► The Online Social Presence Questionnaire consists of 19 items. ► Taken by three groups of students at two online universities. ► Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified five factors. ► Factors are social respect, social sharing, open mind, social identity, and intimacy.
► Age differences in virtual social interaction were explored by an experiment. ► Different factors correlated with perceived presence for older and younger users. ► Presence was linked to satisfaction with social experience for both user groups. ► Older user’s proxemic behavior was more similar to one seen in the physical world.
► Even in collaborative models the roles of online instructors and learners are not identical. ► Learners must accomplish certain tasks that instructors do not. ► Students marshal thoughts, emotions, motivations, behaviors and strategies to succeed. ► This constellation of effective activity can be identified in student discourse. ► We call it “learning presence” and it is positively correlated with measures of learning.
► We validated the CoI instrument in three health care disciplines. ► We found a possible split or fourth factor in the social presence construct. ► Age, gender and degree sought made no difference in student’s perceptions of social, teaching or cognitive presence. ► Differences were found in perceptions of health care administration students versus nursing students in social presence.
► We developed an online protocol to create a clear structure and well-defined roles for discussions. ► An online protocol created a more even distribution of Community of Inquiry (COI) presences. ► An online protocol significantly influenced more group cognition in asynchronous discussions. ► We enhanced the COI coding strategy to distinguish between individual and group cognitive presences.
Highlights► Is the experience of quality of online learning contingent on learner ability to self-regulate?. ► The CoI model accounts for significant differences of the superiority of hybrid environments. ► Students in hybrid courses report higher teaching, social, and cognitive presence. ► Learning presence compensates for lower teaching/social presence, improves CoI quality ratings. ► Social presence should be considered a proxy for interaction in CoI.
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