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Rescooped by Pradeep Banerjee from Dynamics on complex networks
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Uncovering the structure and temporal dynamics of information propagation

Time plays an essential role in the diffusion of information, influence, and disease over networks. In many cases we can only observe when a node is activated by a contagion—when a node learns about a piece of information, makes a decision, adopts a new behavior, or becomes infected with a disease. However, the underlying network connectivity and transmission rates between nodes are unknown. Inferring the underlying diffusion dynamics is important because it leads to new insights and enables forecasting, as well as influencing or containing information propagation. In this paper we model diffusion as a continuous temporal process occurring at different rates over a latent, unobserved network that may change over time. Given information diffusion data, we infer the edges and dynamics of the underlying network. Our model naturally imposes sparse solutions and requires no parameter tuning. We develop an efficient inference algorithm that uses stochastic convex optimization to compute online estimates of the edges and transmission rates. We evaluate our method by tracking information diffusion among 3.3 million mainstream media sites and blogs, and experiment with more than 179 million different instances of information spreading over the network in a one-year period. We apply our network inference algorithm to the top 5,000 media sites and blogs and report several interesting observations. First, information pathways for general recurrent topics are more stable across time than for on-going news events. Second, clusters of news media sites and blogs often emerge and vanish in a matter of days for on-going news events. Finally, major events, for example, large scale civil unrest as in the Libyan civil war or Syrian uprising, increase the number of information pathways among blogs, and also increase the network centrality of blogs and social media sites.

 

Uncovering the structure and temporal dynamics of information propagation
MANUEL GOMEZ RODRIGUEZ, JURE LESKOVEC, DAVID BALDUZZI, BERNHARD SCHÖLKOPF
Network Science , Volume 2 , Issue 01 , April 2014, pp 26 - 65
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2014.3 ;


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Calculating Kolmogorov Complexity from the Output Frequency Distributions of Small Turing Machines

The evaluation of the complexity of finite sequences is key in many areas of science. For example, the notions of structure, simplicity and randomness are common currency in biological systems epitomized by a sequence of fundamental nature and utmost importance: the DNA. Nevertheless, researchers have for a long time avoided any practical use of the current accepted mathematical theory of randomness, mainly because it has been considered to be useless in practice [8]. Despite this belief, related notions such as lossless uncompressibility tests have proven relative success, in areas such as sequence pattern detection [21] and have motivated distance measures and classification methods [9] in several areas (see [19] for a survey), to mention but two examples among many others of even more practical use. The method presented in this paper aims to provide sound directions to explore the feasibility and stability of the evaluation of the complexity of strings by means different to that of lossless compressibility, particularly useful for short strings. The authors known of only two similar attempts to compute the uncomputable, one related to the estimation of a Chaitin Omega number [4], and of another seminal related measure of complexity, Bennett's Logical Depth [23], [27]. This paper provides an approximation to the output frequency distribution of all Turing machines with 5 states and 2 symbols which in turn allow us to apply a central theorem in the theory of algorithmic complexity based in the notion of algorithmic probability (also known as Solomonoff's theory of inductive inference) that relates frequency of production of a string and its Kolmogorov complexity hence providing, upon application of the theorem, numerical estimations of Kolmogorov complexity by a method different to lossless compression algorithms.

 

Soler-Toscano F, Zenil H, Delahaye J-P, Gauvrit N (2014) Calculating Kolmogorov Complexity from the Output Frequency Distributions of Small Turing Machines. PLoS ONE 9(5): e96223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096223


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Hector Zenvi's curator insight, February 15, 3:23 AM

Published in PLoS ONE

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▶ Seth Lloyd: Quantum Machine Learning

Machine learning algorithms find patterns in big data sets. This talk presents quantum machine learning algorithms that give exponential speed-ups over their best existing classical counterparts. The algorithms work by mapping the data set into a quantum state (big quantum data) that contains the data in quantum superposition. Quantum coherence is then used to reveal patterns in the data. The quantum algorithms scale as the logarithm of the size of the database.

