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Jonas Eliasson: How to solve traffic jams

It’s an unfortunate reality in nearly every major city—road congestion, especially during rush hours. Jonas Eliasson reveals how subtly nudging just a small percentage of drivers to stay off major roads can make traffic jams a thing of the past.


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Murray Gell-Mann on beauty and truth in physics | Video on TED.com

TED Talks Armed with a sense of humor and laypeople's terms, Nobel winner Murray Gell-Mann drops some knowledge on TEDsters about particle physics, asking questions like, Are elegant equations more likely to be right than inelegant ones?
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Wait: The Art and Science of Delay (by Frank Partnoy)

Wait: The Art and Science of Delay

~ Frank Partnoy (author) More about this product
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What do these scenarios have in common: a professional tennis player returning a serve, a woman evaluating a first date across the table, a naval officer assessing a threat to his ship, and a comedian about to reveal a punch line?

In this counterintuitive and insightful work, author Frank Partnoy weaves together findings from hundreds of scientific studies and interviews with wide-ranging experts to craft a picture of effective decision-making that runs counter to our brutally fast-paced world. Even as technology exerts new pressures to speed up our lives, it turns out that the choices we make––unconsciously and consciously, in time frames varying from milliseconds to years––benefit profoundly from delay. As this winning and provocative book reveals, taking control of time and slowing down our responses yields better results in almost every arena of life … even when time seems to be of the essence.


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Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory: From Chess to Social Science, 1900-1960 (by Robert Leonard)

Drawing on a wealth of new archival material, including personal correspondence and diaries, Robert Leonard tells the fascinating story of the creation of game theory by Hungarian Jewish mathematician John von Neumann and Austrian economist Oskar Morgenstern. Game theory first emerged amid discussions of the psychology and mathematics of chess in Germany and fin-de-siècle Austro-Hungary. In the 1930s, on the cusp of anti-Semitism and political upheaval, it was developed by von Neumann into an ambitious theory of social organization. It was shaped still further by its use in combat analysis in World War II and during the Cold War. Interweaving accounts of the period's economics, science, and mathematics, and drawing sensitively on the private lives of von Neumann and Morgenstern, Robert Leonard provides a detailed reconstruction of a complex historical drama.


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Computing in the net of possibilities

 Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen have developed an entirely new principle for information processing. The complex network computer now stands as an alternative to the other possibilities in data processing - such as the conventional computer or the quantum computer. The fundamental requirement is a system, for instance a laser, with oscillating elements that can interact with one another. The researchers were able to demonstrate that the characteristic dynamics of such a system can be cleverly harnessed to perform the full range of logical operations. The complex network computer can even perform some tasks, such as the coarse sorting of numbers, considerably faster than conventional computers. Furthermore, the researchers have managed to take a first step in programming a robot according to the new principle.


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Computing in the net of possibilities

 Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen have developed an entirely new principle for information processing. The complex network computer now stands as an alternative to the other possibilities in data processing - such as the conventional computer or the quantum computer. The fundamental requirement is a system, for instance a laser, with oscillating elements that can interact with one another. The researchers were able to demonstrate that the characteristic dynamics of such a system can be cleverly harnessed to perform the full range of logical operations. The complex network computer can even perform some tasks, such as the coarse sorting of numbers, considerably faster than conventional computers. Furthermore, the researchers have managed to take a first step in programming a robot according to the new principle.


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A Computable Universe: Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation

A Computable Universe: Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

A Computable Universe
Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation
Edited by: Hector Zenil


This volume, with a foreword by Sir Roger Penrose, discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature.

It focuses on two main questions:

What is computation?
How does nature compute?
The contributors are world-renowned experts who have helped shape a cutting-edge computational understanding of the universe. They discuss computation in the world from a variety of perspectives, ranging from foundational concepts to pragmatic models to ontological conceptions and philosophical implications.

The volume provides a state-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays, representing a field that assumes information and computation to be key in understanding and explaining the basic structure underpinning physical reality. It also includes a new edition of Konrad Zuse's “Calculating Space” (the MIT translation), and a panel discussion transcription on the topic, featuring worldwide experts in quantum mechanics, physics, cognition, computation and algorithmic complexity.

The volume is dedicated to the memory of Alan M Turing — the inventor of universal computation, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, and is part of the Turing Centenary celebrations.

