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ESA has indications that the ozone layer is on the road to recovery?

ESA has indications that the ozone layer is on the road to recovery? | College scoop 1 | Scoop.it
ESA Observing the Earth homepage, features the latest news on Earth observation missions and satellites, including ERS 1, ERS 2, Envisat, Metop, Meteosat and Living Planet.

 

Satellites show that the recent ozone hole over Antarctica was the smallest seen in the past decade. Long-term observations also reveal that Earth’s ozone has been strengthening following international agreements to protect this vital layer of the atmosphere.

 

According to the ozone sensor on Europe’s MetOp weather satellite, the hole over Antarctica in 2012 was the smallest in the last 10 years.

 

The instrument continues the long-term monitoring of atmospheric ozone started by its predecessors on the ERS-2 and Envisat satellites.

 

Since the beginning of the 1980s, an ozone hole has developed over Antarctica during the southern spring – September to November – resulting in a decrease in ozone concentration of up to 70%. Ozone depletion is more extreme in Antarctica than at the North Pole because high wind speeds cause a fast-rotating vortex of cold air, leading to extremely low temperatures. Under these conditions, human-made chlorofluorocarbons – CFCs – have a stronger effect on the ozone, depleting it and creating the infamous hole.

Over the Arctic, the effect is far less pronounced because the northern hemisphere’s irregular landmasses and mountains normally prevent the build-up of strong circumpolar winds.

 

To understand these complex processes better, scientists rely on a long time series of data derived from observations and on results from numerical simulations based on complex atmospheric models.

 

Although ozone has been observed over several decades with multiple instruments, combining the existing observations from many different sensors to produce consistent and homogeneous data suitable for scientific analysis is a difficult task.

 

Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative, harmonised ozone climate data records are generated to document the variability of ozone changes better at different scales in space and time.

 

With this information, scientists can better estimate the timing of the ozone layer recovery, and in particular the closure of the ozone hole.

 

Chemistry climate models show that the ozone layer may be building up, and the hole over Antarctica will close in the next decades.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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The natural cycle continues

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Rescooped by RichardXTyler from Rhizobium Research
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Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from soils by Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation

Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from soils by Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation | College scoop 1 | Scoop.it

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas that is also capable of destroying the ozone layer1. Agricultural soil is the largest source of N2O (ref. 2). Soybean is a globally important leguminous crop, and hosts symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (rhizobia) that can also produce N2O (ref. 3). In agricultural soil, N2O is emitted from fertilizer and soil nitrogen. In soybean ecosystems, N2O is also emitted from the degradation of the root nodules4. Organic nitrogen inside the nodules is mineralized to NH4+, followed by nitrification and denitrification that produce N2O. N2O is then emitted into the atmosphere or is further reduced to N2 by N2O reductase (N2OR), which is encoded by the nosZ gene. Pure culture and vermiculite pot experiments showed lower N2O emission by nosZ+ strains5 and nosZ++ strains (mutants with increased N2OR activity)6 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum than by nosZ− strains. A pot experiment using soil confirmed these results7. Although enhancing N2OR activity has been suggested as a N2O mitigation option8, 9, this has never been tested in the field. Here, we show that post-harvest N2O emission from soybean ecosystems due to degradation of nodules can be mitigated by inoculation of nosZ+ and non-genetically modified organism nosZ++ strains of B. japonicum at a field scale.

 

Manabu Itakura, Yoshitaka Uchida, Hiroko Akiyama, Yuko Takada Hoshino, Yumi Shimomura, Sho Morimoto, Kanako Tago, Yong Wang, Chihiro Hayakawa, Yusuke Uetake, Cristina Sánchez, Shima Eda, Masahito Hayatsu & Kiwamu Minamisawa (2012). Nature Climate Change  Published online 11 November 2012


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Rescooped by RichardXTyler from WW2 Bomber - Nose Art
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Awesome Paintings On Big Aeroplanes | Fashion Trends, Glamour Models

Awesome Paintings On Big Aeroplanes | Fashion Trends, Glamour Models | College scoop 1 | Scoop.it
Normally aeroplane painted as country flag or compony selected colors signs but its not neccessery for private planes,...

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Rescooped by RichardXTyler from Amazing Science
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ESA has indications that the ozone layer is on the road to recovery?

ESA has indications that the ozone layer is on the road to recovery? | College scoop 1 | Scoop.it
ESA Observing the Earth homepage, features the latest news on Earth observation missions and satellites, including ERS 1, ERS 2, Envisat, Metop, Meteosat and Living Planet.

 

Satellites show that the recent ozone hole over Antarctica was the smallest seen in the past decade. Long-term observations also reveal that Earth’s ozone has been strengthening following international agreements to protect this vital layer of the atmosphere.

 

According to the ozone sensor on Europe’s MetOp weather satellite, the hole over Antarctica in 2012 was the smallest in the last 10 years.

 

The instrument continues the long-term monitoring of atmospheric ozone started by its predecessors on the ERS-2 and Envisat satellites.

 

Since the beginning of the 1980s, an ozone hole has developed over Antarctica during the southern spring – September to November – resulting in a decrease in ozone concentration of up to 70%. Ozone depletion is more extreme in Antarctica than at the North Pole because high wind speeds cause a fast-rotating vortex of cold air, leading to extremely low temperatures. Under these conditions, human-made chlorofluorocarbons – CFCs – have a stronger effect on the ozone, depleting it and creating the infamous hole.

Over the Arctic, the effect is far less pronounced because the northern hemisphere’s irregular landmasses and mountains normally prevent the build-up of strong circumpolar winds.

 

To understand these complex processes better, scientists rely on a long time series of data derived from observations and on results from numerical simulations based on complex atmospheric models.

 

Although ozone has been observed over several decades with multiple instruments, combining the existing observations from many different sensors to produce consistent and homogeneous data suitable for scientific analysis is a difficult task.

 

Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative, harmonised ozone climate data records are generated to document the variability of ozone changes better at different scales in space and time.

 

With this information, scientists can better estimate the timing of the ozone layer recovery, and in particular the closure of the ozone hole.

 

Chemistry climate models show that the ozone layer may be building up, and the hole over Antarctica will close in the next decades.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
RichardXTyler's insight:

The natural cycle continues

more...
No comment yet.