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Complexes: Paper Published: The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy

Complexes: Paper Published: The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

Reductionism has dominated science and philosophy for centuries. Complexity has recently shown that interactions—which reductionism neglects—are relevant for understanding phenomena. When interactions are considered, reductionism becomes limited in several aspects. In this paper, I argue that interactions imply nonreductionism, non-materialism, non-predictability, non-Platonism, and non-Nihilism. As alternatives to each of these, holism, informism, adaptation, contextuality, and meaningfulness are put forward, respectively. A worldview that includes interactions not only describes better our world, but can help to solve many open scientific, philosophical, and social problems caused by implications of reductionism.

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Erdős-Bacon

Erdős-Bacon | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
This documentary is the handshake that links a famed actor and a legendary mathematician, creating history's lowest Erdős-Bacon number.

Via Jorge Louçã, NESS
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Chaos Versus Complexity | Synthesis

Chaos Versus Complexity | Synthesis | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

Via Keith Hamon
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Keith Hamon's curator insight, May 30, 12:27 PM

Explores differences between Chaos Theory and Complexity Theory.

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Ambiguous words probably make communicating easier

Ambiguous words probably make communicating easier | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

It’s a good thing some words have many meanings -- ambiguous words actually make communication easier and may be an inevitable consequence of a language’s evolution, according to a new SFI working paper by External Professor Ricard Sole and Pompeu Fabra University physicist Luis Seoane.

“Ambiguity is, against our intuitions, a major player in making human language so powerful,” says Sole.

Words with multiple meanings are a universal feature of language -- think “ticket,” which could get you into a movie or make you pay a fine, depending on context. The distribution of meanings per word is thought to follow a power law, an observation linguist George Zipf attributed to a “least effort” principle: speaking clearly takes effort, but so does understanding ambiguous speech. The compromise is that some words have multiple meanings, while most don’t.


Via NESS, Jorge Louçã
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la complejidad Henri Atlan

H enciclopedia reflexion, ensayo, ensayistica
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Review by David Hales - Dynamics among Nations: The evolution of legitimacy and development in modern states

Review by David Hales - Dynamics among Nations: The evolution of legitimacy and development in modern states | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

A book by Hilton L. Root. The MIT Press. 2013, Hardcover, 332 pages. Reviewed by David Hales (University of Szeged, Hungary) 

 

After the fall of the Berlin Wall, in 1989, prominent Western Liberal intellectuals declared the “end of history”. The West had won. Liberal democracy, driven by open markets and global capital, was inevitable and the historic destiny of all nations. The only question was how long it would take them to get there. Hence international development became a process, for the West, of helping all nations along the road towards the final utopia. A utopia the Western powers had already attained.

(...)


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Auto-organización guiada

Auto-organización guiada | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
Muchos animales se coordinan sin necesidad de un líder, basándose sólo en interacciones locales. Este fenómeno se conoce como auto-organización. Podemos aprovechar sus propiedades para construir sistemas más adaptativos y robustos.
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Urban Emergencies : Emergent Urbanism

Urban Emergencies : Emergent Urbanism | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

Urban Emergencies : Emergent Urbanism (UE:EU) is an independent research group exploring international and interdisciplinary perspectives on the implications of emergent risks on the built environment and its inhabitants.


Via Bernard Ryefield
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Exploring Chaos, Fractals and Bifurcation

Exploring Chaos, Fractals and Bifurcation | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
As you may have seen, I am currently really enjoying a course on Dynamic Systems and Chaos run by Santa Fe Institute (see Thoughts on Santa Fe’s new MOOC – Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Cha...

Via Bernard Ryefield
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Mikko Hakala's curator insight, February 10, 4:07 PM

Fascinating. "...we begin to really grasp the extraordinary complex and chaotic behaviour of what we thought may be an innocuous looking equation. As well as the fractal like patterns, we also notice structure within the chaos..."

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Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Chaos from Complexity Explorer

Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Chaos from Complexity Explorer | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
In this course you'll gain an introduction to the modern study of dynamical systems, the interdisciplinary field of applied mathematics that studies systems that change over time.
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Complex story

Complex story | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
  An introduction to complex systems theory     Complex systems theory: a short film       To reason about the world around us
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Teoria de Redes : Enredados

Teoria de Redes : Enredados | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
El mundo dibujado con redes.
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System of Systems

If you look at our planet from space, what you see is something like a neural network with the cities as its nodes, and that is as good an image of the planet as a complex system of systems as one could hope for.

