Innumerable texts have been written on the subject of collective intelligence; what it is, what it isn’t, what it might be1. There are discussions about how the “more than one” may function(emergence, process, praxis, product, differentiation, integration, dynamics2, etc.); about it’s various forms (networks, collectives, connectives, communities of practice, les pronétaires3, prosumption 4, tele-cocooning, smart mobs, etc.); the kinds of impacting forces (interaction,interdependence, structure, goals, cohesion 5, norms, entitativity 6); about roles therein (position, significance of position, individuality maintained, blurred, eroded); about participation (opt in-opt out, P2P, many-to many, many to multitudes); about interactions(convergence, distributed exploration, collaboration, coordination, stymergy, requisite cognition, etc.); about what constitute necessary operational principles (openness, peering, sharing, acting globally, etc.); about the kinds of infrastructures (syntactic-structure-semantic-pragmatic, open architecture, community architecture, component architecture, non-hierarchical , collective classification or folksonomy, transparency, design-in-the-large (DIL) etc.); aboutethical considerations (intellectual property, licence proliferation, private-public hybridity, etc.); and about the potentiality of the more-than-one (group think, mass amateurization, wisdom of crowds7, smart mobs, etc.). This list, while hardly exhaustive, gives a small indication of the scope and scale -and perhaps intensity- of the discourse around collective intelligence.8 This plethora of discourse pertaining to collective intelligence is of exceptional importance, notably because our choices therein affect “how we design software, organizational process, and even organizations themselves”
Genome of Collective IntelligenceThomas W. Malone, Robert Laubacher, Chrysanthos Dellarocas (Boston University), George Herman, Richard Lai (Wharton School)The Genome of Collective Intelligence project describes a set of building blocks that can be combined and recombined to design systems that harness the intelligence of crowds. The Genome was featured in a 2010 article in Sloan Management Review. An earlier version of this article appeared as a CCI working paper.The Genome is based on a collection more than 200 examples of collective intelligence, gathered in an editable online handbook built using Media Wiki software. The handbook also provides an overview of the field of collective intelligence, through multiple disciplinary lenses, and it also includes a list of references.The handbook is hosted by CCI, but researchers and others from around the world are invited to contribute. The process of adding examples to this handbook could itself be an example of collective intelligence.
A major challenge of systems biology is understanding how phenomena at the cellular scale correlate with activity at the organism level. A concerted effort has been made especially in the brain, as scientists are aiming to clarify how neural activity is translated into consciousness and other complex brain activities.
One example of the technologies needed is whole-brain imaging at single-cell resolution. This imaging normally involves preparing a highly transparent sample that minimizes light scattering and then imaging neurons tagged with fluorescent probes at different slices to produce a 3D representation. However, limitations in current methods prevent comprehensive study of the relationship. A new high-throughput method, CUBIC (Clear, Unobstructed Brain Imaging Cocktails and Computational Analysis), published in Cell, is a great leap forward, as it offers unprecedented rapid whole-brain imaging at single cell resolution and a simple protocol to clear up and make the brain sample transparent, is based on the use of amino-alcohols.
In combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy, CUBIC was tested for rapid imaging of a number of mammalian systems, such as mouse and primate, showing its scalability for brains of different size. Additionally, it was used to acquire new spatial-temporal details of gene expression patterns in the hypothalamic circadian rhythm center. Moreover, by combining images taken from opposite directions, CUBIC enables whole brain imaging and direct comparison of brains in different environmental conditions.
CUBIC overcomes a number of obstacles compared with previous methods. One is the clearing and transparency protocol, which involves serially immersing fixed tissues into just two reagents for a relatively short time. Second, CUBIC is compatible with many fluorescent probes because of low quenching, which allows for probes with longer wavelengths and reduces concern for scattering when whole brain imaging while at the same time inviting multi-color imaging. Finally, it is highly reproducible and scalable. While other methods have achieved some of these qualities, CUBIC is the first to realize all.
CUBIC provides information on previously unattainable 3D gene expression profiles and neural networks at the systems level. Because of its rapid and high-throughput imaging, CUBIC offers extraordinary opportunity to analyze localized effects of genomic editing. It also is expected to identify neural connections at the whole brain level. In fact, last author Hiroki Ueda is optimistic about further application to even larger mammalian systems. “In the near future, we would like to apply CUBIC technology to whole-body imaging at single cell resolution”.
Une conférence du cycle : Qu'est-ce qu'un ingénieur aujourd'hui ? L'ingénieur, le génie, la machine du 10 au 14 janvier et du 16 au 19 janvier 2010, à 18h30 Intelligence collective et travail collaboratif par Valérie Cazes, Directeur des équipements et Services d'Astrium Space transportation
According to Engelbart (1995), the integration could come from exploiting a collection of capabilities among entities. Such integrated entities, he calls NICs (Networked Improvement Communities). These are "cooperative alliances of organizations, employing advanced networked computer tools and methods to develop and apply new collective knowledge."