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CEH: Evaluating the Chicxulub Impact Dinosaur Extinction Hypothesis

CEH: Evaluating the Chicxulub Impact Dinosaur Extinction Hypothesis | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

David Coppedge at Creation-Evolution Headlines reports on the latest iteration of the Chicxulub impact theory and the K-T boundary. 

 

This has bothered me for some time, because the whole discussion illustrates what I have come to see as a major logical failing in modern stratigraphic interpretation, especially in regard to the interpretative principle that the present is the key to the past.

 

In a nutshell, the idea that flat, horizontal contacts between thick, areally-widespread formations can be analogized to the present time, is unrealistic because of the ubiquity of erosion.

 

The above image illustrates the point quite nicely.  Much work has been done to support the theory that the iridium layer above the Hell Creek formation (essentially at the position of the red line above) marks the K-T boundary.  Thus, fossils buried below the boundary are Cretaceous, and those above are Tertiary.

 

But now look at the contrast between the current topography and the geometry of the outcrop--could it be more stark? 

 

The main point is that EROSION is the dominant process of the present.  Nowhere in historical time do we find thick subaerial layers being deposited and left undisturbed long enough to accumulate the thickness and areal extent of the Hell Creek and its other equivalents, such as the Lance Formation (see here for an map: www.und.nodak.edu/instruct/jhartman/Research/PDFs/2002-117-Johnson%20et%20al%20sp361.pdf)

 

The connection with the K-T border is that conditions must have been extremely unique for the ash that marks the border to fall on horizontal, uniform rock layers and then remain undisturbed by erosion for the amount of time required by current interpretations for the accumulation of both the overlying and underlying horizontal layers. 

 

Think about it:  where are the widespread, thin horizontal ash layers from Mt. St. Helens?

 

Coppedge reports on the slap in the face that the cometary extinction theory had for uniformitarianism:

 

"'It flew in the face of the position that geologists and paleontologists at the time had for gradual explanations for everything that happened in the Earth’s past, a position that went by the name of uniformitarianism,' said Walter Alvarez. 'The notion that this mass extinction was caused by an impact, or even the notion that there was a sudden mass extinction, raised a lot of dispute at the time, and people strongly challenged the idea.'"

 

However, you can't have it both ways. If the Fort Union and Hell Creek formations were laid down slowly, uniformitarianism predicts that they should have been heavily eroded.  If they were laid down quickly, then the fossils they contain can't be representative of different geologic time periods.

 

Draping actualism over uniformitarianism results in a useless predictive paradigm, because anything is possible, and nothing is improbable. 

 

Unless it allows people to entertain the hypothesis of a catastrophic global marine transgression.  I'm not holding my breath.

 

Image credit: http://geologyblues.blogspot.com/2010/05/accretionary-wedge.html

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Conformable Contacts
Notes from the intersection of faith, reason and geology
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Raison d'etre

Raison d'etre | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

In geological terms, a contact is the place where two different types of rocks come together. This ezine is a place to find content from my favorite web sources on the the creation-evolution issue, with a focus on the subject of geology.  Just as the layers of a rock can be composed of many different materials, so my sources often differ in their assumptions and in their views on the issue, but their common intersection is the belief that this is an important subject.

 

(Image source:  Glyn Baker, http://www.geograph.org.uk/reuse.php?id=167895)

YEC Geo's insight:

While my interests are wide-ranging, as even a cursory glance at this site will show,  a subject of great personal interest to me is the preservation of biological material in fossils presumed tens to hundreds of millions of years old.  In my view, the increasing pace of discovery of such material is one of the strongest evidences in support of a young age for the earth.

 

Below is a continuously updated archive of articles I've found on the subject:

 

Jurassic squid ink: http://sco.lt/7nbAVV

550 million year old tube worms: http://sco.lt/8xwAJl, http://sco.lt/4xoX6v

23 million year old lizard:  http://sco.lt/5qDwpt

46 million year old mosquito: http://sco.lt/8AQAuf

46 million year old beetle scales: http://sco.lt/68OHA1

70 million year old hadrosaur skin: http://sco.lt/8SaVEn, http://sco.lt/9L5UDB

160 year old mollusk melanin:  http://sco.lt/6QYbU9

Brian Thomas’ overviews:  http://sco.lt/92v9t3, http://sco.lt/5H0JSj

Archaeopteryx feather:  http://sco.lt/70tG8P

190-197 million year old sauropod egg proteins: http://sco.lt/7J3aSX

250 million year old coloration on trilobites: http://sco.lt/4xixrV

Cretaceous triceratops horn: http://sco.lt/6a9nlZ, http://sco.lt/5FtIBd

Bachelor’s thesis on fossil pigments: http://sco.lt/5mbfv7

350 million year old crinoids & 417 million year old eurypterid chitin: http://sco.lt/5Y3cVl

