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Old King Coal, Part III

Old King Coal, Part III | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
A mathematical test of lycopod root structure supports the floating forest hypothesis of Kuntze regarding the formation of Paleozoic coal measures.

 

Part I:  http://www.scoop.it/t/conformable-contacts/p/1873945504/old-king-coal-part-i

 

Part II: http://www.scoop.it/t/conformable-contacts/p/2556015510/old-king-coal-part-2

 

 

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Conformable Contacts
Notes from the intersection of faith, reason and geology
Curated by YEC Geo
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Raison d'etre

Raison d'etre | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

In geological terms, a contact is the place where two different types of rocks come together. This ezine is a place to find content from my favorite web sources on the the creation-evolution issue, with a focus on the subject of geology.  Just as the layers of a rock can be composed of many different materials, so my sources often differ in their assumptions and in their views on the issue, but their common intersection is the belief that this is an important subject.

 

(Image source:  Glyn Baker, http://www.geograph.org.uk/reuse.php?id=167895)

YEC Geo's insight:

While my interests are wide-ranging, as even a cursory glance at this site will show,  a subject of great personal interest to me is the preservation of biological material in fossils presumed tens to hundreds of millions of years old.  In my view, the increasing pace of discovery of such material is one of the strongest evidences in support of a young age for the earth.

 

Below is a continuously updated archive of articles I've found on the subject:

 

Jurassic squid ink: http://sco.lt/7nbAVV

550 million year old tube worms: http://sco.lt/8xwAJl, http://sco.lt/4xoX6v

23 million year old lizard:  http://sco.lt/5qDwpt

46 million year old mosquito: http://sco.lt/8AQAuf

46 million year old beetle scales: http://sco.lt/68OHA1

70 million year old hadrosaur skin: http://sco.lt/8SaVEn, http://sco.lt/9L5UDB

160 year old mollusk melanin:  http://sco.lt/6QYbU9

Brian Thomas’ overviews:  http://sco.lt/92v9t3, http://sco.lt/5H0JSj

Archaeopteryx feather:  http://sco.lt/70tG8P

190-197 million year old sauropod egg proteins: http://sco.lt/7J3aSX

250 million year old coloration on trilobites: http://sco.lt/4xixrV

Cretaceous triceratops horn: http://sco.lt/6a9nlZ, http://sco.lt/5FtIBd

Bachelor’s thesis on fossil pigments: http://sco.lt/5mbfv7

350 million year old crinoids & 417 million year old eurypterid chitin: http://sco.lt/5Y3cVl

C-14 in dinosaur bones, a presentation at an AGU-AOGS conference that was later stricken from the conference records:  http://sco.lt/5OIu25

Soft tissue overview from Answers in Genesis: http://sco.lt/666kpl

Dr. Mary Schweitzer’s dinosaur tissue research: http://sco.lt/5VIvnl

Preserved coloration in 70 million year old mammal teeth: http://sco.lt/5H0JSj

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"Fast and Furious Burger" book review

"Fast and Furious Burger" book review | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Designers Thomas Weil and Quentin Weisbuch met while working at a design agency in Paris. Fed up with the endless parade of sandwiches for lunch, the two decided to spice things up. The culinary challenge? Burgers. The rules? None, except they had to be edible. Because lunch break is only so long, Weil and Weisbuch gave themselves 90 minutes to come up with an idea, run to the store, and cook the burger. Using their office kitchen, the men began experimenting. Things quickly spiraled out of control.
YEC Geo's insight:

Because asteroid burgers.

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Super Typhoon Shoved Car-Size Boulders Onto Philippine Beaches

Super Typhoon Shoved Car-Size Boulders Onto Philippine Beaches | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Boulders the size of stretch limousines were moved by storm waves during Super Typhoon Haiyan.
YEC Geo's insight:
Caused by freak waves that form when ordinary wave sets merge into one large, long period wave at steep drop-offs close to shore.
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USGS Sacrifices Scientific Integrity to Jump on the Global Warming Bandwagon

USGS Sacrifices Scientific Integrity to Jump on the Global Warming Bandwagon | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Nevertheless, it is very clear from the literature that the recent large haul-out seen is not the largest, and such large haul-outs were seen long before Arctic sea ice started to dwindle. It is unfortunate that the USGS didn’t do their homework before jumping on the “global warming” bandwagon.
YEC Geo's insight:

Jay Wile parses a National Geographic article relating walrus haul-outs to global warming, and points out that the data don't warrant the conclusion.