 

Seth Lloyd visited the Quantum AI Lab at Google LA to give a tech talk on "Quantum Machine Learning." This talk took place on January 29, 2014.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wkBPp9UovVU


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Guided Self-Organization in a Dynamic Embodied System Based on Attractor Selection Mechanism

Guided self-organization can be regarded as a paradigm proposed to understand how to guide a self-organizing system towards desirable behaviors, while maintaining its non-deterministic dynamics with emergent features. It is, however, not a trivial problem to guide the self-organizing behavior of physically embodied systems like robots, as the behavioral dynamics are results of interactions among their controller, mechanical dynamics of the body, and the environment. This paper presents a guided self-organization approach for dynamic robots based on a coupling between the system mechanical dynamics with an internal control structure known as the attractor selection mechanism. The mechanism enables the robot to gracefully shift between random and deterministic behaviors, represented by a number of attractors, depending on internally generated stochastic perturbation and sensory input. The robot used in this paper is a simulated curved beam hopping robot: a system with a variety of mechanical dynamics which depends on its actuation frequencies. Despite the simplicity of the approach, it will be shown how the approach regulates the probability of the robot to reach a goal through the interplay among the sensory input, the level of inherent stochastic perturbation, i.e., noise, and the mechanical dynamics.


Guided Self-Organization in a Dynamic Embodied System Based on Attractor Selection Mechanism
Surya G. Nurzaman , Xiaoxiang Yu, Yongjae Kim and Fumiya Iida

Entropy 2014, 16(5), 2592-2610

http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/16/5/2592


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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 14, 2014 8:18 AM

This ties in with the concept of changing the software that runs on society's particular hardware.  Government is the control mechanism in a given society and it must obey the natural laws of the society in order to get the responses and effects that its members wish to have on the society.  This is similar to an airplane, in that the only way to get an airplane safely, reliably and consistently off the ground is to obey the natural laws of physics in the world that the airplane is also apart of.

 

It should be noted here that only benevolence, care, honesty, cost effectiveness and genuine action for the sake of the general public, however those are done, are the only ways for a government and its members to stay in power.  Underhanded techniques or the imposition of brute force will not work, especially in the context of an American society.  Such is how things work in our world.  And it's unfortunate that so many people who actually are holding political power in our society are so apparently clueless and unwilling to accept these principles in their daily courses of action.

 

Think about it.

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Why We Keep Getting the Same Old Ideas

Why We Keep Getting the Same Old Ideas | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
When you change your thinking patterns, your brain makes new connections which give you different things to focus on and different ways to interpret what you are focusing on.
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Scientists Prove DNA Can Be Reprogrammed by Words and Frequencies — the Power of Hyper-Communication

Scientists Prove DNA Can Be Reprogrammed by Words and Frequencies — the Power of Hyper-Communication | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf Compiled, summarized and translated by Bärbel Mohr THE HUMAN DNA IS A BIOLOGICAL INTERNET and superior in many aspects to the artificial one.  Russian scientific ...
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Why Does the World Exist?: An Existential Detective Story (by Jim Holt)

Why Does the World Exist?: An Existential Detective Story

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Whether framed philosophically as “Why is there a world rather than nothing at all?” or more colloquially as “But, Mommy, who made God?” the metaphysical mystery about how we came into existence remains the most fractious and fascinating question of all time. Following in the footsteps of Christopher Hitchens, Roger Penrose, and even Stephen Hawking, Jim Holt emerges with an engrossing narrative that traces our latest efforts to grasp the origins of the universe. As he takes on the role of cosmological detective, the brilliant yet slyly humorous Holt contends that we might have been too narrow in limiting our suspects to God vs. the Big Bang. Whether interviewing a cranky Oxford philosopher, a Physics Nobel Laureate, or a French Buddhist monk, Holt pursues unexplored and often bizarre angles to this cosmic puzzle. The result is a brilliant synthesis of cosmology, mathematics, and physics—one that propels his own work to the level of philosophy itself.


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Information from Processes

Information from Processes | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

Information is an important concept that is studied extensively across a range of disciplines, from the physical sciences to genetics to psychology to epistemology. Information continues to increase in importance, and the present age has been referred to as the “Information Age.”