C-14 in dinosaur bones, a presentation at an AGU-AOGS conference that was later stricken from the conference records:  http://sco.lt/5OIu25

Soft tissue overview from Answers in Genesis: http://sco.lt/666kpl

Dr. Mary Schweitzer’s dinosaur tissue research: http://sco.lt/5VIvnl

Preserved coloration in 70 million year old mammal teeth: http://sco.lt/5H0JSj

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Asteroids: between a rock and a hard place

Asteroids: between a rock and a hard place | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
If you've ever stopped to peer with suspicion at the sky, wondering how that would go, a mammoth piece of space rock on its way in to bring ruin, the last two years have not been especially restful. In February 2013, a large asteroid ripped over the Chelyabinsk district of Russia, trailing cartoonish lines of smoke as it made its shallow entry, radiating so much light and heat that onlookers were left with reddened faces. Skin peel. When the asteroid exploded, 15 miles up, there was a terrible, prolonged bang – a noise that has rung on, in its way, ever since.
YEC Geo's insight:

Very informative piece, but it leaves you with the uneasy feeling that  no one really has any good solutions.

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Ten Evidences for Creation

Ten Evidences for Creation | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
YEC Geo's insight:

Brian Thomas' infographic.  #10 is my fave.

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Surficial continental erosion places the Flood/post-Flood boundary in the late Cenozoic

Surficial continental erosion places the Flood/post-Flood boundary in the late Cenozoic | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Surficial continental erosion places the Flood/post-Flood boundary in the late Cenozoic
YEC Geo's insight:

"The geomorphology of the earth’s surface shows a transition in the surface features from the products of widespread sheet flow erosion, such as planation surfaces, to the channelized incision of features like wind and water gaps: “The transition from widespread planation of the landscapes during the Tertiary to valley development and incision during the Quaternary is well documented in Europe.” This is exactly what is expected during the Recessive Stage of the Flood. This transition from sheet flow erosion to channelized flow erosion would be dependent on topography and location, but would generally occur sooner at elevated regions that were first exposed as the floodwaters receded."

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Evaluating The Day Four Cratering Hypothesis

Evaluating The Day Four Cratering Hypothesis | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Creationists have recently considered impact cratering in the solar system occurring during the fourth day of the Creation Week.
YEC Geo's insight:

"Cratering is ubiquitous throughout the solar system, except for certain objects such as the gaseous planets, or objects that have evidence of being resurfaced. Yet earth seems to stand apart in having much fewer known identifiable impact sites than other solar system objects, including our moon."

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Massive erosion of continents demonstrates Flood runoff

Massive erosion of continents demonstrates Flood runoff | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Massive amounts of sediments, many kilometres thick, with buried plants and animals, were laid down early in the Great Biblical Flood (often called Noah’s Flood). These were cemented into sedimentary rock and the organisms were fossilized. Then the mountains and continents rose up and the valleys and ocean basins sank (Psalm 104:6–9). This caused the Flood water to rush off the continents, sometimes at high speed. This is called the Recessive Stage of the Flood, and probably started about Day 150, nearly midway into the Flood. It would have resulted in enormous erosion of vast areas of the continents. The results of this erosion are clearly visible in every landscape around the world."

YEC Geo's insight:

Mike Oard looks at erosion surfaces and crunches the numbers.