 

And see here to read online a fascinating book from the University of California Press detailing the correlation of historical volcanic eruptions with meteorological anomalies: http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft0h4nb01z&brand=ucpress

 

The book is about changes in the San Diego coastline, but the third chapter presents the authors' extensive analysis of historical global weather records.  Not only are anomalous weather patterns reported after volcanic eruptions, but they notice a pattern of abnormally cold weather before the volcanoes even erupted!

 

They conclude:

 

"The six months that precede the great phreatic eruptions seem to have a consistent characteristic: not only are they colder than average, but each of them contains months during which there are some of the coldest temperatures in all of the 110 years of weather records. It seems impossible that this could be only a coincidence.

 

Moreover, when we looked further back in the record, we discovered, in all cases, that the cold periods did not continue; apparently then, this is a phenomenon that develops shortly before the great eruptions take place. At present we have no explanation for this strange phenomenon, but it is hoped that further scientific inquiry will shed some light on it.

 

Regarding the weather that directly follows the great eruptions, the patterns are not the same in all cases, except that they all include periods of extremely changeable weather. That is, they all include features such as disastrous floods, an abundance of heavy windstorms coupled with extremely destructive tornadoes and hurricanes, record rains, snowstorms, an abundance of thunderstorms with unusually large hail pellets, and other indications of abnormal weather. Except during the periods following the great eruptions, such conditions are rare.

 

It seems almost certain, therefore, that the cold summers and other abnormal temperatures discovered earlier are to be expected after the great phreatic eruptions, though they form just a portion of the unusual weather."

 

 

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Denmark claims North Pole via Greenland ridge link

Denmark claims North Pole via Greenland ridge link | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Foreign Minister Martin Lidegaard said Denmark will deliver a claim on Monday to a United Nations panel in New York that will eventually decide control of the area, which Russia and Canada are also coveting.
YEC Geo's insight:

You decide.

 

Here, I've used a GIS to show as red all elevations 1600 meters below sea level.  You can now easily see the Lomonsov Ridge as a blue ridge stretching across the Arctic Sea.  The black circle is the area claimed by Denmark as an extension of Greenland. Russia claims the extension of the RIdge (circled in yellow) as part of the Siberian continental shelf (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_claims_in_the_Arctic).

 

So--does Denmark have a legitimate claim or not?  I gotta tell you, when I look at the part of the ridge claimed by Denmark, it looks  like it's more connected to Canada's section of the continental shelf than to Greenland's.  We'll see what the scientists at the United Nations decide.

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Bird X-Rays Shed Light on Dinosaur Tracks

Bird X-Rays Shed Light on Dinosaur Tracks | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
While the new technique provides a window into the long gone ways dinosaur feet moved as they pressed their prints into the mud, it also does not explain how such tracks, once made, could be fossilized in the first place. After all, footprints in rivers and on beaches would ordinarily wash away quickly, and the flash floods, often invoked to explain the absence of animals with their tracks, are uniformly destructive, washing away all in their path. Neither does anything in an evolutionary worldview explain how tracks could resist erosion for millions of years.
YEC Geo's insight:

Elizabeth Mitchell points out the elephant tracks in the fossilized footprint living room.

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The Petrology of the Coconino Sandstone (Permian), Arizona, USA

The Petrology of the Coconino Sandstone (Permian), Arizona, USA | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
It is generally accepted that the Coconino is an eolian sandstone and that its sand grains are well-sorted and well-rounded. However, until now, no detailed petrographic work has ever been published to substantiate these assumptions.
YEC Geo's insight:

It's crazy that generations of geologists have just taken for granted the original characterization of this enormously significant formation.  Even though modern aeolian deposits are nowhere near as widespread, tabular, or thick as the Coconino, an aeolian origin fits into a preconceived narrative, and thus goes unquestioned, except by creationists.

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Why Do Rivers Curve?


