What is more difficult, however, is finding analogies from current environments of deposition to many geologic features in the rock record.  The Ghawar, for instance, is part of a complex regional system of sandstones, shales, limestones, and evaporites, very different from what is found in modern carbonate environments such as the Bahamas bank mentioned in the above blog post. (http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2004/afifi01/index.htm)


 In addition, Kaźmierczak et al (1996), in a widely-cited article, state that "The origin of micritic and peloidal limestones comprising the bulk of many ancient marine carbonate deposits represents a major unsolved problem of carbonate sedimentology."  (http://www.app.pan.pl/article/item/app41-319.html)  Go ahead and read the entire article (pdf link at the bottom of the abstract). In a remarkable statement about the singularity of peloidal deposition, they conclude that, "... the entophysalidaceans, pleurocapsaleans, and similar coccoid benthic cyanobacteria living in an uncalcified state in modern seas are waiting for the restoration of excessively alkaline environmental conditions to imprint again their micritic/peloidal signature on widespread areas of the shallow sea floor."


The takeaway--the Ghafar isn't per se evidence against a global flood, and certain features may in fact fit in well with the chemical, tectonic and sedimentary conditions that could be proposed for a catastrophic global marine transgression.

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New Inca Ruins Charted Near Choquequirao

New Inca Ruins Charted Near Choquequirao | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
I have often thought that the Inca must have had works and cultivations on the other side of the Apurimac opposite Inca Topa Yupanki’s royal estate and ceremonial complex at Choquequirao. Finally, we are now here where I have only distantly been before with binoculars and recently, with the new age, arm chair explorer’s tool, Google Earth.
YEC Geo's insight:
Indiana Jones with an Internet connection.
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An Ancient Device Too Advanced to Be Real Gives Up Its Secrets at Last

An Ancient Device Too Advanced to Be Real Gives Up Its Secrets at Last | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Researchers present what they’ve learned now that they can read the tiny text inside the Antikythera mechanism.
YEC Geo's insight:
One of the unfortunate side effects of the evolutionary mindset is the assumed perception of progressive intelligence, that modern people are more advanced than the ancients (i.e., cave men to computers) merely through the agency of time.  This article adds to the evidence dispelling that notion.
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An Updated Version of the “Peak Oil” Story

An Updated Version of the “Peak Oil” Story | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
It is becoming apparent that if oil prices can be raised to a high enough level, a lot more oil is available.
YEC Geo's insight:
An economic story that makes sense.
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Inconsistencies in the plate tectonics model

Inconsistencies in the plate tectonics model | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
On the surface the PT model appears to have all the answers to explain the geology of the earth; however, there are many inconsistencies involving plate boundaries, plate mechanics, plate motions, and even paleomagnetism.
YEC Geo's insight:
Important article.  I've been skeptical for a long time that many creationists have too readily embraced the plate tectonics model without examining its problems carefully enough.
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Fossil DNA Stuns Geologists

Fossil DNA Stuns Geologists | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The findings make sense if none of the DNA is as old as claimed. Remove the assumption of millions of years. Now look at the data. Below a certain depth, it’s all mostly the same age.
YEC Geo's insight:
Preservation of chloroplast DNA presumed to be up to 1.4 million years old in deep sea sediments.
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Hey, 'Science Guy' Bill Nye: Come Out of the Ark and Face the Flood of Evidence Against Darwinism

Hey, 'Science Guy' Bill Nye: Come Out of the Ark and Face the Flood of Evidence Against Darwinism | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Nye has been back in the headlines recently after paying a visit to Ham’s new Ark Encounter theme park, promoted as a full-size replica of Noah’s ark. Reporters ate it up.

I’m sure that kind of publicity is hard for either man to resist, but shouldn’t Nye at least try to resist it? If he’s really a science guy, shouldn’t he pay less attention to jousting with Ham and more attention to the weighty scientific case against Darwin’s account of life?
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The 'blood lake' in Iran revealed

The 'blood lake' in Iran revealed | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
"The blood-red waters of Lake Urmia have been turned their bright hue by tiny organisms living in it."
YEC Geo's insight:
Could this have been a cause of the Red Sea being named the way it is?
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Top archaeological finds-from-the-air list shows aerial technology is transforming understanding of the past

Top archaeological finds-from-the-air list shows aerial technology is transforming understanding of the past | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Every year the government body that cares for England’s historic environment discovers and photographs sites across England from a light aircraft. Here are eight examples which Historic England is sharing to mark the Festival of Archaeology.
YEC Geo's insight:
Topography is knowledge.
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The unfolding water crisis at the Third Pole

The unfolding water crisis at the Third Pole | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Water from the Third Pole feeds a series of jewel-like oases that sit amid the arid dunes of the Gobi desert.

Today water from the glaciers has been harnessed into an extensive irrigation system that sustains a population of 5 million in what's known as the Hexi Corridor.

It's made the desert bloom with fields of sunflowers, corn, and wheat, but the glacier melt means the desert will eventually reclaim this land.

After surviving for so long in such a fragile environment, the oasis lakes are under threat. The glaciers that feed them are drying up.
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Three Geography Games Based on Google Maps and Google Earth

Three Geography Games Based on Google Maps and Google Earth | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Playing one of the following three Google Maps-based games is a fun way to reinforce the concept of using prior knowledge and observations.
YEC Geo's insight:
Share your insight
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Amethyst Geode Wedding Cake

Amethyst Geode Wedding Cake | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"For those interested, Rachael has created an online tutorial on how to make the cake on Craftsy."

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Radar Reveals Former Warm Landscape Under Greenland

Radar Reveals Former Warm Landscape Under Greenland | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Under the world’s fastest moving glacier, radar has revealed a network of V-shaped canyons carved by temperate rivers.
YEC Geo's insight:
The channel morphologies call some of the dating assumptions into question.
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The Last of the Earthquake Predictors

The Last of the Earthquake Predictors | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
A handful of underfunded researchers still believe science can defy the odds.
YEC Geo's insight:
Of noise, nanoteslas, and a Christian geophysicist.  Excellent, and unnerving, article.
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Stunning Amber Bird Wings

Stunning Amber Bird Wings | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Last, even if amber miraculously withstood the ravages of darkening, cracking, erosion, and consumption by microbes, bird-wing tissues turn to mush and dust according to the universal law of entropy. The mummified skin and bone sections of these tiny wings decayed only partially, leaving whitish bubbles containing tissue byproducts in the amber.
YEC Geo's insight:
100 million year old preserved organic material.
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Dazzling Diamonds by Special Delivery

Dazzling Diamonds by Special Delivery | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
“Diamonds are forever,” the saying goes. But, in fact, they are not stable, at least in the heat and pressures inside the earth. They can survive in only a narrow zone known as “the diamond stability zone.” At higher or lower depths, they quickly break down into graphite, the soft (and more stable) form of pure carbon used in pencils. In addition to being unstable, diamonds need just the right conditions to form. That explains why they are so rare.

So how did diamonds form inside the earth, and then pass through all those destructive zones without breaking down into graphite?
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