Colorectal Cancer Research Digest
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Colorectal Cancer Research Digest
The latest news on colorectal cancer research, trials, and therapies
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Panitumumab–FOLFOX4 Treatment and RAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer

"Among 512 patients without RAS mutations, progression-free survival was 10.1 months with panitumumab–FOLFOX4 versus 7.9 months with FOLFOX4 alone (hazard ratio for progression or death with combination therapy, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.90; P=0.004). Overall survival was 26.0 months in the panitumumab–FOLFOX4 group versus 20.2 months in the FOLFOX4-alone group (hazard ratio for death, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99; P=0.04). A total of 108 patients (17%) with nonmutated KRAS exon 2 had other RASmutations. These mutations were associated with inferior progression-free survival and overall survival with panitumumab–FOLFOX4 treatment, which was consistent with the findings in patients withKRAS mutations in exon 2. BRAF mutations were a negative prognostic factor. No new safety signals were identified."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Douillard, J-Y , Oliner KS, Siena S, Tabernero J et al

New England J. of Medicine, Spet 13, 2013

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Protein Kinase C-δ–Mediated Recycling of Active KIT in Colon Cancer

"We found that WT-KIT was expressed in a subset of colon cancer cell lines and was activated by SCF, leading to activation of downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. We also showed that KIT expression gradually decreased, after prolonged SCF stimulation, due to lysosomal degradation. Degradation of WT-KIT after SCF binding was significantly rescued when PKC was activated. We also showed the involvement of activated PKC-δ in the recycling of WT-KIT. We further showed that a subset of colorectal cancers exhibit expressions of both WT-KIT and activated PKC-δ and that expression of KIT is correlated with poor patient survival."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Park M, Kim WK, Song M, Park M, et al. Clin Cancer Res. Jul 23, 2013. 

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Comparison of Outcomes After Fluorouracil-Based Adjuvant Therapy for Stages II and III Colon Cancer Between 1978 to 1995 and 1996 to 2007: Evidence of Stage Migration From the ACCENT Database

"With improved patient care, better diagnosis, and more treatment options after tumor recurrence, outcomes after fluorouracil (FU) -based treatment are expected to have improved over time in early-stage colon cancer. Data from 18,449 patients enrolled onto 21 phase III trials conducted from 1978 to 2002 were evaluated for potential differences in time to recurrence (TTR), time from recurrence to death (TRD), and overall survival (OS) with regard to FU-based adjuvant regimens."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Shi Q, Andre T, Grothey A, Yothers G, et al. JCO. Aug 26, 2013. 

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Panitumumab and Irinotecan Every 3 Weeks is an Active and Convenient Regimen for Second-Line Treatment of Patients with Wild-Type K-RAS Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

PURPOSE:

To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the combination of panitumumab and irinotecan every 3 weeks in a phase II trial as second-line treatment in patients with advanced wild-type (WT) K-RAS colorectal cancer (CRC).


CONCLUSION:

This study shows that the administration of panitumumab plus irinotecan every 3 weeks is safe, active and feasible as second-line treatment in patients with advanced WT K-RAS CRC.



Cancer Commons's insight:

Carrato A, Gomez A, Escudero P, Chaves M, et al. Clinical and Translational Oncology. Sept, 2013.

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Molecular Pathways: Estrogen Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

"Worldwide colorectal cancer (CRC) has a higher incidence rate in men than in women, suggesting a protective role for sex hormones in the development of the disease. Preclinical data supports a role for estrogen and its receptors in the initiation and progression of CRC and establishes that protective effects of estrogen are exerted through ERβ. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women as well as consumption of soy reduces the incidence of CRC. In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial use of HRT in postmenopausal women reduced the risk of colon cancer by 56% (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.81; P=0.003). A recent meta-analysis showed that in females, consumption of soy reduced the risk of colon cancer by 21% (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35; P=0.026). In this review, utilizing the preclinical data, we translate the findings in the clinical trials and observational studies to define the role of estrogen in the prevention of CRC. We hypothesize that sometime during the tumorigenesis process ERβ expression in colonocytes is lost and the estrogen ligand, HRT or soy products, exerts its effects through preventing this loss. Thus in the adenoma to carcinoma continuum, timing of HRT is a significant determinant of the observed benefit from this intervention. We further argue that the protective effects of estrogen are limited to certain molecular subtypes. Successful development of estrogen modulators for prevention of CRC depends on identification of susceptible CRC population(s). Thus research to better understand the estrogen pathway is fundamental for clinical delivery of these agents."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Barzi A, Lenz A, LaBonte M, Lenz H. Clinical Cancer Research. Aug 21, 2013. 