 

http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/8306

 


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Types of Prediction

Types of Prediction | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
Conditional predictions can be wrong too -- and have been.
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Video: Information...and how we came to be deluged by Tweets | Santa Fe Institute

Video: Information...and how we came to be deluged by Tweets | Santa Fe Institute | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
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Neuroscientists On Twitter: 30 Names To Know

Neuroscientists On Twitter: 30 Names To Know | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
How does the brain work? What explains love--and hate? Is free will an illusion?

If these sorts of questions interest you, HuffPost Science would like to introduce you to a a few folks--renowned experts in neuroscience whose tweets can help keep you abreast of the latest findings and continuing controversies in the realm of the brain and mind.


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Albert-László Barabási, TEDMED2012

Networks guru and author Albert-László Barabási says diseases are the results of system breakdowns within the body, and mapping intracellular protein networks will help us discover cures.


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"Social networks that balance themselves" by Steven Strogatz

"Social networks that balance themselves" by Steven Strogatz | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
The second of Steven Strogatz's Simons Lectures, given in the MIT Department of Mathematics in April, 2011.

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Turing's Tiger Birthday Party « Gödel's Lost Letter and P=NP

Turing's Tiger Birthday Party « Gödel's Lost Letter and P=NP | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
Their team also put together extensive webpages, including an overview that also lists the sponsors who made registration free of charge, and a page with further information on Turing and Princeton.
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Why We Keep Getting the Same Old Ideas

Why We Keep Getting the Same Old Ideas | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
When you change your thinking patterns, your brain makes new connections which give you different things to focus on and different ways to interpret what you are focusing on.
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Scientists Prove DNA Can Be Reprogrammed by Words and Frequencies — the Power of Hyper-Communication

Scientists Prove DNA Can Be Reprogrammed by Words and Frequencies — the Power of Hyper-Communication | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf Compiled, summarized and translated by Bärbel Mohr THE HUMAN DNA IS A BIOLOGICAL INTERNET and superior in many aspects to the artificial one.  Russian scientific ...
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Why Does the World Exist?: An Existential Detective Story (by Jim Holt)

Why Does the World Exist?: An Existential Detective Story

~ Jim Holt (author) More about this product
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Whether framed philosophically as “Why is there a world rather than nothing at all?” or more colloquially as “But, Mommy, who made God?” the metaphysical mystery about how we came into existence remains the most fractious and fascinating question of all time. Following in the footsteps of Christopher Hitchens, Roger Penrose, and even Stephen Hawking, Jim Holt emerges with an engrossing narrative that traces our latest efforts to grasp the origins of the universe. As he takes on the role of cosmological detective, the brilliant yet slyly humorous Holt contends that we might have been too narrow in limiting our suspects to God vs. the Big Bang. Whether interviewing a cranky Oxford philosopher, a Physics Nobel Laureate, or a French Buddhist monk, Holt pursues unexplored and often bizarre angles to this cosmic puzzle. The result is a brilliant synthesis of cosmology, mathematics, and physics—one that propels his own work to the level of philosophy itself.


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Information from Processes

Information from Processes | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

Information is an important concept that is studied extensively across a range of disciplines, from the physical sciences to genetics to psychology to epistemology. Information continues to increase in importance, and the present age has been referred to as the “Information Age.”

One may understand information in a variety of ways. For some, information is found in facts that were previously unknown. For others, a fact must have some economic value to be considered information. Other people emphasize the movement through a communication channel from one location to another when describing information. In all of these instances, information is the set of characteristics of the output of a process. Yet Information has seldom been studied in a consistent way across different disciplines. 

Information from Processes provides a discipline-independent and precise presentation of both information and computing processes.  Information concepts and phenomena are examined in an effort to understand them, given a hierarchy of information processes, where one process uses others. Research about processes and computing is applied to answer the question of what information can and cannot be produced, and to determine the nature of this information (theoretical information science). The book also presents some of the basic processes that are used in specific domains (applied information science), such as those that generate information in areas like reasoning, the evolution of informative systems, cryptography, knowledge, natural language, and the economic value of information.

Written for researchers and graduate students in information science and related fields, Information from Processes details a unique information model independent from other concepts in computer or archival science, which is thus applicable to a wide range of domains. Combining theoretical and empirical methods as well as psychological, mathematical, philosophical, and economic techniques, Losee’s book delivers a solid basis and starting point for future discussions and research about the creation and use of information.


