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Complexity - Complex Systems Theory
Complex systems present problems both in mathematical modelling and philosophical foundations. The study of complex systems represents a new approach to science that investigates how relationships between parts give rise to the collective behaviors of a system and how the system interacts and forms relationships with its environment. The equations from which models of complex systems are developed generally derive from statistical physics, information theory and non-linear dynamics, and represent organized but unpredictable behaviors of natural systems that are considered fundamentally complex. wikipedia (en)
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A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious - Wired Science

A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious - Wired Science | Complexity - Complex Systems Theory | Scoop.it

It’s a question that’s perplexed philosophers for centuries and scientists for decades: Where does consciousness come from? We know it exists, at least in ourselves. But how it arises from chemistry and electricity in our brains is an unsolved mystery.

Neuroscientist Christof Koch, chief scientific officer at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, thinks he might know the answer. According to Koch, consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex, information-processing system. All animals, from humans on down to earthworms, are conscious; even the internet could be. That’s just the way the universe works.

 

 

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The reductionism stops here - Steve Keen

The reductionism stops here - Steve Keen | Complexity - Complex Systems Theory | Scoop.it

One of the defining features of neoclassical economics is the belief that macroeconomic analysis has to be not merely compatible with, but derivable from, microeconomic analysis. The development of economic theory has been driven far more by this belief than by the desire to make the theory compatible with the observed behaviour of the economy.

This ‘reductionist’ aspect of economics – the attempt to reduce the higher level topic of macroeconomics to an applied version of the lower level topic of microeconomics – is at odds with the last 50 years of genuine sciences, where complexity has ruled the roost, for reasons that were eloquently put by Physics Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson in a highly readable paper entitled “More Is Different”.

In that paper, Anderson asserted that reductionism did not work, because though it is possible to rank sciences in a hierarchy in which “The elementary entities of science X obey the laws of science Y, … this hierarchy does not imply that ‘science X is just applied Y’… At each stage entirely new laws, concepts, and generalisations are necessary, requiring inspiration and creativity to just as great a degree as in the previous one. Psychology is not applied biology, nor is biology applied chemistry.”

Economics violates this by its belief that “macroeconomics is just applied microeconomics”, but recent blogosphere debates have confirmed that there is a limit to how far neoclassical economists will take reductionism: it stops at microeconomics.

 

 

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PLOS ONE: Collective Phenomena and Non-Finite State Computation in a Human Social System

PLOS ONE: Collective Phenomena and Non-Finite State Computation in a Human Social System | Complexity - Complex Systems Theory | Scoop.it

We investigate the computational structure of a paradigmatic example of distributed social interaction: that of the open-source Wikipedia community. We examine the statistical properties of its cooperative behavior, and perform model selection to determine whether this aspect of the system can be described by a finite-state process, or whether reference to an effectively unbounded resource allows for a more parsimonious description. We find strong evidence, in a majority of the most-edited pages, in favor of a collective-state model, where the probability of a “revert” action declines as the square root of the number of non-revert actions seen since the last revert. We provide evidence that the emergence of this social counter is driven by collective interaction effects, rather than properties of individual users.

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