One may understand information in a variety of ways. For some, information is found in facts that were previously unknown. For others, a fact must have some economic value to be considered information. Other people emphasize the movement through a communication channel from one location to another when describing information. In all of these instances, information is the set of characteristics of the output of a process. Yet Information has seldom been studied in a consistent way across different disciplines. 

Information from Processes provides a discipline-independent and precise presentation of both information and computing processes.  Information concepts and phenomena are examined in an effort to understand them, given a hierarchy of information processes, where one process uses others. Research about processes and computing is applied to answer the question of what information can and cannot be produced, and to determine the nature of this information (theoretical information science). The book also presents some of the basic processes that are used in specific domains (applied information science), such as those that generate information in areas like reasoning, the evolution of informative systems, cryptography, knowledge, natural language, and the economic value of information.

Written for researchers and graduate students in information science and related fields, Information from Processes details a unique information model independent from other concepts in computer or archival science, which is thus applicable to a wide range of domains. Combining theoretical and empirical methods as well as psychological, mathematical, philosophical, and economic techniques, Losee’s book delivers a solid basis and starting point for future discussions and research about the creation and use of information.


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Books and JavaScript stored in DNA molecules

Books and JavaScript stored in DNA molecules | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

The computers of the future might store data in DNA. George Church of the Wyss Institute at Harvard University and colleagues have encoded a 53,400-word book, 11 JPG images and a JavaScript program – amounting to 5.27 million bits of data in total – into sequences of DNA. In doing so, they have beaten the previous record set by J. Craig Venter's team in 2010 when they encoded a 7920-bit watermark in their synthetic bacterium.

 

DNA is one of the most dense and stable media for storing information known. In theory, DNA can encode two bits per nucleotide. That's 455 exabytes – roughly the capacity of 100 billion DVDs – per gram of single-stranded DNA, making it five or six orders denser than currently available digital media, such as flash memory. Information stored in DNA can also be read thousands of years after it was first laid down.

 

Until now, however, the difficulty and cost involved in reading and writing long sequences of DNA has made large-scale data storage impractical. Church and his team got round this by developing a strategy that eliminates the need for long sequences. Instead, they encoded data in distinct blocks and stored these in shorter separate stretches. The strategy is exactly analogous to data storage on a hard drive, says co-author Sriram Kosuri, where data is divided up into discrete blocks called sectors. The team has also applied their strategy in practice. They converted a JavaScript program, and a book co-written by Church, into bit form. They then synthesised DNA to repeat that sequence of bits, encoding one bit at every DNA base. The DNA bases A or C encoded a '0', while G and T encoded a '1'.

 

Because the DNA is synthesised as the data is encoded, the approach doesn't allow for rewritable data storage. A write-only DNA molecule is still suitable for long-term archival storage, though. "I don't want to say rewriting is impossible," says Kosuri, "but we haven't yet looked at that."

 

But the result does show that DNA synthesis and sequencing technologies have finally progressed to the stage where integrating DNA sequence information into a storage medium is a real possibility, says Dan Gibson at the J. Craig Venter Institute in La Jolla, California, who was part of Venter's team in 2010. "Cost, speed and instrument size currently make this impractical for general use, but the field is moving fast, and the technology will soon be cheaper, faster and smaller," he says.

 

Original article: Science, DOI:10.1126/science.293.5536.1763c


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Faces of Our Ancestors : Discovery News

Faces of Our Ancestors : Discovery News | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
Paleoanthropologists used sophisticated research methods to form 27 model heads from tiny bone fragments.
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The 11 Ways That Consumers Are Hopeless at Math

The 11 Ways That Consumers Are Hopeless at Math | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
This is your brain on shopping, and it's not very smart...
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Universal Illusion? Juan Maldacena's holographic universe - negative de Sitter space

Universal Illusion? Juan Maldacena's holographic universe - negative de Sitter space | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

To make things clear - Maldacena's universe is not like the one we actually live in! It's a model, a toy universe, which comes complete with its own physics. It's a hologram because all the physical goings-on inside it can be described by a physical theory that's only defined on the boundary. What's more, it's a universe in which the gravity/quantum conundrum has been resolved completely: the boundary theory is purely quantum, it contains no gravity, but a being living in the interior will still experience gravity. Gravity in this universe is part of the holographic illusion.


