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Physicist Proposes New Way To Think About Intelligence: A radical concept could revise theories addressing cognitive behavior.

Physicist Proposes New Way To Think About Intelligence: A radical concept could revise theories addressing cognitive behavior. | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

A single equation grounded in basic physics principles could describe intelligence and stimulate new insights in fields as diverse as finance and robotics, according to new research.

 

Alexander Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Cameron Freer, a mathematician at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, developed an equation that they say describes many intelligent or cognitive behaviors, such as upright walking and tool use.

The researchers suggest that intelligent behavior stems from the impulse to seize control of future events in the environment. This is the exact opposite of the classic science-fiction scenario in which computers or robots become intelligent, then set their sights on taking over the world.

The findings describe a mathematical relationship that can "spontaneously induce remarkably sophisticated behaviors associated with the human 'cognitive niche,' including tool use and social cooperation, in simple physical systems," the researchers wrote in a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters.

"It's a provocative paper," said Simon DeDeo, a research fellow at the Santa Fe Institute, who studies biological and social systems. "It's not science as usual."

Wissner-Gross, a physicist, said the research was "very ambitious" and cited developments in multiple fields as the major inspirations.

The mathematics behind the research comes from the theory of how heat energy can do work and diffuse over time, called thermodynamics. One of the core concepts in physics is called entropy, which refers to the tendency of systems to evolve toward larger amounts of disorder. The second law of thermodynamics explains how in any isolated system, the amount of entropy tends to increase. A mirror can shatter into many pieces, but a collection of broken pieces will not reassemble into a mirror.

The new research proposes that entropy is directly connected to intelligent behavior.


Via Ashish Umre
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Arrogant physicists — do they think economics is easy?

Arrogant physicists — do they think economics is easy? | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

by Mark Buchanan in The Physics of Finance

 

Economist Chris House wonders why so many physicists are drawn to economics. It's a fair question, and it must seem strange -- perhaps irritating -- to see people from a foreign field intruding into your territory, fully convinced that they'll be able to help out even without formal economics training. They haven’t learned what you’ve worked hard to learn, and yet they still have such annoying confidence. The explanation, Chris suggests, is that physicists often believe they're mathematically superior to economists, and so might be able to sort out some big problems quite easily.


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▶ Chaos, Complexity, and Public Policy

Irene Sanders Executive Director and Founder of the Washington Center for Complexity and Public Policy and author of "Strategic Thinking and the New Science: Planning in the Midst of Chaos, Complexity, and Change."

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KXxs-JtvkkQ


Via Complexity Digest
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Eli Levine's curator insight, February 11, 2:09 PM

A way cool panel discussion.  I wish I could be a full practitioner of this new, empirically based governing and political strategic thinking.

Liz Rykert's curator insight, February 12, 10:34 AM

Loving these new video resources for understanding complexity and it applications.

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, March 23, 9:16 PM

are our politicians aware of these concepts?

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Artificial Economics 2014 - AE 2014

The main aim of the Symposium is to facilitate the meeting of people working on different topics in different fields (mainly Economics, Finance and Computer Science) in order to encourage a structured multi-disciplinary approach to social sciences. Presentations and keynote sessions center around multi-agent modelling, from the viewpoint of both applications and computer-based tools. The event is also open to methodological surveys.

The event will be hosted by Social Simulation 2014, the 10th Conference of the European Social Simulation Association at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
September 1-5th, 2014.

http://essa2014.org


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ComplexInsight's curator insight, December 11, 2013 6:50 AM

bookmarking so can come back and read later.

ComplexInsight's curator insight, January 2, 3:43 AM

Understanding how to simulate economic and social systems will be critical in future planning and analysis tools- The Social Simulation 2014 conference will be a key event. 

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Week 7: Complexity Theory and Complex Adaptive Systems | Connectivism & Connected Knowledge 2012

Week 7: Complexity Theory and Complex Adaptive Systems | Connectivism & Connected Knowledge 2012 | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

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Short Course on Complexity: Exploring Complex Networks

Short Course on Complexity: Exploring Complex Networks | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

September 4-6, 2013
Austin, Texas

http://www.santafe.edu/education/schools/short-course-complexity/

 

This two-and-a-half day introductory course focuses on the science of networks: a new field that studies common principles of complex networks across disciplines. Social and economic networks, food webs, the World Wide Web, and the power grid are examples of the kinds of systems that network science seeks to understand. In this course, taught by prominent Santa Fe Institute faculty and associates, you will learn the basic concepts and tools of this new science, and see several case studies of their application in diverse areas. You will also have the opportunity for discussion with the faculty and other participants about applications within your own areas of interest. You will come away with an understanding and appreciation of the importance of network science for biology, ecology, economics, business, human health, social life, and other pursuits.