Via Seth Dixon
YEC Geo's insight:

Actually a very good video.  My one quibble is with the introduction, when the narrator talks about mountain streams "carving" their gorges.  The puzzle of how small streams could possibly carve out deep bedrock canyons is an ongoing research problem, and is difficult to resolve from a gradualistic perspective.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, November 30, 7:16 PM

While this Minute Earth video might make geomorphology experts cringe at some of the vocabulary in this, it still is a good introduction to the absolute basics of fluvial geomorphology, or how and why rivers reshape the Earth.   Fun fact: Albert Einstein pondered some of the great mysteries of the Earth, and in 1926 wrote an article on this very subject (actual paper can be read here).  


Tagsphysical, fluvial, geomorphology, erosion, landscape.


LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, December 5, 8:56 AM

El agua tiene su ritmo y pulsa al fluir, gira sobre sí misma. Cuando está en su ambiente natural y se le permite fluir y crear el ambiente por el cual fluye, crea los ríos sinuosos y serpenteantes y cuando esto ocurre, allí donde su dirección de giro cambia de dirección—rotación derecha, con el reloj, hacia una rotación izquierda, contra reloj—lo cual ocurre en las rectas, suelta lo que ha estado llevando y cargando en suspensión y esta material sólido se precipita. Asimismo, cuando el agua gira sobre si misma, se enfría, haciéndose más pesada. Es este tipo de movimiento el que hace que los ríos de las planicies serpenteen, más que cualquier otra influencia que haya "suavizado" sus orillas.

 

Water has its own rhythm and pulsates while flowing, it turns over itself when allowed to. When water is in its own natural environment and is allowed to flow and create its own space, it will create the sinuous rivers and when this happens, where its vortex direction changes—rotating clockwise or counterclockwise—it will release the silt and other materials it was carrying in suspension and they will fall to the bottom. Also, as it turns over itself, water cools down, becoming heavier. It is this motion that makes the plain rivers become sinuous, more so than whatever other influence that may have "loosened" its shores.

Sally Egan's curator insight, December 7, 4:27 PM

A very siual form using simple language to explain the meandering of rivers. Applicable to the course work on Hydrosphere.

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Offshore Fault Where The 'Big One' Originates Eerily Quiet

Offshore Fault Where The 'Big One' Originates Eerily Quiet | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Any parent of a rambunctious youngster can tell you trouble might be afoot when things go quiet in the playroom. Two independent research initiatives indicate there is a comparable situation with the Cascadia earthquake fault zone.
YEC Geo's insight:

Or maybe the plate tectonic theory behind the fault's classification needs a little tweaking.

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Radioisotope Decay Constants and Half-Lives: Lutetium-176

Radioisotope Decay Constants and Half-Lives: Lutetium-176 | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
From a creationist perspective, the 1997–2005 RATE (Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth) project successfully made progress in documenting some of the pitfalls in the radioisotope dating methods, and especially in demonstrating that radioisotope decay rates may not have always been constant at today’s measured rates (Vardiman, Snelling, and Chaffin 2000, 2005). Yet much research effort remains to be done to make further in-roads into not only uncovering the flaws intrinsic to these long-age dating methods, but towards a thorough understanding of radioisotopes and their decay during the earth’s history within a biblical creationist framework.
YEC Geo's insight:

Technical article detailing radioactive decay concerns about the Lutetium--176 isotope.

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Sunstones and Viking 'magic'

Sunstones and Viking 'magic' | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
An experienced sailor and navigator himself, Karlsen presented an excellent case for transparent calcite being the Vikings’ sunstone, aiding them in determining the sun’s position.
YEC Geo's insight:

Hadn't heard this before--quite interesting.

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Rapid magnetic field reversal Coe retraction - creation.com

Rapid magnetic field reversal Coe retraction - creation.com | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"New articles give evidence that the last magnetic polarity transition (during or just before the Ice Age, from reversed to normal) on the earth was very fast, probably taking less than a few months. If you can ignore the hype about possible future fast field flips, a pop-science article about it was titled, ‘Earth’s magnetic field could flip within a human lifetime’. 3 This was based on a technical paper, ‘Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal’."

YEC Geo's insight:

Insight on a controversial topic.

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The enigma of Fossil Bluff, Tasmania

The enigma of Fossil Bluff, Tasmania | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"All the geologists who have studied the rocks at Fossil Bluff have unanimously concluded the rocks were deposited in an ocean environment. So what are a whale and a land dwelling marsupial doing together in the rocks at Fossil Bluff?"

YEC Geo's insight:

A very good question indeed, and catastrophic processes should be invoked, or at least allowed to be entertained as a hypothesis..

