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Order Within Chaos: A New Business Paradigm Inspired by Nature

Order Within Chaos: A New Business Paradigm Inspired by Nature | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
'Order Within Chaos: A New Business Paradigm Inspired by Nature' blog post by Giles Hutchins.
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Complexity Economics: A Different Framework for Economic Thought

This paper provides a logical framework for complexity economics. Complexity economics builds from the proposition that the economy is not necessarily in equilibrium: economic agents (firms, consumers, investors) constantly change their actions and strategies in response to the outcome they mutually create. This further changes the outcome, which requires them to adjust afresh. Agents thus live in a world where their beliefs and strategies are constantly being “tested” for survival within an outcome or “ecology” these beliefs and strategies together create. Economics has largely avoided this nonequilibrium view in the past, but if we allow it, we see patterns or phenomena not visible to equilibrium analysis. These emerge probabilistically, last for some time and dissipate, and they correspond to complex structures in other fields. We also see the economy not as something given and existing but forming from a constantly developing set of technological innovations, institutions, and arrangements that draw forth further innovations, institutions and arrangements.(...) 

 

Complexity Economics: A Different Framework for Economic Thought
W. Brian Arthur
SFI WP 13-04-012

http://www.santafe.edu/research/working-papers/abstract/36df2f7d8ecd8941d8fab92ded2c4547/


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Bill Aukett's curator insight, July 16, 2013 10:24 PM

If you've read Waldrop's account of the development of the complexity paradigm at the Sante Fe Institute (Waldrop, M, (1992) Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Chaos, Simon & Schuster, New York), the name Brian Arthur will be familiar.

Betty Cares's curator insight, July 17, 2013 9:39 AM

Another interesting paper from one of our great complexity thinkers, Brian Arthur, author of the El Farol Problem.  I will publish that here soon too!

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, July 18, 2013 8:11 AM

does democracy represent the best tool to face non-equilibrium states and emergence? 

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Theories of Learning

Theories of Learning | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, February 10, 2:13 PM

We treat social constructivism as if it is new. Dewey and Montessori wrote about it over a century ago although they did not call it constructivism. The idea of using digital technologies and social media add a new twist to old ideas and it is important to inquire into what that means.

Helen Teague's curator insight, February 11, 1:03 PM

nicely succinct infographic on learning theories

Tom Short's curator insight, February 12, 7:58 PM

Nice overview of various learning theories; positioned against some new thinking about Networked learning theory.

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How Drucker Thought About Complexity

How Drucker Thought About Complexity | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
In the forces driving our age of discontinuity, he saw the need for management to change.
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Network modularity promotes cooperation

Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

 

Network modularity promotes cooperation
Marianne Marcoux, David Lusseau

Journal of Theoretical Biology
Volume 324, 7 May 2013, Pages 103–108

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.12.012


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Complexity Digest's curator insight, May 2, 2013 6:26 PM

Modularity is prevalent in natural and artificial systems. A modular structure reduces the probability of "damage" or "perturbations" to spread through a network. More at:

Modular Random Boolean Networks
Rodrigo Poblanno-Balp and Carlos Gershenson
Artificial Life 2011 17:4, 331-351

http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00042

Jose Santos's curator insight, May 26, 2013 11:46 AM

why modularity is everywhere in our lives...

 

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Evolution of cooperation - Martin Nowak

Lecture by Martin Nowak (evolutionary dynamics), Harvard University, at the Understanding and Managing Complex Systems Symposium (5 March 2012)

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Networking—a statistical physics perspective

Networking encompasses a variety of tasks related to the communication of information on networks; it has a substantial economic and societal impact on a broad range of areas including transportation systems, wired and wireless communications and a range of Internet applications. As transportation and communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for congestion control, higher traffic capacity, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy consumption requires new tools and methods to meet these conflicting requirements. The new methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of networking systems at the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem best placed to provide new approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with nonlinear large-scale systems. This review aims at presenting an overview of tools and methods that have been developed within the statistical physics community and that can be readily applied to address the emerging problems in networking. These include diffusion processes, methods from disordered systems and polymer physics, probabilistic inference, which have direct relevance to network routing, file and frequency distribution, the exploration of network structures and vulnerability, and various other practical networking applications.

 

Networking—a statistical physics perspective

Chi Ho Yeung and David Saad 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 103001 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/10/103001


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Hierarchy in complex systems: the possible and the actual

Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that non-adaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace using {\em in silico} evolved networks.

 

Hierarchy in complex systems: the possible and the actual

Bernat Corominas-Murtra, Joaquín Goñi, Ricard V. Solé, Carlos Rodríguez-Caso

http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.2503


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Special Events : COMPUTATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE @ Edge | Event | Edge

Special Events : COMPUTATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE @ Edge | Event | Edge | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it

COMPUTATIONAL SCIE

NCE


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Paradoxes in Social Networks with Multiple Products

Recently, we introduced in arXiv:1105.2434 a model for product adoption in social networks with multiple products, where the agents, influenced by their neighbours, can adopt one out of several alternatives. We identify and analyze here four types of paradoxes that can arise in these networks. To this end, we use social network games that we recently introduced in arXiv:1211.5938. These paradoxes shed light on possible inefficiencies arising when one modifies the sets of products available to the agents forming a social network. One of the paradoxes corresponds to the well-known Braess paradox in congestion games and shows that by adding more choices to a node, the network may end up in a situation that is (weakly) worse for everybody. We exhibit a dual version of this, where removing available choices from someone can eventually make everybody better off. The other paradoxes that we identify show that by adding or removing a product from the choice set of some node may lead to permanent instability. Finally, we also identify conditions under which some of these paradoxes cannot arise.