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Cisplatin Causes Cell Death via TAB1 Regulation of p53/MDM2/MDMX Circuitry

"The interdependence of p53 and MDM2 is critical for proper cell survival and cell death and, when altered, can lead to tumorigenesis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways function in a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, migration, differentiation, and death. Here we discovered that transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 1 (TAB1), an activator of TAK1 and of p38α, associates with and inhibits the E3 ligase activity of MDM2 toward p53 and its homolog, MDMX. Depletion of TAB1 inhibits MDM2 siRNA-mediated p53 accumulation and p21 induction, partially rescuing cell cycle arrest induced by MDM2 ablation. Interestingly, of several agents commonly used as DNA-damaging therapeutics, only cell death caused by cisplatin is mitigated by knockdown of TAB1. Two mechanisms are required for TAB1 to regulate apoptosis in cisplatin-treated cells. First, p38α is activated by TAB1 to phosphorylate p53 N-terminal sites, leading to selective induction of p53 targets such as NOXA. Second, MDMX is stabilized in a TAB1-dependent manner and is required for cell death after cisplatin treatment. Interestingly TAB1 levels are relatively low in cisplatin-resistant clones of ovarian cells and in ovarian patient's tumors compared with normal ovarian tissue. Together, our results indicate that TAB1 is a potential tumor suppressor that serves as a functional link between p53-MDM2 circuitry and a key MAPK signaling pathway."

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 23, 2013 1:25 PM

Zhu YRegunath KJacq XPrives C. Genes Dev. Aug 15, 2013.

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Signatures of Mutational Processes in Human Cancer

Signatures of Mutational Processes in Human Cancer | Colorectal Cancer Research Digest | Scoop.it

"All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, ‘kataegis’, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SAJR, et al. Nature. Aug 14, 2013.

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 15, 2013 2:47 PM

Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SAJR, et al. Nature. Aug 14, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 15, 2013 2:47 PM

Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SAJR, et al. Nature. Aug 14, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 15, 2013 2:47 PM

Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SAJR, et al. Nature. Aug 14, 2013.

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Mechanism of MEK Inhibition Determines Efficacy in Mutant KRAS- Versus BRAF-Driven Cancers

"KRAS and BRAF activating mutations drive tumorigenesis through constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. As these tumours represent an area of high unmet medical need, multiple allosteric MEK inhibitors, which inhibit MAPK signalling in both genotypes, are being tested in clinical trials. Impressive single-agent activity in BRAF-mutant melanoma has been observed; however, efficacy has been far less robust in KRAS-mutant disease1. Here we show that, owing to distinct mechanisms regulating MEK activation in KRAS- versus BRAF-driven tumours23, different mechanisms of inhibition are required for optimal antitumour activity in each genotype. Structural and functional analysis illustrates that MEK inhibitors with superior efficacy in KRAS-driven tumours (GDC-0623 and G-573, the former currently in phase I clinical trials) form a strong hydrogen-bond interaction with S212 in MEK that is critical for blocking MEK feedback phosphorylation by wild-type RAF."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Hatzivassiliou G, Haling JR, Chen H, Song K, et al. Nature. Aug 11, 2013.

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 15, 2013 2:28 PM

Hatzivassiliou G, Haling JR, Chen H, Song K, et al. Nature. Aug 11, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 15, 2013 2:28 PM

Hatzivassiliou G, Haling JR, Chen H, Song K, et al. Nature. Aug 11, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 15, 2013 2:28 PM

Hatzivassiliou G, Haling JR, Chen H, Song K, et al. Nature. Aug 11, 2013.