With the emergence of the internet in the mid-90's, the world became one global commons. In the past, we could understand that there was some mysterious unity to the various dimensions of life but we couldn't understand its dynamics, we couldn't observe and measure their interactions. We basically operated like the drunk who looks under the streetlight for his keys because that's where he can see.

 

Video featuring, from IBM: Mike Wing, Irving Wladawsky-Berger and Julia Grace.


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Connecting Economists to Networks

Connecting Economists to Networks | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
Consider an image: hubs and spokes sprawling across a map. At the Bank, we work in many fields that could be portrayed this way – finance, trade, transportation, infrastructure or urban and regional development.
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The Complexity Of Learning – 2 | The Upside Learning Blog

The Complexity Of Learning – 2 | The Upside Learning Blog | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
Some other aspects of the complexity theory I found interesting: Even if the agents comprising the population of the system are complicated and

Via Keith Hamon
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Keith Hamon's curator insight, May 30, 12:16 PM

The science of complexity offers a different type of lens to view learning.

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The city as network

The city as network | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

In The new science of cities (Amazon US| Amazon UK), Michael Batty argues that a more productive approach is to think of cities in terms of flows, connections and relationships – in other words, as a network. Places like Times Square or the Champs Elysée are not big, famous or busy because of their inherent qualities, but rather because they sit at the intersections of movements of people, wealth, information, or power.


Via NESS
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Adaptive Assessment Facilitates Differentiated Learning

Adaptive Assessment Facilitates Differentiated Learning | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

As we move to a model where learners have options in terms of how they learn, there is a new role for assessment in diagnosing how best to support an individual learner. This new role should not be confused with computerized adaptive testing, which has been used for years to give examinees different assessment items depending on their responses to previous items on the test in order to get more precise estimates of ability using fewer test items.

Adaptive assessment has a different goal. It is designed to identify the next kind of learning experience that will most benefit the particular learner. The School of One demonstration project used adaptive assessment to differentiate learning by combining information from inventories that students completed on how they like to learn with information on students’ actual learning gains after different types of experiences (working with a tutor, small-group instruction, learning online, learning through games). This information was used to generate individual “playlists” of customized learning activities for every student.


Via Jorge Louçã
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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

This course of 25 lectures, filmed at Cornell University in Spring 2014, is intended for newcomers to nonlinear dynamics and chaos. It closely follows Prof. Strogatz's book, "Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering." The mathematical treatment is friendly and informal, but still careful. Analytical methods, concrete examples, and geometric intuition are stressed. The theory is developed systematically, starting with first-order differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by phase plane analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations, and culminating with the Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling, renormalization, fractals, and strange attractors. A unique feature of the course is its emphasis on applications. These include airplane wing vibrations, biological rhythms, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with the mathematical theory. The theoretical work is enlivened by frequent use of computer graphics, simulations, and videotaped demonstrations of nonlinear phenomena. The essential prerequisite is single-variable calculus, including curve sketching, Taylor series, and separable differential equations. In a few places, multivariable calculus (partial derivatives, Jacobian matrix, divergence theorem) and linear algebra (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) are used. Fourier analysis is not assumed, and is developed where needed. Introductory physics is used throughout. Other scientific prerequisites would depend on the applications considered, but in all cases, a first course should be adequate preparation

 

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbN57C5Zdl6j_qJA-pARJnKsmROzPnO9V


Via Complexity Digest, J. Mario Siqueiros-Garcia
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Jean-Michel Livowsky's curator insight, June 2, 3:22 AM

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos...