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Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from Thinking about Systems
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Introducing Complexity and Systems Thinking: Making The Connections...

On May 7, 2013 Making the Connections exhibit opened at Urbanspace Gallery. This presentation opened the exhibit introducing complexity and systems thinking, an

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On Creativity of Elementary Cellular Automata

We map cell-state transition rules of elementary cellular automata (ECA) onto the cognitive control versus schizotypy spectrum phase space and interpret cellular automaton behaviour in terms of creativity. To implement the mapping we draw analogies between a degree of schizotypy and generative diversity of ECA rules, and between cognitive control and robustness of ECA rules (expressed via Derrida coefficient). We found that null and fixed point ECA rules lie in the autistic domain and chaotic rules are 'schizophrenic'. There are no highly articulated 'creative' ECA rules. Rules closest to 'creativity' domains are two-cycle rules exhibiting wave-like patterns in the space-time evolution.

 

On Creativity of Elementary Cellular Automata

Andrew Adamatzky, Andrew Wuensche

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2537


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Stephen Hawking’s advice for twenty-first century grads: Embrace complexity

 A few years ago, Hawking was asked what he thought of the common opinion that the twentieth century was that of biology and the twenty-first century would be that of physics. Hawking replied that in his opinion the twenty-first century would be the “century of complexity”. That remark probably holds more useful advice for contemporary students than they realize since it points to at least two skills which are going to be essential for new college grads in the age of complexity: statistics and data visualization.


Via Complexity Digest
Harshal Hayatnagarkar's insight:
Exactly, Sir !
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Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, April 29, 2013 7:15 AM

Complexity is us)

Murray McKercher's curator insight, April 30, 2013 7:39 AM

"century of complexity" sounds like we should therefore concentrate on simplicity in all things mobile...

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Rethinking Economics Using Complexity Theory

In this paper we argue that if we want to find a more satisfactory approach to tackling the major socio-economic problems we are facing, we need to thoroughly rethink the basic assumptions of macroeconomics and financial theory. Making minor modifications to the standard models to remove “imperfections” is not enough, the whole framework needs to be revisited.

 

Dirk Helbing and Alan Kirman: Rethinking Economics Using Complexity Theory http://www.soms.ethz.ch/paper_economics_complexity_theory


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ComplexInsight's curator insight, April 26, 2013 2:16 AM

One for some travel-time reading.

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Causal Entropic Forces

Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

 

Causal Entropic Forces

A. D. Wissner-Gross and C. E. Freer

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168702 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.168702


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Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from Papers
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Simplicity amid Complexity

We live in interesting times as we watch diverse effects of human activities on Earth's climate emerge from natural variability. In predicting the outcome of this evolving inadvertent experiment, climate science faces many challenges, some of which have been outlined in this series of Science Perspectives (1–6): reducing the uncertainty in climate sensitivity; explaining the recent slowdown in the rate of warming and its implications for understanding internal variability; uncovering the factors that control how and where the land will become drier as it warms; quantifying the cooling due to anthropogenic aerosols; explaining the curious evolution of atmospheric methane; and predicting changes in extreme weather. In addition to these challenges, the turbulent and chaotic atmospheric and oceanic flows seemingly limit predictability on various time scales. Is the climate system just too complex for useful prediction?

 

Simplicity amid Complexity
Isaac Held

Science 14 March 2014:
Vol. 343 no. 6176 pp. 1206-1207
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1248447


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Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from Non-Equilibrium Social Science
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Philosophy of Complex Systems (Book in PDF)


Via John Symons, António F Fonseca, NESS
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Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from CxAnnouncements
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Systems Thinking in Practice @Open University

Systems Thinking in Practice is an exciting and emerging management discipline, providing tools to think strategically and challenge your approach to complex situations. The OU has over 40 years' experience, leadership and international recognition in the field of Systems Thinking. As an early pioneer of the subject, our qualifications have broken new ground in how to teach systems ideas, and have been studied by more than 30,000 people.

 

http://www.open.ac.uk/choose/ou/systemsthinking


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Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from CxBooks
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The Engine of Complexity: Evolution as Computation (by John E. Mayfield)

The Engine of Complexity: Evolution as Computation

~ John E. Mayfield (author) More about this product
List Price: $34.50
Price: $31.05
You Save: $3.45 (10%)

The concepts of evolution and complexity theory have become part of the intellectual ether permeating the life sciences, the social and behavioral sciences, and, more recently, management science and economics. In this book, John E. Mayfield elegantly synthesizes core concepts from multiple disciplines to offer a new approach to understanding how evolution works and how complex organisms, structures, organizations, and social orders can and do arise based on information theory and computational science.

Intended for the intellectually adventuresome, this book challenges and rewards readers with a nuanced understanding of evolution and complexity that offers consistent, durable, and coherent explanations for major aspects of our life experiences. Numerous examples throughout the book illustrate evolution and complexity formation in action and highlight the core function of computation lying at the work's heart.