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GPR48, A Poor Prognostic Factor, Promotes Tumor Metastasis and Activates β-catenin/TCF Signaling in Colorectal Cancer

"G-protein-coupled receptor 48 (GPR48) is an orphan receptor belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptors family, which plays an important role in the development of various organs and cancer development and progression such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of GPR48 expression in patients with CRC has not been reported. In this study, we observed that GPR48 was overexpressed in primary CRC and metastatic lymph nodes and closely correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Multivariate analysis indicated that high GPR48 expression was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival in CRC patients. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that enforced expression of GPR48 contributed to enhance migration and invasion of cancer cells and tumor metastasis. In addition, we found that GPR48 increased nuclear β-catenin accumulation, T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) transcription activity, and expression of its target genes including Cyclin D1 and c-Myc in CRC cells. Correlation analysis showed that GPR48 expression in CRC tissues was positively associated with β-catenin expression. Upregulation of GPR48 resulted in increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in CRC cells, while inhibition of PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase /ERK1/2 pathways was sufficient to abolish the effect of GPR48 on β-catenin/TCF signaling. Taken together, GPR48 could serve as both a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for resectable CRC patients."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Wu JXie NXie KZeng J, et al. Carcinogenesis. Aug 3, 2013. 

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Breaking a Vicious Cycle

"Despite prodigious advances in tumor biology research, few tumor-biomarker tests have been adopted as standard clinical practice. This lack of reliable tests stems from a vicious cycle of undervaluation, resulting from inconsistent regulatory standards and reimbursement, as well as insufficient investment in research and development, scrutiny of biomarker publications by journals, and evidence of analytical validity and clinical utility. We offer recommendations designed to serve as a roadmap to break this vicious cycle and call for a national dialogue, as changes in regulation, reimbursement, investment, peer review, and guidelines development require the participation of all stakeholders."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Hayes DF, Allen J, Compton C, Gustavsen G, et al. Sci Transl Med. Jul 31, 2013.

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 2, 2013 3:00 PM

Hayes DF, Allen J, Compton C, Gustavsen G, et al. Sci Transl Med. Jul 31, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 2, 2013 3:00 PM

Hayes DF, Allen J, Compton C, Gustavsen G, et al. Sci Transl Med. Jul 31, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 2, 2013 3:00 PM

Hayes DF, Allen J, Compton C, Gustavsen G, et al. Sci Transl Med. Jul 31, 2013.

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ROS Production and NF-κB Activation Triggered by RAC1 Facilitate WNT-Driven Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Colorectal Cancer Initiation

"The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene is mutated in the majority of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Loss of APC leads to constitutively active WNT signaling, hyperproliferation, and tumorigenesis. Identification of pathways that facilitate tumorigenesis after APC loss is important for therapeutic development. Here, we show that RAC1 is a critical mediator of tumorigenesis after APC loss. We find that RAC1 is required for expansion of the LGR5 intestinal stem cell (ISC) signature, progenitor hyperproliferation, and transformation. Mechanistically, RAC1-driven ROS and NF-κB signaling mediate these processes. Together, these data highlight that ROS production and NF-κB activation triggered by RAC1 are critical events in CRC initiation."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Myant K, Cammareri P, McGhee E, Ridgway R, et al. Cell Stem Cell. May 9, 2013.

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Microsatellite Instability and BRAF Mutation Testing in Colorectal Cancer Prognostication

 BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) through its relationship with high-level CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and MLH1 promoter methylation. MSI and BRAF mutation analyses are routinely used for familial cancer risk assessment. To clarify clinical outcome associations of combined MSI/BRAF subgroups, we investigated survival in 1253 rectal and colon cancer patients with available data on clinical and other molecular features, including CIMP, LINE-1 hypomethylation, and KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. Combined BRAF/MSI status in colorectal cancer is a tumor molecular biomarker for prognosic risk stratification.

Cancer Commons's insight:

Lochhead PKuchiba AImamura YLiao X et al.

J Natl Cancer Inst. Jul 22, 2013.