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Books and JavaScript stored in DNA molecules

Books and JavaScript stored in DNA molecules | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

The computers of the future might store data in DNA. George Church of the Wyss Institute at Harvard University and colleagues have encoded a 53,400-word book, 11 JPG images and a JavaScript program – amounting to 5.27 million bits of data in total – into sequences of DNA. In doing so, they have beaten the previous record set by J. Craig Venter's team in 2010 when they encoded a 7920-bit watermark in their synthetic bacterium.

 

DNA is one of the most dense and stable media for storing information known. In theory, DNA can encode two bits per nucleotide. That's 455 exabytes – roughly the capacity of 100 billion DVDs – per gram of single-stranded DNA, making it five or six orders denser than currently available digital media, such as flash memory. Information stored in DNA can also be read thousands of years after it was first laid down.

 

Until now, however, the difficulty and cost involved in reading and writing long sequences of DNA has made large-scale data storage impractical. Church and his team got round this by developing a strategy that eliminates the need for long sequences. Instead, they encoded data in distinct blocks and stored these in shorter separate stretches. The strategy is exactly analogous to data storage on a hard drive, says co-author Sriram Kosuri, where data is divided up into discrete blocks called sectors. The team has also applied their strategy in practice. They converted a JavaScript program, and a book co-written by Church, into bit form. They then synthesised DNA to repeat that sequence of bits, encoding one bit at every DNA base. The DNA bases A or C encoded a '0', while G and T encoded a '1'.

 

Because the DNA is synthesised as the data is encoded, the approach doesn't allow for rewritable data storage. A write-only DNA molecule is still suitable for long-term archival storage, though. "I don't want to say rewriting is impossible," says Kosuri, "but we haven't yet looked at that."

 

But the result does show that DNA synthesis and sequencing technologies have finally progressed to the stage where integrating DNA sequence information into a storage medium is a real possibility, says Dan Gibson at the J. Craig Venter Institute in La Jolla, California, who was part of Venter's team in 2010. "Cost, speed and instrument size currently make this impractical for general use, but the field is moving fast, and the technology will soon be cheaper, faster and smaller," he says.

 

Original article: Science, DOI:10.1126/science.293.5536.1763c


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Faces of Our Ancestors : Discovery News

Faces of Our Ancestors : Discovery News | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
Paleoanthropologists used sophisticated research methods to form 27 model heads from tiny bone fragments.
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The 11 Ways That Consumers Are Hopeless at Math

The 11 Ways That Consumers Are Hopeless at Math | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
This is your brain on shopping, and it's not very smart...
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Universal Illusion? Juan Maldacena's holographic universe - negative de Sitter space

Universal Illusion? Juan Maldacena's holographic universe - negative de Sitter space | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

To make things clear - Maldacena's universe is not like the one we actually live in! It's a model, a toy universe, which comes complete with its own physics. It's a hologram because all the physical goings-on inside it can be described by a physical theory that's only defined on the boundary. What's more, it's a universe in which the gravity/quantum conundrum has been resolved completely: the boundary theory is purely quantum, it contains no gravity, but a being living in the interior will still experience gravity. Gravity in this universe is part of the holographic illusion.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Cargo Cult Science: Richard Feynman’s 1974 Caltech Graduation Address on Integrity

Cargo Cult Science: Richard Feynman’s 1974 Caltech Graduation Address on Integrity | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
"The first principle is that you must not fool yourself." As an aficionado of exceptional commencement speeches and of Richard Feynman --...
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Life as Evolving Software, Greg Chaitin at PPGC UFRGS

Few people remember Turing's work on pattern formation in biology (morphogenesis), but Turing's famous 1936 paper On Computable Numbers exerted an immense in...
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NEUROTHEOLOGY: Is The Human Brain Hardwired for God?

NEUROTHEOLOGY: Is The Human Brain Hardwired for God? | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it

Why do we care whether or not God exists? And why do so many people believe? A new generation of neuroscientists is addressing those questions directly, with the ambitious goal of measuring what happens to the human brain during spiritual experiences.


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Michael Nielsen: Open science now! | Video on TED.com

Michael Nielsen: Open science now! | Video on TED.com | Prediction, Learning and Games | Scoop.it
TED Talks What if every scientist could share their data as easily as they tweet about their lunch? Michael Nielsen calls for scientists to embrace new tools for collaboration that will enable discoveries to happen at the speed of Twitter.
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