 

 


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ComplexInsight's curator insight, July 1, 2013 3:50 AM

One for the reading list.

nukem777's curator insight, July 5, 2013 11:16 AM

Good to see scholars grappling with a major influence in our day and age.

mtmeme's curator insight, July 10, 2013 5:14 PM

add to my reading list.

Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from Papers
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Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as ‘critical slowing down’ do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model.

Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series
Rick Quax, Drona Kandhai & Peter M. A. Sloot
Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1898
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep01898

 


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Michael Power's comment, June 7, 2013 3:45 PM
Investment bankers will build this into their models and it will become a late-warning sign.
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Theories of Learning

Theories of Learning | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

Via Viktor Markowski, Complexity Digest
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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, February 10, 2:13 PM

We treat social constructivism as if it is new. Dewey and Montessori wrote about it over a century ago although they did not call it constructivism. The idea of using digital technologies and social media add a new twist to old ideas and it is important to inquire into what that means.

Helen Teague's curator insight, February 11, 1:03 PM

nicely succinct infographic on learning theories

Tom Short's curator insight, February 12, 7:58 PM

Nice overview of various learning theories; positioned against some new thinking about Networked learning theory.

Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from Social Foraging
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Physicist Proposes New Way To Think About Intelligence: A radical concept could revise theories addressing cognitive behavior.

Physicist Proposes New Way To Think About Intelligence: A radical concept could revise theories addressing cognitive behavior. | Complexity=  x + iy | Scoop.it

A single equation grounded in basic physics principles could describe intelligence and stimulate new insights in fields as diverse as finance and robotics, according to new research.

 

Alexander Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Cameron Freer, a mathematician at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, developed an equation that they say describes many intelligent or cognitive behaviors, such as upright walking and tool use.

The researchers suggest that intelligent behavior stems from the impulse to seize control of future events in the environment. This is the exact opposite of the classic science-fiction scenario in which computers or robots become intelligent, then set their sights on taking over the world.

The findings describe a mathematical relationship that can "spontaneously induce remarkably sophisticated behaviors associated with the human 'cognitive niche,' including tool use and social cooperation, in simple physical systems," the researchers wrote in a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters.

"It's a provocative paper," said Simon DeDeo, a research fellow at the Santa Fe Institute, who studies biological and social systems. "It's not science as usual."

Wissner-Gross, a physicist, said the research was "very ambitious" and cited developments in multiple fields as the major inspirations.

The mathematics behind the research comes from the theory of how heat energy can do work and diffuse over time, called thermodynamics. One of the core concepts in physics is called entropy, which refers to the tendency of systems to evolve toward larger amounts of disorder. The second law of thermodynamics explains how in any isolated system, the amount of entropy tends to increase. A mirror can shatter into many pieces, but a collection of broken pieces will not reassemble into a mirror.

The new research proposes that entropy is directly connected to intelligent behavior.


Via Ashish Umre
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Rescooped by Harshal Hayatnagarkar from Papers
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Between holism and reductionism: a philosophical primer on emergence

Ever since Darwin a great deal of the conceptual history of biology may be read as a struggle between two philosophical positions: reductionism and holism. On the one hand, we have the reductionist claim that evolution has to be understood in terms of changes at the fundamental causal level of the gene. As Richard Dawkins famously put it, organisms are just ‘lumbering robots’ in the service of their genetic masters. On the other hand, there is a long holistic tradition that focuses on the complexity of developmental systems, on the non-linearity of gene– environment interactions, and on multi-level selective processes to argue that the full story of biology is a bit more complicated than that. Reductionism can marshal on its behalf the spectacular successes of genetics and molecular biology throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Holism has built on the development of entirely new disciplines and conceptual frameworks over the past few decades, including evo-devo and phenotypic plasticity. Yet, a number of biologists are still actively looking for a way out of the reductionism–holism counterposition, often mentioning the word ‘emergence’ as a way to deal with the conundrum. This paper briefly examines the philosophical history of the concept of emergence, distinguishes between epistemic and ontological accounts of it, and comments on conceptions of emergence that can actually be useful for practising evolutionary biologists.

 

Between holism and reductionism: a philosophical primer on emergence
Massimo Pigliucci
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2013)

http://philpapers.org/rec/PIGBHA


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cerebster's curator insight, April 26, 2013 1:07 AM

It is important to understand emergence because it factors into discussions about control, knowledge, and free will, especially in neuroscience. It occupies a middle ground between prescribed rules and unpredictability. Now the task is to apply the concept productively to science.

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Causal Entropic Forces

Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

 

Causal Entropic Forces

A. D. Wissner-Gross and C. E. Freer

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168702 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.168702


Via Complexity Digest
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