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Nuclear PTEN Controls DNA Repair and Sensitivity to Genotoxic Stress

"Loss of function of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is associated with many human cancers. In the cytoplasm, PTEN antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PTEN also accumulates in the nucleus, where its function remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier) of PTEN controls its nuclear localization. In cells exposed to genotoxic stress, SUMO-PTEN was rapidly excluded from the nucleus dependent on the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Cells lacking nuclear PTEN were hypersensitive to DNA damage, whereas PTEN-deficient cells were susceptible to killing by a combination of genotoxic stress and a small-molecule PI3K inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may have implications for individualized therapy for patients with PTEN-deficient tumors."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Bassi C, Ho J, Srikumar T, Dowling RJO, et al. Science. Jul 26, 2013.

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, July 26, 2013 9:13 PM

Bassi C, Ho J, Srikumar T, Dowling RJO, et al. Science. Jul 26, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, July 26, 2013 9:13 PM

Bassi C, Ho J, Srikumar T, Dowling RJO, et al. Science. Jul 26, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, July 26, 2013 9:13 PM

Bassi C, Ho J, Srikumar T, Dowling RJO, et al. Science. Jul 26, 2013.

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Immunotherapy at Large: The Road to Personalized Cancer Vaccines

"The field of tumor immunology has been flooded with exciting therapeutic advances on many fronts. Immunotherapies targeting T cell inhibitory molecules have proven highly effective in some cancers, but additional strategies to induce tumor immunity, such as cancer vaccination, could further increase tumor killing. The combination of both will probably be the way forward in future immunotherapy. In 'Bedside to Bench', Robert Vonderheide and Katherine Nathanson discuss the potential of cancer genomics to identify specific tumor mutations in patients that may be used as targets in cancer vaccines to overcome problems linked to self-antigen epitopes used nowadays. Despite the existing biological and technical hurdles, a framework to implement personalized cancer vaccines in the clinic may be worth considering. In 'Bench to Bedside', Glenn Dranoff peruses the clinical efficacy and detrimental effects of two T cell immune-checkpoint inhibitors, alone and in combination, in patients with melanoma. The studies underscore the need to continue investigating specific tumor events directly involving tumor evasion to develop combinatorial strategies that will reduce drug-related pathology while achieving anti-tumor efficacy."

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, September 9, 2013 1:46 PM

Vonderheide RH, Nathanson KL. Nature Medicine. Sep 6, 2013.

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An Interactive Resource to Identify Cancer Genetic and Lineage Dependencies Targeted by Small Molecules

"The high rate of clinical response to protein-kinase-targeting drugs matched to cancer patients with specific genomic alterations has prompted efforts to use cancer cell line (CCL) profiling to identify additional biomarkers of small-molecule sensitivities. We have quantitatively measured the sensitivity of 242 genomically characterized CCLs to an Informer Set of 354 small molecules that target many nodes in cell circuitry, uncovering protein dependencies that: (1) associate with specific cancer-genomic alterations and (2) can be targeted by small molecules. We have created the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (http://www.broadinstitute.org/ctrp) to enable users to correlate genetic features to sensitivity in individual lineages and control for confounding factors of CCL profiling. We report a candidate dependency, associating activating mutations in the oncogene β-catenin with sensitivity to the Bcl-2 family antagonist, navitoclax. The resource can be used to develop novel therapeutic hypotheses and to accelerate discovery of drugs matched to patients by their cancer genotype and lineage."


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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 30, 2013 2:59 PM

Basu A, Bodycombe NE, ,Cheah JH, Price, EV et al.

Cell, Aug 29, 2013

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Association of TP53 Mutational Status and Gender with Survival After Adjuvant Treatment for Stage III Colon Cancer: Results of CALGB 89803

"TP53 mutations were identified in 274 of 607 cases. The presence of any TP53 mutation did not predict disease free survival or overall survival with either adjuvant regimen when men and women were considered together or as separate groups. However, outcome differences among women became apparent when tumor TP53 genotype was stratified as wild-type vs. zinc binding or non-zinc binding mutations in the TP53 DNA binding domain. DFS at 5 years was 0.59, 0.52, and 0.78 for women with TP53 wild-type tumors, and tumors with zinc-binding, or non zinc-binding mutations, respectively. Survival at 5 years for these same women was 0.72, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. No differences in survival by TP53 genotype were observed in men."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Warren R, Atreya C, Niedzwiecki D, Weinberg V, et al. Clinical Cancer Research. Aug 27, 2013.