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Cargo Cult Science: Richard Feynman’s 1974 Caltech Graduation Address on Integrity

Cargo Cult Science: Richard Feynman’s 1974 Caltech Graduation Address on Integrity | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
"The first principle is that you must not fool yourself." As an aficionado of exceptional commencement speeches and of Richard Feynman --...
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The Neuroscience Of Imagination

The Neuroscience Of Imagination | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
Understanding how imagination works could be the key to daydreaming yourself into a sharper, more creative person.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, March 31, 2014 1:26 PM

On one hand, the imagination is a world of hallucinations and opinions that have no grounding in reality and no basis in facts.

 

On the other hand, it is the design space in our minds to create a much wider array of stuff than is in the actual universe, such that we can figure out new ways of operating on and in this plane of existence.

 

It must always be checked out against the long and short term effects of those actions in the real world.  It is useful to have this portable design space in order to problem solve and bring about new innovations for our world.  The trouble comes when people live in their imaginations rather than try to be aware of how their imaginative thoughts are only just thoughts until they are proven (or disproven) to be otherwise.

 

Think about it.

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How Attention Works: The Brain’s Anti-Distraction System Discovered — PsyBlog

How Attention Works: The Brain’s Anti-Distraction System Discovered — PsyBlog | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

Attention is only partly about what we focus on, but also about what we manage to ignore. Neuroscientists have pinpointed the neural activity involved in avoiding distraction, a new study reports. This is the first study showing that our brains rely on an active suppression system to help us focus on the task at hand (Gaspar & McDonald, 2014).

The study’s lead author, John Gaspar, explained the traditional view of attentional control: This is an important discovery for neuroscientists and psychologists because most contemporary ideas of attention highlight brain processes that are involved in picking out relevant objects from the visual field. It’s like finding Waldo in a Where’s Waldo illustration.”

While this process is important, it doesn’t tell the whole story of how attention works.


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Rescooped by Pradeep Banerjee from Neuroscience - Memory - Learning - Mindfulness - Motivation
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On the Edge of Chaos: Where Creativity Flourishes

On the Edge of Chaos: Where Creativity Flourishes | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
Scientists have come a long way in understanding how the brain generates creative ideas. Their work can inform classroom structures if educators want to inspire more creativity in students.

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David McGavock's curator insight, May 11, 2014 7:26 PM

"To develop ideas that could be considered creative, the brain has to be both stable and flexible at the same time. Brains perform just this type of balancing act every second of every day. “The brain maintains a duality of systems that are constantly introducing flexibility into our thinking and then trying to stabilize our thinking,” Bilder said. The brain evaluates a new stimuli, compares it the plan originally set and then decides on the optimal degree of flexibility or stability to pursue. This cycle happens three times per second."

Miklos Szilagyi's curator insight, May 12, 2014 8:44 AM

Children are limitlessly creative... most of them... later we together, parents, school, society, we kill this in them... and then later on we find out, we need it and try to built it (back...).

 

Now, the first logical step would be not to kill it on the first place... I know it needs such a broad, longterm view which is difficult to achieve  our quarterly philosophy... 

Bodil Hernesvold's curator insight, May 14, 2014 4:23 PM

Is there chaos or not in my classroom? Does it count if the teacher is in a state of chaos? How do we "manage" or "encourage" chaos, then?

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Jonas Eliasson: How to solve traffic jams

It’s an unfortunate reality in nearly every major city—road congestion, especially during rush hours. Jonas Eliasson reveals how subtly nudging just a small percentage of drivers to stay off major roads can make traffic jams a thing of the past.