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The most dangerous dam in the world

The most dangerous dam in the world | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The Mosul Dam blocks the Tigris River south of the Turkish border, forming a reservoir 11 billion cubic metres in volume – the fourth largest in the Middle East. Much of the military rhetoric has focused on the potential for deliberate destruction of the structure, releasing catastrophic flood waves reaching 4.6m high as far downstream as Baghdad, 350km away. But politically and economically it is the control of the dam’s hydroelectricity which gives it priority. Engineers, meanwhile, noting the reservoir’s unorthodox setting (on water-soluble karstic geology ) fear an accidental breach of the dam if vital geotechnical work, including continuous injection of impermeable grout, is not properly maintained.
YEC Geo's insight:

According to Wikipedia, the dam is located on top of gypsum, which is a highly soluble mineral, requiring continuous maintenance to plug new leaks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosul_Dam).  In 2003, after the US invasion of Iraq, over 500 Iraqi maintenance workers continued to service the dam, despite not being paid for almost a month.  That tells you something about the seriousness with which the security of this dam is regarded.

 

But gypsum?  Seriously, why was this dam even built? 

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The Man Who Brought Los Angeles Its Water

The Man Who Brought Los Angeles Its Water | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"William Mulholland’s fame, respect and honor were drowned the night of March 12, 1928, when the St. Francis Dam collapsed. He took full responsibility for the failure and the deaths. He died a broken man in 1935. The story of his life has all the makings of a brilliant Greek tragedy."

YEC Geo's insight:

The little-known story of a man whose life work  changed southern California.

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Is Seattle Ready To Deal With a Major Earthquake?

Is Seattle Ready To Deal With a Major Earthquake? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"New to the area? You know we get earthquakes here too, right? Anyone who lived here in 2001 can remember the 6.8 Nisqually Quake. Then there was the 6.5 in '65. Sunday morning's 6.1 that shook Napa Valley - an emergency for California, was a reminder to think about how Seattle and the surrounding area should be mindful."

YEC Geo's insight:

Interesting--any house built in the above area before 1965 has been through two mid-6 range earthquakes.

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Utah's Great Gallery rock art younger than expected, say scientists

Utah's Great Gallery rock art younger than expected, say scientists | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Ancient Barrier Canyon-style paintings crafted on sunset-washed rock faces of the Great Gallery, located in Horseshoe Canyon in southern Utah's Canyonlands National Park, are younger than expected, say Utah State University scientists."

YEC Geo's insight:

A clever mashup of archaeology and stratigraphic reasoning.

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Video shows enormous crack in the ground in northern Mexico

Video shows enormous crack in the ground in northern Mexico | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Incredible footage has emerged showing a 26ft (8m) deep crack in the in the farmland of northwest Mexico, which stretches for over a kilometre.
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Radioisotope Dating of Meteorites II: The Ordinary and Enstatite

Radioisotope Dating of Meteorites II: The Ordinary and Enstatite | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Meteorites date the earth with a 4.55 ± 0.07 Ga Pb-Pb isochron called the geochron. They appear to consistently yield 4.55-4.57 Ga radioisotope ages, adding to the uniformitarians’ confidence in the radioisotope dating methods."

YEC Geo's insight:

Geologist Andrew Snelling examines in detail the radiometric dating of meteorites and their implications for the creationist model.

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Less shake from artificial quakes, Fed study says

Less shake from artificial quakes, Fed study says | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Man-made earthquakes, a side effect of some high-tech energy drilling, cause less shaking and in general are about 16 times weaker than natural earthquakes with the same magnitude, a new federal study found."

YEC Geo's insight:

Maybe the earthquake equivalent of a controlled burn?

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Dino deductions

Dino deductions | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

A world-class dinosaur fossil—a 30-foot long, meat-eating Allosaurus—takes center stage at a creationist museum. This announcement last April dumbfounded evolutionists.

 

“If you are a creationist—if you believe that God created the world in six days, the Bible is a literal history—then fossils are an awkward thing for you,” commented Rachel Maddow on MSNBC. After all, “Fossils are the physical record of living things that died millions of years ago.”

 

Her comments were typical of media reactions. “Humans and dinosaurs together?” she scoffed, and then said that the belief belongs to “the paranoid fringe.

YEC Geo's insight:

Context is key when interpreting fossils.  The conventional fallback position is that fossil assemblages are generally life assemblages--reasonably accurate portraits of a particular ecosystem in a relatively undisturbed setting.  But if that's the case, why don't we find modern equivalents to the massive boneyards found in the Morrison Formation, discussed in this article?

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GE Teach

"Overview video for GE Teach http://geteach.com/maps."