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Unbiased Metabolite Profiling Indicates that a Diminished Thymidine Pool Is the Underlying Mechanism of Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine

"The ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) is a highly effective chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer thought to act via polyamine depletion. However, in DFMO-treated patients, mucosal polyamine levels do not directly correlate with colorectal cancer risk. Untargeted metabolite profiling was used to broadly survey DFMO actions on colon cancer cell metabolism. We found that DFMO treatment of ApcMin intestinal tumors and human colorectal cancer cells is associated with reduced levels of folate-dependent metabolites, including S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), thymidine pools, and related pathway intermediates. We hypothesized that unrestrained SAM consumption/regeneration constitutes a futile DFMO-triggered cascade that can steal tetrahydrofolate from thymidylate synthase and thereby diminish thymidine pools. In accord with this hypothesis, DFMO treatment altered the folate cofactor balance and thymidine supplementation prevented DFMO-elicited cytostasis without restoring polyamine levels. These findings suggest that thymidine metabolite pool insufficiency is a fundamental mechanism of DFMO cytostatic activity."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Witherspoon M, Chen Q, Kopelovich L, Gross S, et al. Cancer Discovery. Jun 14, 2013.

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Phase I Safety, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of the Vascular Disrupting Agent Ombrabulin (AVE8062) in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

"The vascular disrupting agent ombrabulin rapidly reduces tumor blood flow and causes necrosis in vivo. A phase I dose-escalation study was designed to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of single-agent ombrabulin administered once every three weeks in patients with advanced solid malignancies."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Sessa C, Lorusso P, Tolcher A, Farace F, et al. Clinical Cancer Research. Jul 5, 2013. 

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An Interleukin-17-Mediated Paracrine Network Promotes Tumor Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

An Interleukin-17-Mediated Paracrine Network Promotes Tumor Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy | Colorectal Cancer Research Digest | Scoop.it

"Although angiogenesis inhibitors have provided substantial clinical benefit as cancer therapeutics, their use is limited by resistance to their therapeutic effects. While ample evidence indicates that such resistance can be influenced by the tumor microenvironment, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we have uncovered a paracrine signaling network between the adaptive and innate immune systems that is associated with resistance in multiple tumor models: lymphoma, lung and colon. Tumor-infiltrating T helper type 17 (TH17) cells and interleukin-17 (IL-17) induced the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and extracellular-related kinase (ERK) signaling, leading to immature myeloid-cell mobilization and recruitment into the tumor microenvironment. The occurrence of TH17 cells and Bv8-positive granulocytes was also observed in clinical tumor specimens. Tumors resistant to treatment with antibodies to VEGF were rendered sensitive in IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-knockout hosts deficient in TH17 effector function. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of TH17 cell function sensitized resistant tumors to therapy with antibodies to VEGF. These findings indicate that IL-17 promotes tumor resistance to VEGF inhibition, suggesting that immunomodulatory strategies could improve the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Chung AS, Wu X, Zhuang G, Ngu H, et al. Nature Medicine. Aug 4, 2013.

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 21, 2013 1:45 PM

Chung AS, Wu X, Zhuang G, Ngu H, et al. Nature Medicine. Aug 4, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 21, 2013 1:46 PM

Chung AS, Wu X, Zhuang G, Ngu H, et al. Nature Medicine. Aug 4, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 21, 2013 1:46 PM

Chung AS, Wu X, Zhuang G, Ngu H, et al. Nature Medicine. Aug 4, 2013.

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Fusobacterium nucleatum Promotes Colorectal Carcinogenesis by Modulating E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Signaling via its FadA Adhesin

"Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causality and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. We demonstrate that Fn adheres to, invades, and induces oncogenic and inflammatory responses to stimulate growth of CRC cells through its unique FadA adhesin. FadA binds to E-cadherin, activates β-catenin signaling, and differentially regulates the inflammatory and oncogenic responses. The FadA-binding site on E-cadherin is mapped to an 11-amino-acid region. A synthetic peptide derived from this region of E-cadherin abolishes FadA-induced CRC cell growth and oncogenic and inflammatory responses. The fadA gene levels in the colon tissue from patients with adenomas and adenocarcinomas are >10–100 times higher compared to normal individuals. The increased FadA expression in CRC correlates with increased expression of oncogenic and inflammatory genes. This study unveils a mechanism by which Fn can drive CRC and identifies FadA as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for CRC."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Rubinstein MR, Wang X, Liu W, Hao Y, et al. Cell Host & Microbe. Aug 14, 2013.