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Murray Gell-Mann on beauty and truth in physics | Video on TED.com

TED Talks Armed with a sense of humor and laypeople's terms, Nobel winner Murray Gell-Mann drops some knowledge on TEDsters about particle physics, asking questions like, Are elegant equations more likely to be right than inelegant ones?
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Wait: The Art and Science of Delay (by Frank Partnoy)

Wait: The Art and Science of Delay

~ Frank Partnoy (author) More about this product
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What do these scenarios have in common: a professional tennis player returning a serve, a woman evaluating a first date across the table, a naval officer assessing a threat to his ship, and a comedian about to reveal a punch line?

In this counterintuitive and insightful work, author Frank Partnoy weaves together findings from hundreds of scientific studies and interviews with wide-ranging experts to craft a picture of effective decision-making that runs counter to our brutally fast-paced world. Even as technology exerts new pressures to speed up our lives, it turns out that the choices we make––unconsciously and consciously, in time frames varying from milliseconds to years––benefit profoundly from delay. As this winning and provocative book reveals, taking control of time and slowing down our responses yields better results in almost every arena of life … even when time seems to be of the essence.


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Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory: From Chess to Social Science, 1900-1960 (by Robert Leonard)

Drawing on a wealth of new archival material, including personal correspondence and diaries, Robert Leonard tells the fascinating story of the creation of game theory by Hungarian Jewish mathematician John von Neumann and Austrian economist Oskar Morgenstern. Game theory first emerged amid discussions of the psychology and mathematics of chess in Germany and fin-de-siècle Austro-Hungary. In the 1930s, on the cusp of anti-Semitism and political upheaval, it was developed by von Neumann into an ambitious theory of social organization. It was shaped still further by its use in combat analysis in World War II and during the Cold War. Interweaving accounts of the period's economics, science, and mathematics, and drawing sensitively on the private lives of von Neumann and Morgenstern, Robert Leonard provides a detailed reconstruction of a complex historical drama.


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Computing in the net of possibilities

 Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen have developed an entirely new principle for information processing. The complex network computer now stands as an alternative to the other possibilities in data processing - such as the conventional computer or the quantum computer. The fundamental requirement is a system, for instance a laser, with oscillating elements that can interact with one another. The researchers were able to demonstrate that the characteristic dynamics of such a system can be cleverly harnessed to perform the full range of logical operations. The complex network computer can even perform some tasks, such as the coarse sorting of numbers, considerably faster than conventional computers. Furthermore, the researchers have managed to take a first step in programming a robot according to the new principle.


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Computing in the net of possibilities

 Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen have developed an entirely new principle for information processing. The complex network computer now stands as an alternative to the other possibilities in data processing - such as the conventional computer or the quantum computer. The fundamental requirement is a system, for instance a laser, with oscillating elements that can interact with one another. The researchers were able to demonstrate that the characteristic dynamics of such a system can be cleverly harnessed to perform the full range of logical operations. The complex network computer can even perform some tasks, such as the coarse sorting of numbers, considerably faster than conventional computers. Furthermore, the researchers have managed to take a first step in programming a robot according to the new principle.


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A Computable Universe: Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation

A Computable Universe: Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

A Computable Universe
Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation
Edited by: Hector Zenil


This volume, with a foreword by Sir Roger Penrose, discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature.

It focuses on two main questions:

What is computation?
How does nature compute?
The contributors are world-renowned experts who have helped shape a cutting-edge computational understanding of the universe. They discuss computation in the world from a variety of perspectives, ranging from foundational concepts to pragmatic models to ontological conceptions and philosophical implications.

The volume provides a state-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays, representing a field that assumes information and computation to be key in understanding and explaining the basic structure underpinning physical reality. It also includes a new edition of Konrad Zuse's “Calculating Space” (the MIT translation), and a panel discussion transcription on the topic, featuring worldwide experts in quantum mechanics, physics, cognition, computation and algorithmic complexity.

The volume is dedicated to the memory of Alan M Turing — the inventor of universal computation, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, and is part of the Turing Centenary celebrations.

 

http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/8306

 


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Video: Information...and how we came to be deluged by Tweets | Santa Fe Institute

Video: Information...and how we came to be deluged by Tweets | Santa Fe Institute | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
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