Via Seth Dixon
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Seth Dixon's curator insight, September 12, 3:51 PM

GE Teach is a powerful mapping platform that harnesses the power of Google Earth into a user-friendly format.  I've you've ever wanted multiple maps on the screen to compare and contrast, this is great tool.  Designed by an APHG teacher, this is a great way to bring geospatial technologies into the classroom.  With multiple data layers of physical and human geography variables, this becomes an interactive globe.  Click here for the video tutorial.  


Tags: googlemapping, virtual tours, geospatialAPHG, edtech.

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Bible May Solve Colossal Ancient Iceberg Riddle

Bible May Solve Colossal Ancient Iceberg Riddle | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"What is the recipe for making an iceberg? Scientists know the basics from watching polar-ice sheets. Huge chunks calve, slide off, and float away as icebergs. But that’s for modern icebergs. New research reveals evidence of ancient icebergs that would dwarf today’s frozen floating mountains, leaving secular explanations out in the cold."

YEC Geo's insight:

"The recipe for making an Ice Age calls for hot oceans and a colder atmosphere." 

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Celebrities powerless as their Malibu homes are hit by waves

Celebrities  powerless as their Malibu homes are hit by waves | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Rising sea levels residents who live along the exclusive stretch of beach of Malibu Colony are powerless to protect their guarded, gated houses from the forces of nature.
YEC Geo's insight:

It's always good to remember that the sea is really not our friend.

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Gore Was Spectactularly Wrong About Arctic Ice

Gore Was Spectactularly Wrong About Arctic Ice | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"

So depending on which prediction you believe, Al Gore thought there would be no more ice at the North Pole by 2013 (five years after his speech in Germany), 2014 (seven years after his Nobel Prize acceptance speech) or 2029 (22 years after his Nobel Prize acceptance speech). It’s obvious which one Gore favored. He mentioned it twice in the quote above: 2014.

Let’s look at the latest measurements of Arctic sea ice to check the former vice president’s prediction."

YEC Geo's insight:

Jay Wile digs into the data.

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My 417-mile trip down the 'endangered' river

My 417-mile trip down the 'endangered' river | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"I spent three weeks trying to kayak (and walk) down the “most endangered” river in America, California’s San Joaquin; I quickly learned why no one does that."

YEC Geo's insight:

Long, but well-illustrated piece of reportage--well worth the read. 

 

Sample:

 

" Halfway through my three-week, 417-mile journey down the 'most endangered' river in America, the water began flowing backward and the mud started talking.

 

It spoke in baritone gurgles, like Barry White trapped in a bong.

 

You know what this is, John?

 

No, Barry White mud.

 

This is QUICKSAND.

 

*&#%.

 

Despite my overactive imagination, this ridiculous situation was real: The quicksand -- I didn’t actually believe in quicksand until that afternoon -- bubbled and spat as it slurped me down and held on tight.

 

It had me at the knees.

 

As anyone who’s seen “Indiana Jones” or “Princess Bride” can attest, you need a sidekick to get unstuck from quicksand. No sidekick here. I was alone on the San Joaquin River in California’s remote Central Valley -- the forgotten part of the Golden State, where no one thinks of taking a vacation.

 

I looked to the left to see this Frankenriver flowing backward -- toward the Sierra Nevada, where I’d started this “Mad Max” journey 12 days before.

 

I had no idea what was going on.

 

Or how the h*** I was getting out."

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Shaken and stirred in California's recent earthquake

Shaken and stirred in California's recent earthquake | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"In spite of the dozens of injuries and extensive damage to homes, historic buildings and roadways – estimated to exceed $1 billion –  things could have been much worse. Consider a scenario that has been imagined by experts for years: If Sunday’s earthquake had occurred further to the east – nearer the tangled tidal channels in the heart of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay Delta – the resulting damage could compound tremendously the severity of the drought's effects."

YEC Geo's insight:

But wait, there's more...according to the article, the drought itself may be enhancing quake activity.

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Unitisation – The Oil and Gas Industry’s Solution to One of Geology’s Many Conundrums

Unitisation – The Oil and Gas Industry’s Solution to One of Geology’s Many Conundrums | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Given the migratory nature of oil and gas, a hydrocarbon reservoir will often straddle two or more licence or contract areas; indeed, in certain instances, a hydrocarbon reservoir may even straddle international borders.
YEC Geo's insight:

What to do when oil doesn't want to pay attention to political boundaries?  Here's how it's worked out, for now at least.