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History and Geology of Christmas Island

History and Geology of Christmas Island | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Most readers probably know  Christmas Island isn’t a Jurassic Park style tourist attraction – but you may not know of its geology and history. We didn’t; we’d only seen maps of it on ‘alternative’ Christmas wrapping paper. So, in the spirit of Christmas tie-in blogging, we decided to find out…
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Disorienting Photos Turn a Volcanic Glacier Into Alien Terrain

Disorienting Photos Turn a Volcanic Glacier Into Alien Terrain | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"The images are beautiful yet disorienting, the ravines and mountains seemingly collapsing in on each other to create an otherworldly landscape. Holdsworth achieved this perspective by cutting each image in two, turning the two halves 180 degrees, then putting them back together—dissecting and reassembling the Earth into a surreal mosaic of rocks and ice."

YEC Geo's insight:

Another piece of intriguing geoart. 

Interesting from a geological viewpoint for how quickly the glacier formed in Mt. St. Helens' crater.

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Why was the UK once totally under water?

Why was the UK once totally under water? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The UK, because of its relatively small size compared with the world’s land mass and the early development of geology here, has been explored to a higher level of detail than many other countries. This paper presents evidence from within the uniformitarian paradigm that the UK experienced a complete flood recently.
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Stephen Meyer's Dangerous Idea

Stephen Meyer's Dangerous Idea | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
I think it's important to distinguish first things from second things, so the first question, I think, the most important question, is, "Design, or no design?" If there is no evidence of design, and materialistic processes can account for everything we see, then the simplest metaphysical explanation of the reality around us, the scientific reality, is the materialistic worldview: Matter and energy are eternal, self-existent, self-creating, and perfectly capable of producing everything we see around us.

If, instead, we see evidence of a designing mind, then I think that evidence has faith-affirming implications because the most logical candidate for the designing mind is obviously God.
YEC Geo's insight:

Stephen Meyer gives a wonderful answer to the question, what should a Christian believe?

There are many voices out there opining on the subject of origins, but I think his answer hits the hammer on the nail.

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The Huge, Unseen Operation Behind the Accuracy of Google Maps

The Huge, Unseen Operation Behind the Accuracy of Google Maps | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The maps we use to navigate have come a long way in a short time. Since the ’90s we’ve gone from glove boxes stuffed with paper maps to floorboards littered with Mapquest printouts to mindlessly obeying Siri or her nameless Google counterpart.

The maps behind those voices are packed with far more data than most people realize. On a recent visit to Mountain View, I got a peek at how the Google Maps team assembles their maps and refines them with a combination of algorithms and meticulous manual labor—an effort they call Ground Truth.
YEC Geo's insight:

How do they do it?  A peek into the "how."

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The daffodil code: doubts revived over Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks in London

The daffodil code: doubts revived over Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks in London | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Experts say London version of painter’s Madonna masterpiece has fake flowers and ‘misses the point geologically.' "

YEC Geo's insight:

Fascinating--a geologist analyzes two paintings and makes a conclusion about the painters based upon the realism of the rocks in the background.

 

Plus, how cool is it to be both a geologist and an art historian?

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When and How Did the Grand Canyon Form?

When and How Did the Grand Canyon Form? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Perhaps the most baffling observation, even to evolutionary geologists, is that the Grand Canyon cuts through, not around, a great plateau.

 

Ranney, in his 2005 book, "Carving Grand Canyon: Evidence, Theories, and Mystery," said:

'Oddly enough, the Grand Canyon is located in a place where it seemingly shouldn’t be. Some twenty miles east of Grand Canyon Village, the Colorado River turned sharply ninety degrees, from a southern course to a western one and into the heart of the uplifted Kaibab Plateau. . . . It appears to cut right through this uplifted wall of rock, which lies three thousand feet above the adjacent Marble Platform to the east.'

Indeed, the headwaters of the Colorado River are at a lower elevation than the top of the Kaibab Plateau through which the Grand Canyon has been cut."

YEC Geo's insight:

In fact, the Grand Canyon is just the final, most spectacular example of a series of enormous water gaps that progress from Wyoming down to Arizona.  Big, big problem for conventional geologists..

