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Complexity - Complex Systems Theory
Complex systems present problems both in mathematical modelling and philosophical foundations. The study of complex systems represents a new approach to science that investigates how relationships between parts give rise to the collective behaviors of a system and how the system interacts and forms relationships with its environment. The equations from which models of complex systems are developed generally derive from statistical physics, information theory and non-linear dynamics, and represent organized but unpredictable behaviors of natural systems that are considered fundamentally complex. wikipedia (en)
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The fractal dimension of the tree of life

The fractal dimension of the tree of life | Complexity - Complex Systems Theory | Scoop.it

The structure pattern of the tree of life clues on the key ecological issues; hence knowing the fractal dimension is the fundamental question in understanding the tree of life. Yet the fractal dimension of the tree of life remains unclear since the scale of the tree of life has hypergrown in recent years. Here we show that the tree of life display a consistent power-law rules for inter- and intra-taxonomic levels, but the fractal dimensions were different among different kingdoms. The fractal dimension of hierarchical structure (Dr) is 0.873 for the entire tree of life, which smaller than the values of Dr for Animalia and Plantae but greater than the values of Dr for Fungi, Chromista, and Protozoa. The hierarchical fractal dimensions values for prokaryotic kingdoms are lower than for other kingdoms. The Dr value for Viruses was lower than most eukaryotic kingdoms, but greater than prokaryotes. The distribution of taxa size is governed by fractal diversity but skewed by overdominating taxa with large subtaxa size. The proportion of subtaxa in taxa with small and large sizes was greater than in taxa with intermediate size. Our results suggest that the distribution of subtaxa in taxa can be predicted with fractal dimension for the accumulating taxa abundance rather than the taxa abundance. Our study determined the fractal dimensions for inter- and intra-taxonomic levels of the present tree of life. These results emphases the need for further theoretical studies, as well as predictive modelling, to interpret the different fractal dimension for different taxonomic groups and skewness of taxa with large subtaxa size.

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Arthur C Clarke - Fractals - The Colors Of Infinity

Arthur C. Clarke presents this unusual documentary on the mathematical discovery of the Mandelbrot Set (M-Set) in the visually spectacular world of fractal g...
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The spatial meaning of Pareto's scaling exponent of city-size distribution

The scaling exponent of a hierarchy of cities used to be regarded as a fractal parameter. The Pareto exponent was treated as the fractal dimension of size distribution of cities, while the Zipf exponent was treated as the reciprocal of the fractal dimension. However, this viewpoint is not exact. In this paper, I will present a new interpretation of the scaling exponent of rank-size distributions. The ideas from fractal measure relation and the principle of dimension consistency are employed to explore the essence of Pareto's and Zipf's scaling exponents. The Pareto exponent proved to be a ratio of the fractal dimension of a network of cities to the average dimension of city population. Accordingly, the Zipf exponent is the reciprocal of this dimension ratio. On a digital map, the Pareto exponent can be defined by the scaling relation between a map scale and the corresponding number of cities based on this scale. The cities of the United States of America in 1900, 1940, 1960, and 1980 and Indian cities in 1981, 1991, and 2001 are utilized to illustrate the geographical spatial meaning of Pareto's exponent. The results suggest that the Pareto exponent of city-size distribution is not a fractal dimension, but a ratio of the urban network dimension to the city population dimension. This conclusion is revealing for scientists to understand Zipf's law and fractal structure of hierarchy of cities.

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