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The meaning of porous dinosaur eggs laid on flat bedding planes

The meaning of porous dinosaur eggs laid on flat bedding planes | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Very rare nest structures and almost complete lack of evidence for vegetation means that dinosaur eggs have been laid on flat bedding planes. The embryo inside the egg would quickly dry out. This situation contradicts the environmental deduction of the porous eggs.

 

The only viable conclusion is that the dinosaurs laid their eggs in haste. They did not have time to dig a hole or add vegetation, possibly because there was no vegetation to be found. This means the eggs were laid in an unnatural environment and on flat sediment surfaces with subsequent rapid burial by watery flows—worldwide. In fact, the Argentina eggs are interpreted as resulting from multiple and successive flooding events.

 

Dinosaur eggs thus provide strong evidence for the BEDS (Briefly Exposed Diluvial Sediments) hypothesis—in which Flood sediments are briefly exposed during a local drop in the Flood water."

YEC Geo's insight:

Mike Oard is one of the best researchers in the scientific creationist community.  This article presents reinforcing evidence from secular research for his BEDS hypothesis.

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Moon Still Has Hot Core

Moon Still Has Hot Core | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Japanese scientists have determined that a soft, hot core remains in the center of the moon, contrary to expectations.
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Explore the geysers and waterfalls of Iceland on Google Maps

Explore the geysers and waterfalls of Iceland on Google Maps | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"n his book Tales of Iceland, Stephen Markley wrote, “The problem with driving around Iceland is that you’re basically confronted by a new soul-enriching, breath-taking, life-affirming natural sight every five... minutes. It’s totally exhausting.” We've never been ones to take someone else's word for it when it comes to sightseeing, so we took Street View to some of the most stunning locations throughout the country. As it turns out, Markley was right...and now with Street View, you can take a journey through Iceland to explore these beautiful places too."

YEC Geo's insight:

For some time now, I've thought that Google Maps offers a great way to do virtual geology field trips.  Here's one example.

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Vanishing Taiwan canyon has 50 years left

Vanishing Taiwan canyon has 50 years left | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"All these measurements reveal some of the fastest erosion geologists have ever seen: the gorge is being eaten away from its upstream end at a rate of 17m per year.

 

The breakneck pace is a result of both the relative softness of the rocks, and the regular flooding brought by typhoons."

YEC Geo's insight:

Fascinating, fascinating.  An earthquake uplifted a chunk of the valley floor, causing a natural dam which has been repeatedly swept over by periodic floods  and eroded by the river.  What would happen if the river, for some reason, dried up?  The erosional remnants in the image above  would be left behind.  Kind of like here:  http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/La_Fen%C3%AAtre_du_Nord,_Monument_Valley,_AZ..JPG

 

Key point:  it's the flooding that's causing the erosion, not the normal flow of the river.

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Fascinating flower pots

Fascinating flower pots | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"When I descended the steps, I saw that the flower pots were made of gravel that had been cemented into stone. Some of the chunks of rock were angular but most were rounded. This conglomerate rock, as it is called, spoke of large quantities of fast flowing water. Rushing floodwaters would not have taken very much time to deposit that gravel. As I walked across the exposed ocean floor and examined the flower-pot stacks and cliffs, I realised I was looking at evidence from the global Flood of Noah’s time."

YEC Geo's insight:

We just came back from a visit to Hopewell Rocks, so this article was personally pertinent.

 

What the article doesn't mention, which you can see somewhat in the lower left corner of the image above, is that most of the shoreline is roped off to protect visitors from the unstable cliffs.  Jay Wile discusses some articles here noting that one formation which was prominent in 1983 had eroded to a stump by 1998 (http://blog.drwile.com/?p=10614).  The authors of one of the studies he cited estimated that the 16 rock pillars they studied were formed only within the last 96 to 256 years.

 

In other words, there's a lot of fast erosion going on here. 

 

Here's another article by a sea kayaker with some gorgeous pictures of similarly eroded areas in the Bay of Fundy:  http://www.coastaladventures.com/fundyarticle.html. ; Sea kayaking is definitely one of the best ways to tour this area.

 

 

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