Complex Materials
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Curating research in complex materials
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Study reveals a way to improve chances of winning at rock-paper-scissors

Study reveals a way to improve chances of winning at rock-paper-scissors | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

A trio of researchers at Zhejiang University in China has found a way for players to improve their odds of winning when playing the hand game rock-paper-scissors. In their paper they've uploaded to the preprint server arXiv, the researchers describe a field study they undertook with a large crowd of volunteers and how it revealed the secret.

Scientists in many fields have studied game theory for thousands of years, some to gain military or social advantage, others to better understand human psychology. One game stands out, the hand game rock-paper-scissors, likely because of its simplicity, and because it can be used to make group decisions. Plus, it's universal, requiring no language skills or preconceived social notions—therein lies its inherent beauty. Also, it's supposed to be fair, with every player having a 1 in 3 chance of winning any given round. Prior research has suggested that such odds are the case, but now, it appears the experts may have been wrong. In this new effort, the team in China has found that due to human emotion and decision-making strategy, there is a way to better the odds when playing.


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Better doping of semiconductor nanocrystals

Better doping of semiconductor nanocrystals | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

The icing on the cake for semiconductor nanocrystals that provide a non-damped optoelectronic effect may exist as a layer of tin that segregates near the surface.

One method of altering the electrical properties of a semiconductor is by introducing impurities called dopants. A team led by Delia Milliron, a chemist at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry, a U.S Department of Energy (DOE) national nanoscience center, has demonstrated that equally important as the amount of dopant is how the dopant is distributed on the surface and throughout the material. This opens the door for engineering the distribution of the dopant in order to control what wavelength the material will absorb and more generally how light interacts with the nanocrystals.


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Atomic mechanism for historic materials transformation

Atomic mechanism for historic materials transformation | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

SLAC-led researchers have made the first direct measurements of a small and extremely rapid atomic rearrangement, associated with a class called martensitic transformations, that dramatically changes the properties of many important materials, such as doubling the hardness of steel and causing shape-memory alloys to revert to a previous shape.

Using high-pressure shock waves and ultrashort X-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the researchers observed the details of how this transformation changed the internal atomic structure of a model system, perfect nanocrystals of cadmium sulfide. In the process, they saw for the first time that the nanocrystals pass through a theoretically-predicted intermediate state when undergoing this change.


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Semiconductor Manipulates IR Light

Semiconductor Manipulates IR Light | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

Developed by a team from the University of California, Santa Barbara, the technology uses erbium, a rare-earth metal that has the ability to absorb light in the visible as well as infrared wavelengths. 
Pairing it with antimony (Sb), the researchers embedded the resulting compound — erbium antimonide (ErSb) — as semimetallic nanostructures within the semiconducting matrix of gallium antimonide (GaSb). “The nanostructures are coherently embedded, without introducing noticeable defects, through the growth process by molecular beam epitaxy,” said Dr. Hong Lu, a researcher in UCSB’s materials and electrical and computer engineering departments, and a lead author of the study. “Secondly, we can control the size, the shape and the orientation of the nanostructures.” 


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::.:: Air Transportation Multiplex Datasets ::.::

::.:: Air Transportation Multiplex Datasets ::.:: | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

Here, you can find the dataset of a multiplex network composed of the airlines operating in Europe. You are free to use the dataset. We kindly ask you to cite the following paper as the source of the data:

Emergence of Network Features from Multiplexity  A. Cardillo, J. Gómez-Gardeñes, M. Zanin, M. Romance, D. Papo,  F. del Pozo, S. Boccaletti, Scientific Reports 3, 1344 (2013).

The data contains up to thirty-seven different layers each one corresponding to a different airline. We have also prepared two subsets: one containing only the three biggest mayor airlines and another one similar but containing only low-fare (low-cost) airlines.