Jean-Michel Livowsky's curator insight, June 2, 3:23 AM

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos

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Team examines city life on the urban continuum

Today's modern cities still follow some of the same basic rules that shaped ancient civilizations.
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Guided Self-Organisation

Typically, self-organisation (SO) is defined as the evolution of a system into an organised form in the absence of external pressures. SO within a system brings about several attractive properties, in particular, robustness, adaptability and scalability. In the face of perturbations caused by adverse external factors or internal component failures, a robust self-organising system continues to function. Moreover, an adaptive system may re-configure when required, degrading in performance “gracefully” rather than catastrophically. In certain circumstances, a system may need to be extended with new components and/or new connections among existing modules — without SO such scaling must be preoptimised in advance, overloading the traditional design process.
In general, SO is a not a force that can be applied very naturally during a design process. In fact, one may argue that the notions of design and SO are contradictory: the former approach often assumes a methodical step-by-step planning process with predictable outcomes, while the latter involves non-deterministic spontaneous dynamics with emergent features. Thus, the main challenge faced by designers of self-organising systems is how to achieve and control the desired dynamics. Erring on the one side may result in over-engineering the system, completely eliminating emergent patterns and suppressing an increase in internal organisation with outside influence. Strongly favouring the other side may leave too much non-determinism in the system’s behaviour, making its verification and validation almost impossible. The balance between design and SO is the main theme of guided self-organisation (GSO). In short, GSO combines both task-independent objectives (e.g., information-theoretic and graph-theoretic utility functions) with task-dependent constraints.

 

http://guided-self.org


Via Complexity Digest
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Liz Rykert's curator insight, March 3, 5:17 PM

Love the paradox in this. Worth digging into. 

Eli Levine's curator insight, March 3, 9:24 PM

Indeed, you must obey the laws of society and those of economics, environmental science and psychology in order to govern a world.

 

The simple rules are already in place.  The question is how do we conform to those rules so that we realize the most optimal social function for everybody?

 

This is where lawyering and traditional politiking takes a back seat, and the technical world of governing begins.

Think about it.

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¡Emergencia, emergencia!

¡Emergencia, emergencia! | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
Las propiedades emergentes—aquellas que se presentan en un sistema pero no en sus componentes—han sido motivo de debate por siglos. ¿Qué es la emergencia?
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Complex Systems Science as a New Transdisciplinary Science, by Paul Bourgine

Complex Systems Science as a New Transdisciplinary Science, by Paul Bourgine | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

The new science of complex systems will be at the heart of the future of the Worldwide Knowledge Society. It is providing radical new ways of understanding the physical, biological, ecological, and techno-social universe. Complex Systems are open, value-laden, multi-level, multi-component, reconfigurable systems of systems, situated in turbulent, unstable, and changing environments. They evolve, adapt and transform through internal and external dynamic interactions. They are the source of very difficult scientific challenges for observing, understanding, reconstructing and predicting their multi-scale dynamics. The challenges posed by the multi-scale modelling of both natural and artificial adaptive complex systems can only be met with radically new collective strategies for research and teaching (...)


Via NESS
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june holley's curator insight, December 2, 2013 10:39 AM

The study of complex systems adds a lot of depth to understanding networks.

Complexity Institute's curator insight, December 6, 2013 3:56 AM

Are we ready to recognize a Science as a "Transdisciplinary Science?
Complex systems science is not a science in itself, but it may be considered as a 'Science of Sciences'.
I think this is the most challenging issue to face for a Worldwide Knowledge Society, as Paul Bourgine states.
What are your opinions about this?

Edgar Francisco Pelayo Valencia's curator insight, December 20, 2013 5:26 PM

Future is here!!!

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Social networks can help predict gun violence

Social networks can help predict gun violence | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
Social networks can serve as a predictor of gun-related homicides.
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Non-Equilibrium Social Science

Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
NESS European Coordination Action
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Economics | NECSI

Economics | NECSI | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it
Complejidady Economía's insight:

Complejidad y Economía , New England Complex System Institue

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Networked for complexity

Networked for complexity | Complejidad en Blogs | Scoop.it

In the 21st century, then, the industrial era has given way to the social era, and it is time to rethink both how we work and how we organise ourselves to do so. 


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen, Christophe Bredillet, Bernard Ryefield
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Kenneth Mikkelsen's curator insight, November 25, 2013 5:39 PM

Terrific blog post by Richard Martin. You should follow Richard on Scoop.it [url=/u/2565370 x-already-notified=1]Richard Martin[/url] and on Twitter here

Stephen Dale's curator insight, November 27, 2013 5:01 AM

I picked out this abstract which resonated with me..." a company is like ‘a social network of productive relationships in which stakeholders are deployed where they are of greatest use. It is designed as a flow of input that can come from anywhere in the network. The work is asynchronous in time and place, and people contribute whatever expertise they have, irrespective of rank or experience." 


Great post.