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Deforestation May Be at Root of Brazil Drought

Deforestation May Be at Root of Brazil Drought | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

The cutting of trees, scientists say, is hindering the immense jungle's ability to absorb carbon from the air and to pull enough water through tree roots to supply gigantic "sky rivers" that move more moisture than the Amazon river itself. More than two-thirds of the rain in southeastern Brazil, home to 40 percent of its population, comes from these sky rivers, studies estimate. When they dry up, drought follows, scientists believe.


Via ReactNow
YEC Geo's insight:

I hadn't heard of "sky rivers" before, but it seems to make sense.

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Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, December 15, 10:26 PM

Deforestation of the Amazon jungle is thought to be the root for all the lack of rain fall that they have been experiencing. Scientists believe that the trees that aren’t there anymore were an important key for the pulling of water through the tree roots and absorb carbon in the air because of homeostasis. Therefor "Sky Rivers" weren't created to move the moisture to southeastern Brazil, which is where 40 percent of Brazil’s population is. 

 

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Variable radioactive decay rates and the changes in solar activity

Variable radioactive decay rates and the changes in solar activity | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Recent research by physicists has suggested that there is some correlation between changes in solar activity and radioactive decay rates. Jere Jenkins and Ephraim Fischbach (from Purdue University, Indiana), for instance, have found that there appears to be a correlation between the radioactive decay rate of 32Si and 226Ra on the earth and changes relating to the sun’s activity. This is an important area of research for those who question the constancy of radioactive decay rates, and such variable decay rates may have a bearing upon our understanding of the dating of various rock layers
YEC Geo's insight:

And see here for research indicating that seasonal variability is not the culprit:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141010083857.htm

 

Note the new study claims the variations are probably a result of the detectors.  We'll see if the original researchers come back with more data.

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In Midst of California’s Drought, a Rainy Day Is a Welcome Sight

In Midst of California’s Drought, a Rainy Day Is a Welcome Sight | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
This might be the only state in the nation where a rainy day — complete with blinding sheets of water, shoe-sopping flooded intersections and chalk gray skies — puts people in a good mood.
YEC Geo's insight:

Kind of like a snowy day in Florida.

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How Underground Sensors in Texas Will Help NASA Predict Drought and Floods

How Underground Sensors in Texas Will Help NASA Predict Drought and Floods | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
It seems counter-intuitive, but it’s common for floods to occur in Texas not only when the earth is over-saturated, but when also when it’s too dry. So monitors help predict flooding.

That’s not all. They also tell farmers when to irrigate and reveal how water seeps through the soil to refill aquifers. Monitors can help the state predict how Texas reservoirs will refill after a rainfall. Will that runoff go to the reservoir, or get sucked up into the ground?
YEC Geo's insight:

Learned from this NASA is sending up a satellite that will measure the earth's soil moisture globally every three days.  That's a lot of data.

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The last unmapped places on Earth

The last unmapped places on Earth | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Have we mapped the whole planet? As Rachel Nuwer discovers, there are mysterious, poorly charted places everywhere, but not for the reasons you might think.
YEC Geo's insight:

More:

 

"This neglect means maps of remote regions can contain errors that go unnoticed for years. Scientists paying a visit to Sandy Island, a speck of land in to Coral Sea near New Caledonia, recently discovered that the island simply did not exist. The “phantom island” had found its way onto Australian maps and Google Earth at least a decade ago, probably due to human error."

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Record Drought Reveals Stunning Changes Along Colorado River

Record Drought Reveals Stunning Changes Along Colorado River | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Fifty miles (80 kilometers) up from the Colorado River confluence, on what is commonly known as the San Juan River Arm of Lake Powell, we kept poking our paddles-cum-measuring sticks toward the shallow river bottom, shouting: "Good-bye, reservoir! Hello, San Powell River!" In a four-mile-per-hour, opaque current, always hunting for the deepest river braids, we breezed past fields of still-viscous, former lake-bottom silt deposits. Stepping out of the boat here would have been an invitation to disappear in quicksand.

 

We paddled downstream, looking for the edge of the reservoir. We passed caterwauling great blue herons, a yipping coyote, and squawking conspiracies of ravens. By late afternoon, dehydrated by the desert sun, we stopped at one of the few quicksand-free tent sites above the newly emerged river: a sandy yet dry creek bed draining the sacred Navajo Mountain."

YEC Geo's insight:

Wow, look at the difference in the two photos.  Kayakers rejoicing, farmers and ranchers probably not so much.

 

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