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The GBS dataset: measurements of satellite site diversity at 20.7 GHz in the UK

The GBS dataset: measurements of satellite site diversity at 20.7 GHz in the UK | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

The GBS (Global Broadcast Service) dataset is a series of radio attenuation measurements made at three sites in the UK: Chilbolton and Sparsholt, both in southern UK, and Dundee in Scotland. The aim of the experiment was to make long term measurements of the signal strength received from a 20.7 GHz beacon on the US Department of Defense satellite UFO-9 at multiple sites, in order to determine whether the use of site diversity as a fade mitigation technique would be effective. The dataset spans a period of 3 years, from August 2003 to August 2006 with signal attenuation sampled once per second.

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Device could boost image quality for phones, computers and TVs

Device could boost image quality for phones, computers and TVs | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

A device created by UCLA researchers could lead to a significant leap in the quality of images on smartphones, computer displays, TVs and inkjet printers. The new material, and a new manufacturing process developed at UCLA, are used to produce semiconductors that are essential to liquid crystal displays and organic light-emitting diode, or OLED, displays.Led by Yang Yang, the Carol and Lawrence E. Tannas Jr. Professor of Engineering at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, the team created a high-performance device that can be produced without requiring a clean room or the expensive equipment now commonly in use.


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Environmentally friendly solar cell pushes forward the 'next big thing in photovoltaics'

Environmentally friendly solar cell pushes forward the 'next big thing in photovoltaics' | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

Northwestern University researchers are the first to develop a new solar cell with good efficiency that uses tin instead of lead perovskite as the harvester of light. The low-cost, environmentally friendly solar cell can be made easily using "bench" chemistry—no fancy equipment or hazardous materials.

"This is a breakthrough in taking the lead out of a very promising type of solar cell, called a perovskite," said Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, an inorganic chemist with expertise in dealing with tin. "Tin is a very viable material, and we have shown the material does work as an efficient solar cell."


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Edgy Look at 2D Molybdenum Disulfide

Edgy Look at 2D Molybdenum Disulfide | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

The drive to develop ultrasmall and ultrafast electronic devices using a single atomic layer of semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, has received a significant boost. Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have recorded the first observations of a strong nonlinear optical resonance along the edges of a single layer of molybdenum disulfide. The existence of these edge states is key to the use of molybdenum disulfide in nanoelectronics, as well as a catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction in fuel cells, desulfurization and other chemical reactions.

“We observed strong nonlinear optical resonances at the edges of a two-dimensional crystal of molybdenum disulfide” says Xiang Zhang, a faculty scientist with Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division who led this study. “These one-dimensional edge states are the result of electronic structure changes and may enable novel nanoelectronics and photonic devices. These edges have also long been suspected to be the active sites for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction in energy applications. We also discovered extraordinary second harmonic light generation properties that may be used for the in situ monitoring of electronic changes and chemical reactions that occur at the one-dimensional atomic edges.”


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Nanoparticle based coating for aircraft engines may triple service life and reduce fuel consumption

Nanoparticle based coating for aircraft engines may triple service life and reduce fuel consumption | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

Researchers at University West in Sweden have started using nanoparticles in the heat-insulating surface layer that protects aircraft engines from heat. In tests, this increased the service life of the coating by 300%. This is something that interests the aircraft industry to a very great degree, and the hope is that motors with the new layers will be in production within two years. 

To increase the service life of aircraft engines, a heat-insulating surface layer is sprayed on top of the metal components. Thanks to this extra layer, the engine is shielded from heat. The temperature can also be raised, which leads to increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and decreased fuel consumption.


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Web Data Commons - Hyperlink Graph

Web Data Commons - Hyperlink Graph | Complex Materials | Scoop.it

This page provides a large hyperlink graph for public download. The graph has been extracted from the Common Crawl 2012 web corpus and covers 3.5 billion web pages and 128 billion hyperlinks between these pages. To the best of our knowledge, the graph is the largest hyperlink graph that is available to the public outside companies such as Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft. Below we provide instructions on how to download the graph as well as basic statistics about its topology.

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