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Noninvasive Test Optimizes Colon Cancer Screening Rates

"The study showed that fecal immunochemical test participation tripled and colonoscopy participation doubled in the study sample of nearly 6,000 patients, when compared to usual care strategy for colorectal screenings. The findings raise the possibility that large-scale public health efforts to boost screening may be more successful if noninvasive tests are offered over colonoscopy."

Cancer Commons's insight:

The ASCO Post. Aug 6, 2013. 

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Toward Patient-Centered Drug Development in Oncology

"As an oncologist, when I sit with patients to discuss starting a new chemotherapy regimen, their first questions are often “How will it make me feel?” and “How did patients like me feel with this treatment?” Regrettably, this information is generally missing from U.S. drug labels and from published reports of clinical trials — the two information sources most commonly available to people trying to understand the clinical effects of cancer drugs. In 2011, 15 hematology–oncology drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In only one case — that of ruxolitinib for the management of myelofibrosis — was symptom information included in the portion of the label that manufacturers can legally use for marketing purposes. In fact, ruxolitinib was the first cancer therapeutic in more than a decade for which symptom information was included in a U.S. drug label."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Basch E. N Engl J Med. Aug 1, 2013.

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 2, 2013 3:07 PM

Basch E. N Engl J Med. Aug 1, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 2, 2013 3:07 PM

Basch E. N Engl J Med. Aug 1, 2013.

Cancer Commons's curator insight, August 2, 2013 3:07 PM

Basch E. N Engl J Med. Aug 1, 2013.

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Rational Combination of a MEK Inhibitor, Selumetinib, and the Wnt/Calcium Pathway Modulator, Cyclosporin A, in Preclinical Models of Colorectal Cancer

"The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a crucial regulator of cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to apoptosis. MEK inhibitors are being explored as a treatment option for patients with KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer who are not candidates for EGFR-directed therapies. Initial clinical results of MEK inhibitors have yielded limited single-agent activity in colorectal cancer, indicating that rational combination strategies are needed."

Cancer Commons's insight:

Spreafico A, Tentler J, Pitts T, Tan A, et al. Clinical Cancer Research. Aug 1, 2013. 

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Erlotinib versus docetaxel as second-line treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and wild-type EGFR tumours (TAILOR): a randomised controlled trial

"Erlotinib is registered for treatment of all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its efficacy for treatment of patients whose tumours areEGFR wild-type—which includes most patients—is still contentious. We assessed the efficacy of erlotinib compared with a standard second-line chemotherapy in such patients. We did this randomised controlled trial in 52 Italian hospitals. 222 patients were enrolled (110 assigned to docetaxel vs 112 assigned to erlotinib). Median overall survival was 8·2 months (95% CI 5·8—10·9) with docetaxel versus 5·4 months (4·5—6·8) with erlotinib (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 95% CI 0·53—1·00; p=0·05). Progression-free survival was significantly better with docetaxel than with erlotinib. Our results show that chemotherapy is more effective than erlotinib for second-line treatment for previously treated patients with NSCLC who have wild-type EGFRtumours.

Cancer Commons's insight:

Garassino MC, Martelli O, Broggini M, Farina G et al.

Lancet Oncology, Jul 22, 2013

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Liquid biopsy: monitoring cancer-genetics in the blood

Crowley E, Di Nicolantonio F, Loupakis F & Bardelli A.

Nature Review Clinical Oncology. Aug. 2013

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Cancer Commons's curator insight, July 29, 2013 8:27 PM

Crowley E, Di Nicolantonio F, Loupakis F & Bardelli A.

Nature Review Clinical Oncology. Aug. 2013