Broadly speaking, clinical trials are designed to demonstrate that a drug is safe (phase I), effective (phase II), and better than existing treatments (phase III). However, some drugs already show strong signs of superior effectiveness in phase I and II. A recent article argues for waiving the phase III trial requirement for such drugs, particularly for targeted cancer treatments directed at specific genetic mutations. This would save the enormous costs of these trials and avoid the possibility of the control groups in such trials possibly receiving less effective treatments. On the other hand, eliminating phase III trials would mean that a drug’s long-term effects would not be systematically investigated.