 

Paradoxes in Social Networks with Multiple Products

Krzysztof R. Apt, Evangelos Markakis, Sunil Simon

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.7592


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Self-Organizing Networked Systems: Five Misconceptions about Self-Organizing Systems

Self-Organizing Networked Systems: Five Misconceptions about Self-Organizing Systems | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
Self-Organizing Networked Systems -- A new paradigm for controlling networked systems
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Regional innovation policy and public-private partnership: The case of Triple Helix Arenas in Western Sweden

Regional innovation policy and public-private partnership: The case of Triple Helix Arenas in Western Sweden
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¿La complejidad implica un cambio de paradigma científico?

Seminario Virtual, 7 de Marzo de 2012. Este seminario se realizó desde el IIMAS, UNAM, México, gracias a la organización de Nelson Fernández. Más información...
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Short Course - Exploring Complexity in Science and Technology | Santa Fe Institute

Short Course - Exploring Complexity in Science and Technology | Santa Fe Institute | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
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Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and the Re-Emergence of Structures in Post-Humanist Social Theory (International Library of Sociology) book download

John A. Smith


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Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and the Re-Emergence of Structures in Post-Humanist Social Theory (International Library of Sociology) book download<br/><br/>John A. Smith<br/><br/><br/>Download h... | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and the Re-Emergence of Structures in Post-Humanist Social Th http://t.co/axYpXZq4kx
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Community detection and graph partitioning

Many methods have been proposed for community detection in networks. Some of the most promising are methods based on statistical inference, which rest on solid mathematical foundations and return excellent results in practice. In this paper we show that two of the most widely used inference methods can be mapped directly onto versions of the standard minimum-cut graph partitioning problem, which allows us to apply any of the many well-understood partitioning algorithms to the solution of community detection problems. We illustrate the approach by adapting the Laplacian spectral partitioning method to perform community inference, testing the resulting algorithm on a range of examples, including computer-generated and real-world networks. Both the quality of the results and the running time rival the best previous methods.

 

Community detection and graph partitioning

M. E. J. Newman

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4974


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San Diego, Tijuana Join Forces

San Diego, Tijuana Join Forces | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
SAN DIEGO — A cross-border bid for San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico, to host the 2024 Summer Olympics appeared dead before arrival Tuesday when the U.S. Olympic Committee said international rules don't allow two countries to mount a joint candidacy.
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Stephen Hawking’s advice for twenty-first century grads: Embrace complexity | The Curious Wavefunction, Scientific American Blog Network

Stephen Hawking’s advice for twenty-first century grads: Embrace complexity | The Curious Wavefunction, Scientific American Blog Network | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
As the economy continues to chart its own tortuous, uncertain course, there seems to have been a fair amount of much-needed discussion on the kinds of ...
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'Networked minds' require fundamentally new kind of economics

'Networked minds' require fundamentally new kind of economics | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
In their computer simulations of human evolution, scientists have discovered the emergence of the “homo socialis” with “other-regarding” preferences.
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Paradoxes in Social Networks with Multiple Products

Recently, we introduced in arXiv:1105.2434 a model for product adoption in social networks with multiple products, where the agents, influenced by their neighbours, can adopt one out of several alternatives. We identify and analyze here four types of paradoxes that can arise in these networks. To this end, we use social network games that we recently introduced in arXiv:1211.5938. These paradoxes shed light on possible inefficiencies arising when one modifies the sets of products available to the agents forming a social network. One of the paradoxes corresponds to the well-known Braess paradox in congestion games and shows that by adding more choices to a node, the network may end up in a situation that is (weakly) worse for everybody. We exhibit a dual version of this, where removing available choices from someone can eventually make everybody better off. The other paradoxes that we identify show that by adding or removing a product from the choice set of some node may lead to permanent instability. Finally, we also identify conditions under which some of these paradoxes cannot arise.

 

Paradoxes in Social Networks with Multiple Products

Krzysztof R. Apt, Evangelos Markakis, Sunil Simon

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.7592


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How and why our conventional economic thinking causes global crises

(...) we are now living in a strongly coupled and strongly interdependent world, which poses new challenges. While it is probably unrealistic to go back beyond the level of networking and globalization we have reached, there is a great potential to develop new management approaches for our complex world based on suitable interaction rules and adaptive concepts, using real-time measurements.


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Complejidady Economía's curator insight, March 4, 2013 12:04 AM

¿Cómo y por qué el pensamiento económico convencional provoca las crisis mundiales?

 

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Self-Organizing Networked Systems: Five Misconceptions about Self-Organizing Systems

Self-Organizing Networked Systems: Five Misconceptions about Self-Organizing Systems | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
Self-Organizing Networked Systems -- A new paradigm for controlling networked systems
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Self-Organizing Networked Systems: Five Misconceptions about Self-Organizing Systems

Self-Organizing Networked Systems: Five Misconceptions about Self-Organizing Systems | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it
Self-Organizing Networked Systems -- A new paradigm for controlling networked systems
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How women organize social networks different from men

How women organize social networks different from men | Complexity and Networks | Scoop.it

Superpositions of social networks, such as communication, friendship, or trade networks, are called multiplex networks, forming the structural backbone of human societies. Novel datasets now allow quantification and exploration of multiplex networks. Here we study gender-specific differences of a multiplex network from a complete behavioral dataset of an online-game society of about 300,000 players. On the individual level females perform better economically and are less risk-taking than males. Males reciprocate friendship requests from females faster than vice versa and hesitate to reciprocate hostile actions of females. On the network level females have more communication partners, who are less connected than partners of males. We find a strong homophily effect for females and higher clustering coefficients of females in trade and attack networks. Cooperative links between males are under-represented, reflecting competition for resources among males. These results confirm quantitatively that females and males manage their social networks in substantially different ways.


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